To screen out high-yield and high-quality forage corn varieties suitable for planting in rain-fed and irrigation areas, 20 green-fed corn varieties were planted in both areas, and their production performance and photosynthetic characteristics were analyzed and compared in their mid-milk stage. The results showed that Yu silage 23 planted in rain-fed areas had the highest fresh dry weight, 76.65% and 73.28% higher than that of Jindan 73, followed by Long Dan No.10; Gui silage No.1 planted in the irrigation area had the highest fresh weight, 138.56% higher than Hesheng 5288, and Yuyu 22 had a 72.60% higher dry weight than Hesheng 5288. The heights of Jinsui 715 and Tunyu 168 grown in rain-fed areas were significantly higher than Shuyu 201 (P < 0.05), increasing by 20.14% and 18.84%, respectively. The heights of Yu silage 23, Jinsui 715, and Beinong silage 208 in the irrigation area were significantly higher than those of other varieties (P < 0.05). The stem-leaf ratio of Tunyu 168 in the rain-fed area was significantly higher than that of other corn varieties (P < 0.05). In contrast, the stem-leaf ratio of Jinsui 715 showed a higher stem-leaf ratio in the irrigation area. In contrast, Hejiayuan Tieyan 53 showed the highest leaf area per plant in the two areas, especially in the irrigation area, increasing by 99.47% compared with Longdan 339. Yanke 288 had the highest number of dead leaves in the two areas, while Gui silage No.1 had the least number of dead leaves, especially in rain-fed areas, decreased by 233.33% compared with Yanke 288, and thus had the best green retention; Jindan 73 in the irrigation area had the lowest number of dead leaves, followed by Shuyu 201. In terms of photosynthetic physiological characteristics, the contents of chlorophyll, Pn and Gs of Beinong silage 208, Tr and Ci of TW268 in rain-fed areas were significantly higher than those of the other varieties (P < 0.05). The chlorophyll content of Ningdan No.34, Tr of Gui silage No.1, Pn of Longdan No.10, and Gs of Yuyu 22 in the irrigation area were significantly higher than those of the other varieties (P < 0.05). Comprehensive analysis of grey correlation degree showed that Gui silage No.1, Beinong silage 208 and Yu silage 23 in the rain-fed area had better comprehensive performance and are suitable for planting in rain-fed area, Shuyu 201 and Longdan No.10 in the irrigation area had a better comprehensive performance.
Tajikistan has abundant pastural resources, low labor costs, and a long history of animal husbandry giving it a significant advantage in this field. Currently, the main livestock production reached record high levels in Tajikistan. However, the lack of relevant technology in traditional farm management, uneven regional development, and lack of effective national financial support has led to poor yield of livestock products such as meat, eggs, and milk. The livestock product yield is below the world average and has led to a supply gap of over ten-thousand tons. Certain fields of Chinese animal husbandry have reached the international leading level and are actively developing foreign cooperation. Under the aegis of the “Belt and Road Initiative,” China and Tajikistan have greater prospects of cooperation including in the import and export of livestock products, development of superior livestock breeds, industrialization of animal husbandry, overseas breeding, and other aspects. Furthermore, China and Tajikistan have historically enjoyed high levels of cooperation including the past exchange of RMB offshore settlements at ports and other fields. Now this initiative provides a new opportunity for bilateral cooperation in the field of animal husbandry.
To determine the toxic activity and stability of Trichoderma longibrachiatum PT6 protein culture filtrate against second stage juveniles (J2s) of Heterodera avenae, the in vitro nematicidal activity of PT6 protein culture filtrate was analyzed and evaluated under different environmental factors and storage periods. Different pH, temperature, metal ions, redox concentrations, and storage periods presented different effects on the nematicidal activity and stability of the PT6 protein culture filtrate. The PT6 protein culture filtrate had a high lethal effect on J2s of the cereal cyst nematode, with more than 80% mortality with treatment at pH 4～10 for 72 h, and no significant difference compared with the control. At the temperature of 30～60 ℃, there was no significant difference in the nematicidal activity of PT6 protein culture filtrate in comparison to the control. The nematicidal activity decreased significantly at temperatures higher than 70 ℃. Zn2+ and K+ clearly enhanced the nematicidal activity of PT6 protein culture filtrate, whereas Cu2+ inhibited the nematicidal activity. However, Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, and Na+ had no significant effect on the nematicidal activity of PT6 protein culture filtrate. At an oxidant concentration lower than 0.08 mol·L−1 and reducing agent concentration lower than 0.06 mol·L−1, no significant effect was observed on the nematicidal activity of J2s of H. avenae. Storage of the culture filtrate at room temperature for 0～60 days did not result in significant changes in nematicidal activity. Therefore, the PT6 protein culture filtrate had a strong lethal effect on the cereal cyst nematode, and its nematicidal activity was stable.
Clarifying the changes in ecosystem services and trade-offs in typical counties in the northern sand control belt is of great significance for promoting the optimal allocation of natural resources and precise governance of land and space. Based on the InVEST model, and correlation coefficient and spatial autocorrelation methods, and taking Minqin County as a case, this study analyzed the temporal and spatial changes in and trade-off synergies of the main ecosystem services of windbreak and sand fixation, carbon storage, and food supply in a typical county in the northern sand control belt. The results show that 1) the service quality of the main ecosystems in Minqin County has improved significantly in the past 20 years, and the total amount of windbreak and sand fixation, carbon storage, and food supply increased by 8.64 × 107 kg, 2.17 × 107 t, and 1.02 × 106 t, respectively. 2) During the study period, there was a strong synergistic relationship between windbreak and sand fixation and carbon storage, whereas the synergistic relationship between carbon storage and food supply weakened gradually, and the trade-off relationship between windbreak and sand fixation and food supply increased gradually. 3) In terms of spatial patterns, the heterogeneity of the trade-off and synergistic relationship between different types of services was significant (P < 0.05), and the regional differences were highly evident. 4) The spatial autocorrelation coefficients of ecosystem services did not change significantly during the study period; however, the agglomeration characteristics of different regions showed large spatial differences.
To explore the effects of different types of additives on the quality of oat silage in the Hulunbuir area, lactic acid bacteria and cellulase additives were added to oat silage to analyze and determine the fermentation quality and chemical composition of oat silage after 60 days of fermentation. The results showed that the lactic acid content in oat silage treated with lactic acid bacteria additive was the highest (6.78%) and was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05). The contents of crude protein (CP, 12.81%) and water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC, 4.19%) in the group treated with lactic acid bacteria additive were also the highest and were significantly higher than those in the control treatment (P < 0.05). In addition, lactic acid bacteria additive treatment effectively reduced the content of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and lignin (ADL) in silage. The pH, acetic acid, propionic acid, and ammonia nitrogen in the groups subjected to lactic acid bacteria additive and cellulase additive treatments were significantly lower than those in the control (P < 0.05). The number of lactic acid bacteria in the lactic acid bacteria, cellulase, and lactic acid bacteria + cellulase treatments was significantly higher than that in the control treatment (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these results indicate that the best additive to improve the silage quality of oat silage in the Hulunbuir area is the lactic acid bacteria additive.
Celosia argentea is an annual herb belonging to the family Amaranthaceae. It is a cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator, with high ornamental value and strong stress resistance. It is an important plant candidate for the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils. To reveal the adaptive characteristics and physiological mechanisms of C. argentea under Cd stress, the effects of different Cd concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200, and 500 μmol·L−1) on seed germination, seedling growth, and physiological characteristics were studied. The results showed that Cd had little effect on seed germination rate and germination potential, but decreased the germination index, vigor index, and biomass. Celosia argentea grew well under Cd stress. With an increase in Cd concentration, the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids decreased. With an increase in cadmium concentration, the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, and the content of free proline first increased and then decreased, while the contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein, and malondialdehyde gradually increased. The results suggest that C. argentea exhibits strong cadmium tolerance and can alleviate the toxic effects of cadmium by improving the activity of antioxidant enzymes and regulating the content of osmoregulatory substances in the body.
This study aimed to determine the characteristics of water metabolism during seed germination of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and the effect of water stress on physiological regulation during seed germination. Water absorption by seeds of perennial ryegrass was continuously observed for 48 h, and the seeds were treated to stress conditions of drought and waterlogging, to study the effects of water stress on germination, starch metabolism, anaerobic respiration enzyme activity, and antioxidant enzyme activity in ryegrass seeds. The results showed that ryegrass seeds are in the period of rapid water absorption from 0 to 24 h and tend to saturation after 36 h. Water absorption and water absorption rate of seeds were significantly affected by drought stress (P < 0.05), and gradually decreased with the increase in drought degree. Compared with the control, treatments of 15% polyethylene glycol and waterlogging stress significantly reduced the germination energy, germination rate, germination index, and α-amylase activity of ryegrass seeds (P < 0.05). Under waterlogging stress, the alcohol dehydrogenase activity of ryegrass seeds was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Compared with the control, under drought and waterlogging stress, the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase in ryegrass seeds were significantly increased (P < 0.05). The results of this study provide a theoretical reference for water management of the ryegrass seed germination process.
Common vetch (Vicia sativa) is an annual leguminous plant belonging to Vicia. It has excellent characteristics such as high adaptability, high yield, high nutritional value, and good palatability, which improve production performance and reduce methane emission in ruminants. In recent years, common vetch has been widely used in northwest and southwest China. In this study, forage yield and nutritional quality of common vetch and their influencing factors were investigated and the effect of feeding ruminants this forage was evaluated. Common vetch was found to have great potential for planting and application in China. The promotion and utilization of common vetch as high-quality forage is suggested, along with further improvement in utilization value through comprehensive development to provide a reference for promoting the sustainable and healthy development of grassland animal husbandry.
Recently, continuous cropping and cultivation using water and excessive chemical fertilizers have led to several issues, such as increases in the number of disease-causing pathogens in the fields and in disease types, causing serious harm to corn seed production in the Hexi Corridor. We analyzed the characteristics responsible for their occurrence, the causes and problems of these diseases, summarized previous research, and investigated the construction of seed corn production base in the Hexi Corridor. In addition, an environmentally friendly approach to control diseases in seed production in maize was proposed by combining agriculture and animal feeding in several ways: 1) The integrated development of seed corn production and herbivore feeding provides organic fertilizer sources, increases the application of decomposed organic fertilizers in the field, and can also increase antagonistic microorganisms, thereby reducing the application of chemical fertilizers, and cultivation of healthy soil. 2) The corn can be harvested earlier and the livestock silage can also be used efficiently, which reduces the amount of residues left in the field and prevents the infection due to bacteria. In the key steps of seed production, such as detasseling and harvesting, mechanization and straw recovery silage can be implemented to save cost and improve efficiency, thereby reducing the spread of germs due to field farming operations. 3) During the growing period of corn, the integrated supporting technology of water and fertilizers should be widely promoted to save water and fertilizers under the film drip irrigation, thereby improving the microclimate of farmland, and reducing the spread and occurrence of these diseases. 4) To accelerate the construction of high-standard seed production farmlands, proper deep ploughing and sterilization, crop rotation and stubble rotation, improved soil properties and farming conditions, and reduced continuous cropping obstacles are required. In addition, to strengthen the prevention of farming and cultivation by promoting the sustainable and environmentally friendly development of the integration of the Hexi seed corn production industry, grass and animal feeding should be comprehensively implemented.
Taking Qinghai Province as the research object, the relationship between the primary growth period of grasshoppers and meteorological conditions in grasslands in the mountains and basins of Qinghai Lake was analyzed. The main influencing factors were determined as the average temperature anomaly, percentage precipitation anomaly, and days of snow cover during the winter. The meteorological suitability degree and meteorological risk for the occurrence and development of locusts at different developmental stages were divided into four levels based on the main influencing factors. Subsequently, the meteorological risk grade index and forecast equation for grasshopper outbreak disaster were constructed according to the threshold value of the comprehensive meteorological risk grade.
To determine the suitable silage maize varieties and harvest time in the Hexi area, 23 silage maize varieties were planted in Minqin County. The whole plant samples of silage maize were collected at 107, 112, 125, 130, and 135 days after sowing to study the nutritional dynamics of different maize varieties at the milk ripening and wax ripening stages. The results showed that the yield difference of the 23 maize varieties was significant at 120 days. The whole plant yields of silage maize of 14 varieties were higher than 57 000 kg·ha−1. The top three varieties were J27, J10, and J67 with yields of 73892.58, 72336.95, and 72 336.95 kg·ha−1, respectively. Silage maize varieties and cutting time significantly affected the dynamic nutritional composition of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and starch (P < 0.05). The amounts of dry matter and starch in all varieties increased significantly with the extension of harvest time (P < 0.05). Based on the comprehensive yield, and dry matter and starch levels, planting J27, J10, and J67 is recommended in Minqin County and the suitable harvest times are 125, 130, and 130 days after sowing, respectively.
Twenty-four Hu lambs (weaned) with similar body weight were selected and divided into four groups of six lambs each, using a randomized block design. Lambs in the control group were fed a basal diet, while treatment groups were fed basal diet + 0.1% inulin (test group Ⅰ), basal diet + 0.1% inulin + 2% tannin (test group Ⅱ), and basal diet + 0.1% inulin + 2% tannin + 4% polyethylene glycol (test group Ⅲ). The average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI), material weight ratio (FCR), apparent digestibility of nutrients, live weight, body weight before slaughter, slaughter rate, eye muscle area, pH, cooked meat rate, hydraulic capacity, shear force, incarnadine, sheep growth, slaughter performance, and meat quality were determined. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the ADG, DMI, FCR, live weight before slaughter, carcass weight, slaughter rate, and eye muscle area among treatment groups (P > 0.05). The cooked meat rate in test group Ⅰ was significantly higher than that in test group Ⅲ (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the cooked meat rate between the control group and test group Ⅱ (P > 0.05). The hydraulic power of test group Ⅱ was significantly higher than that of the control group and test group Ⅲ (P < 0.01), and there was no significant difference with experimental group Ⅰ (P > 0.05). The shear forces in control group and test group Ⅰ were significantly higher than those in test groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ (P < 0.01). pH45 min in the control group was significantly higher than that in all three treatment groups (P < 0.05), and there was no significant difference in pH45 min between test group Ⅰ and test group Ⅲ, but these were significantly higher than that in test group Ⅱ. 24 h L* ( brightness), a* (redness), and b*(yellowness) in test group Ⅰ and test group Ⅱ were significantly higher than those in the other two groups (P < 0.05). Inulin and tannin had a significant effect on the apparent digestibility of nutrients. In conclusion, inulin alone or in combination with tannin can improve the hydraulic capacity, shear force, meat color, and nutrient apparent digestibility of Hu sheep to a certain extent.
Planting of Medicago sativa has become the main ecological reconstruction model for the revegetation of waste dumps in semi-arid mining areas, owing to this plant’s strong adaptability and stress resistance. However, populations have been found to undergo premature declines during the restoration process. To determine whether M. sativa restoration in loess areas is restricted by a deficiency in soil nutrients, we selected sites that had undergone 2, 4, 6, and 10 years of restoration, along with newly dumped soil used as a control, and examined the C, N, and P contents and stoichiometric characteristics of the 0–60 cm soil layer. The results showed that the soil C, N, and P contents underwent inconsistent changes with a prolongation of the restoration period, with contents being highest after 10, 6, and 2 years, and lowest after 2, 4, and 10 years, respectively. Within the vertical soil profile, the soil C and N content generally showed a decreasing trend with soil depth. As M. sativa restoration proceeded, the C ꞉ N and C ꞉ P ratios showed a general “W”-shaped trend, whereas the N ꞉ P ratio showed a “V”-shaped trend. Both soil C ꞉ P and N ꞉ P ratios decreased with an increase an soil depth after 6 and 10 years. There was a very significant positive correlation between soil organic carbon and N and P contents (P < 0.01). Nutrients in soil of the mining area dumping ground were mainly closely related to soil organic carbon, whereas the total P content of soil was largely unaffected by other nutrients. In the semi-arid loess area, the mode of M. sativa restoration has a certain effect on restoring soil fertility. During the restoration process, plant growth is limited to varying extents by N and P deficiencies. Accordingly, to rectify this problem, we would recommend enhancing scientific fertilization management, or at least carrying out fertilization during the period between 4 to 6 years after commencing restoration.
Caragana intermedia plantations in the Gonghe Basin of Qinghai Province were taken as the research objects, and herbaceous abundance was investigated at seven sites: 7-yr restoration, 9-yr restoration, 12-yr restoration, 16-yr restoration, 20-yr restoration, 34-yr restoration, and mobile sand dunes (CK). Our objectives were to untangle the dynamics of species composition, functional groups, and plant diversity during the restoration process and to provide a scientific basis for desertification control and ecological restoration of alpine sandy areas. The results showed that 1) the number of herbaceous species increased during the restoration process. Species composition comprised two annuals and biennials (AB) of Chenopodiaceae in CK; a perennial rhizome grass that emerged in 7-yr to 12-yr restorations; AB of Compositae, Poaceae, and Cruciferae, and a newly appeared forb of Compositae in 16-yr and 20-yr restorations; and the presence of two additional perennial bunchgrasses in 34-yr restorations. 2) AB were dominant in each chronosequence, with abundance dynamics being the same as community abundance; both increased and were the highest in the 16-yr restoration and then decreased as the restoration process progressed. The abundance of perennial grasses was constant in 7-yr to 16-yr restorations, and was the highest in 20-yr and 34-yr restorations. Forbs were absent in sites younger than 12-yr, whereas their abundance was the highest in the 34-yr restoration. 3) The species richness, Shannon-Wiener index, and Simpson index of the plant community increased, but the evenness index decreased during the restoration process. AB remained dominant in each chronosequence and the diversity indices did not exhibit a threshold, indicating that the plant community and diversity still have the potential for further recovery.
Agricultural biology ethics involve the moral judgement and understanding of livestock, crops, and trees. They are the norms and rules for sustainable development in crop farming, animal husbandry, and tree plantation. Agricultural biology ethics in China are rich in ecological wisdom and morals, i.e., loving animals, free rearing and grazing, harvesting the surplus and recycling the resources in animal husbandry; emphasizing time suitability, stressing land availability and bench-marking the limit of utilization in crop farming, highlighting ecological protection (especially biodiversity conservation) in tree plantation, coexistence and compensation in integrated crop-livestock-tree production systems. These ethics are valuable for promoting sustainable development of modern agriculture in China. To cope with the serious eco-environmental problems at present, it is important to strengthen the guiding role of agricultural biology ethics in agricultural production, develop modern high-efficiency agriculture, integrate the management of mountains, water, forests, farmlands, lakes and grasslands, and promote ecological civilization construction and rural vitalization strategies.
There are numerous similarities between Medicago sativa seeds and those of Cuscuta spp. with respect to color, size, and shape. Traditionally, the evaluation of seed purity has been based primarily on morphological methods, which are mainly dependent on visual assessments. However, given that the morphological indices of similar forage seeds are often similar or overlapping, the consistency of replicated seed observations is unreliable, and the process is laborious and time-consuming. By way of resolving these problems, in this study, we investigated the utility of a molecular approach based on sequence differences between the chloroplast rbcL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large) genes of alfalfa and parasitic dodder, using dodder-specific primers designed for PCR amplification of alfalfa and dodder DNA. In this approach, the purity of alfalfa seeds was assessed by observing whether fragments of dodder DNA were amplified. In addition, this method can also accurately amplify DNA from mixtures of dodder seeds in alfalfa when the proportions of dodder to alfalfa seed DNA and seed number were 1 ꞉ 10 000 and 1 ꞉ 1 000, respectively. Thus, given its reliability, rapidity, and sensitivity, this method can provide a convenient detection technology for customs quarantine, thereby enabling assessments of alfalfa seed purity. Moreover, it has considerable potential for extensive application in the seed production and breeding of forage crops.
Soil pH is one of the most important factors in regulating plant growth and soil nutrient availability in grasslands. A large number of studies have revealed that soil pH is determined by elevation, climate, and soil physicochemical properties. However, previous studies have focused on the effects of these variables on surface soil pH, while our knowledge about their effects on pH among different soil layers is still limited. To address this knowledge gap, we collected soil pH and related soil physicochemical properties [soil organic matter (SOM), soil total nitrogen (STN) content, soil bulk density (SBD), and volume ratio of rock to soil (RRS)] of the different soil layers at 0－5, 5－10, 10－20, 20－30, 30－50, 50－70, and 70－100 cm among 86 sites on the Xinjiang temperate steppe during 2011－2013. We also surveyed the surface microenvironment (standing litter, litter, sand covering, and gravel, wind, and water erosion), elevation, and climate [mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP)] for each site. Finally, we explored the effects of surface microenvironment on soil pH as well as the relationships between soil pH and elevation, climate, and soil physicochemical properties. Our results showed that on the Xinjiang temperate steppe, soil pH gradually increases, while SOM and STN content gradually decrease with increasing soil depth. Litter, gravel, and wind erosion had no significant effects on pH (P > 0.05). However, standing litter decreased pH at the 0－50 cm layer, while water erosion only increased pH at the 0－20 cm layer and sand covering decreased pH at the 70－100 cm layer. Besides, pH in all soil layers was positively associated with elevation. Soil pH at the 0－10 cm layer also gradually increased with increasing MAT. With increasing MAP, pH at the 0－30 cm layer gradually decreased. In addition, pH at most soil layers was negatively correlated with SOM and STN content, while pH was tightly associated with SBD and RRS in only a few soil layers. Taking all these factors together, we found that on the Xinjiang temperate steppe, SOM, STN content, RRS and MAT play a more important role in regulating pH variation than other factors. These results showed that the changes of soil pH on the Xinjiang temperate steppe were simultaneously affected by surface microenvironment, elevation, climate, and soil physicochemical properties, but their relative importance differed among different factors and soil layers.
In this study, we assessed and compared the changes in physiological, growth, and stress indices in the seedlings of four common aquatic Iris species (i.e., Iris sibirica, Iris ensata var. hortensis, Iris pseudacorus, Iris ensata). The nutrient solution culture method was used and seedlings were exposed to 1 200 mg·L−1 of lead (Pb) stress for 20 d. The Pb resistance of the Iris species was comprehensively evaluated using principal component, subordinate function value, and cluster analysis. The results showed large differences in the degree of Pb-induced damage to the different Iris species. Stress indices for different growth and physiological factors of the Iris species displayed a range of 21.60–96.97%. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content stress index had a range of 125.39–748.00%; the soluble protein (SP) and proline (pro) content stress indices had ranges of 104.77–143.99% and 77.49–340.20%, respectively, while the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity stress indices had ranges of 57.61–106.15% and 26.85–97.11%, respectively. Furthermore, the degree of Pb-induced damage to Iris ensata var. hortensis was mild, while the Pb enrichment, bioconcentration factor, and transport coefficient of Iris ensata var. hortensis was the largest. The principal component analysis classified twelve indices into three groups, namely the extent of injury, Pb-resistant ability, and growth status; moreover, the contribution of the first principal component was relatively high (55.02%). The contributions of twelve Pb resistance indices, including leaf length (LL), leaf width (LW), root fresh weight (RFW), stem and leaf fresh weight (SFW), and root dry weight (RDW), were higher in the first principal component, indicating that these indices may reflect the Pb resistance found in aquatic Iris species. Differences in the comprehensive score and subordinate function value of the twelve Pb resistance indices of each Iris species were large, with I. ensata var. hortensis and I. sibirica displaying higher values. Ultimately, the ranking of Pb tolerance in the four aquatic Iris species was: I. ensata var. hortensis > I. sibirica > I. pseudacorus > I. ensata. Finally, through this comprehensive analysis, we suggest that the Pb resistance, Pb enrichment, and transport coefficient of I. ensata var. hortensis and I. sibirica are superior to the other two species assessed here, suggesting that these two Iris species could be used for the phytoremediation of Pb-polluted water.
To understand the differences in steroidogenesis and spermatogenic environment of 165-day-old Hu sheep with different scrotal circumference, 18 lambs were selected and equally divided according to scrotal circumference into the small [group S, (18.53 ± 0.42) cm] and large [group L, (27.29 ± 1.13) cm] circumference groups. The results showed that: 1) Testes weight, testes volume, testicular index, epididymides weight, the diameter of seminiferous tubes, and the number of sperm in the cauda epididymis in group L were extremely significantly higher than those in the S group (P < 0.01). 2) The concentrations of serum testosterone and estradiol were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in group L compared with group S. 3) The mRNA expression levels of gonadotropin receptors (FSHR and LHR), androgen binding protein (ABP), steroidogenesis-related genes (STAR, HSD3B1, and CYP19A1), and the HSD3B1 protein in group L were significantly higher than those in group S (P < 0.05). The expression of aromatase gene CYP11A1 was also upregulated in group L (P = 0.086). In conclusion, the expression levels of steroidogenesis-related proteins and genes in 165-day-old Hu sheep lambs with large scrotal circumference were significantly higher than in those with small scrotal circumference, and stimulated testosterone and estradiol secretion, thereby providing a better spermatogenic environment and contributing to testicular development and spermatogenesis.
Fusarium equiseti is one of the most harmful plant pathogens in North China. Isolating and screening the biocontrol bacteria resources for the control of Fusarium equiseti is of great significance. In this study, oat plants were used as materials to isolate and screen strains from the rhizosphere of oat using selective media. The antagonistic strains against Fusarium equiseti were screened using the plate confrontation method, and the growth-promoting properties of the strains were further investigated. The taxonomic status of the strains was confirmed using 16S rRNA molecular biology technology. The results showed that six antagonistic strains were obtained after screening, and the inhibition rates ranged from 41.84% to 91.16%. Among them, five strains had nitrogen fixation ability, and five strains had the ability to dissolve inorganic phosphorus with the activity of nitrogenase ranging from 51.82 to 210.81 nmol·(h·mL)−1 (C2H4). Among the strains, only strains DRT-3, DRT-11, and DRT-17 had the ability to dissolve organophosphorus, and the dissolved phosphorus levels were 21.64, 31.65, and 28.64 µg·mL−1, respectively. Six strains possessed the ability to secrete indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), with secretion levels between 41.74 and 157.28 µg·mL−1. Identification based on 16S rRNA sequencing confirmed that DRT-2 and DRT-8 were Bacillus subtilis, DRT-11 was Acinetobacter sp., DRT-3 was Bacillus mycoides, and DRT-17 and DRT-18 were Pseudomonas fluorescens. In this study, the screening process identified strains that have biocontrol effects on the pathogens of oat root rot, laying the foundation for subsequent research on the prevention and control of oat root rot.
Polygonum aviculare is an annual herb that can be planted as an excellent ground cover plant for garden and lawn greening. In this study, we observed and compared the morphological characteristics of P. aviculare seeds, and conducted seed germination experiments under five different thermoperiods of 5 ℃/15 ℃, 10 ℃/20 ℃, 15 ℃/25 ℃, 20 ℃/30 ℃, and 25 ℃/35 ℃ (dark12 h/light 12 h). The following results were obtained. 1) P. aviculare produced two types of fruits on the same plant that differ markedly in shape, size, and color. One is a shiny tawny colored seed of narrow ovate shape, with a length of 3.15 mm and thousand-grain weight of 1.77 g, whereas the other is a dull dark brown color, ovate in shape, with a length of 1.91 mm and a thousand-grain weight of 1.33 g. 2) Under each of the five temperature regimes, the percentage germination of the tawny seeds was greater than 80%, which is high. Contrastingly, the germination rate of the dark brown seeds was low, with a final percentage germination of 50%. These latter seeds are thus considered to show a dormancy phenomenon. 3) The germination rate of dark brown seeds could, however, be significantly increased by scarification of the covering layers (pericarp and seed coat) and cold stratification, thereby indicating that these seeds were not in a state of deep physiological dormancy. Further research on seed polymorphism and germination behavior in P. aviculare may provide basic data for the development and utilization of this ground cover plant resource.
The biomass and nutrient concentration of propagule, leaves, and stems were measured for three species, Elymus sibiricus, Puccinellia tenuiflora, and Poa crymophila, that are used for restoration of alpine mining areas. The measurements were conducted in three different habitats, that is, sunny slope, summit, and shaded slope. We analyzed the variations in reproductive allocation for biomass and nutrients and determined the effects of tailings slope aspect on reproductive allocation in plants. The results showed that biomass and nutrient reproductive allocation were different among slope aspects, and decreased gradually from the sunny slope to the summit to shaded slope. The interaction between slope aspect and plant species could significantly alter the biomass and nitrogen reproductive allocation, with values being higher in E. sibiricus and P. crymophila than in P. tenuiflora on the sunny slope and summit, whereas P. tenuiflora exhibited higher values than those of the others on the shaded slope. Biomass and nitrogen reproductive allocation were increased with propagule nitrogen concentration and above-ground biomass, and phosphorus reproductive allocation was increased with propagule phosphorus concentration. In addition, reproductive allocation was increased based on individual size of plants. Our results indicated that we need to consider the different responses of vegetative and reproductive allocation to tailing slope aspect, to improve the restoration efficiency of alpine mining areas.
To screen out oat varieties suitable for production and utilization in the Yudaokou area of Bashang, Chengde, plant height, grass yield, leaf area, crude protein (CP), crude fat (EE), crude ash (Ash), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content, acid detergent fiber (ADF) content, and relative feeding value (RFV) of eight imported oat varieties were analyzed. The results show that there were great differences in production performance and nutritional components of different oat varieties. Among them, the plant height of ‘Haymaker’ was significantly higher than that of other varieties (139.3 cm) (P < 0.05). The fresh grass production of ‘Everleaf 126’, ‘Haymaker’, and ‘Baler Ⅱ’ was higher; ‘Model’ and ‘Haymaker’ had higher hay production. Furthermore, the content of CP, EE, Ash, NDF, and ADF ranged from 4.22% to 7.17%, 2.08% to 2.89%, 3.01% to 6.27%, 54.63% to 65.66%, and 29.81% to 40.24%, respectively. The RFV of ‘Souris’ and ‘Baler’ was higher. Comprehensive evaluation of the indicators by the gray correlation method showed that the excellent varieties are ‘Everleaf 126’, ‘Haymaker’, and ‘Model’, which are the most suitable for planting in the Yudaokou area of Bashang, Chengde.
This study aimed to obtain growth-promoting bacteria resources of excellent herbage in alpine regions, and then identify strain resources and provide a theoretical basis for grassland vegetation restoration and the development of microbial agents. Growth-promoting bacteria were screened from the rhizosphere of Festuca sinensis, Poa pratensis, and Roegneria purpurascens in the alpine regions. The characteristics of organic and inorganic phosphorus solubilization, nitrogen fixation, and hormone secretion of the strains were evaluated, and the superior strains were identified using molecular biology. The results showed that a total of 14 strains that could dissolve organic phosphorus were screened from the rhizosphere of the three herbage species, with the phosphorus solubilizing capacity ranging from 6.51 to 141.49 µg·mL−1 and the pH of strain culture media ranged from 2.97 to 3.79. A total of 16 inorganic phosphorus solubilizing strains were identified with phosphorus solubilization capacity of 371.29～538.59 µg·mL−1. A total of 23 nitrogen-fixing strains were screened with nitrogen-fixing activity 91.71～160.20 nmol·(h·mL)−1 (C2H4) and 14 strains were found secreting plant growth hormones with secretion levels of IAA at 0.10～0.92 µg·mL−1, and those of gibberellin and zeatin at 0.52～139.22 and 0.12～0.99 µg·mL−1, respectively. After molecular biology identification, a total of 12 strains with comprehensive growth-promoting characteristics were screened out. The strain SPCB4 was Enterobacter huaxiensis, and the remaining 11 strains were identified as five different species of Pseudomonas. The 12 strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria identified in this study exhibited multiple growth-promoting characteristics and provide strain resources and a theoretic basis for subsequent grassland vegetation restoration and development of microbial agents.
In order to better utilize the halophyte for controlling soil salinization, the nutrient composition and edible value of Kalidium foliatum seeds were analyzed and evaluated using ion exchange chromatography and flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that the major nutrients in K. foliatum seeds were protein (204 g·kg−1), fat (54 g·kg−1), crude fiber (45 g·kg−1), and carbohydrates (379 g·kg−1). There were 18 amino acids in K. foliatum seeds. The total amino acid content was 205.8 g·kg −1, of which essential amino acids accounted for 26.82%. The lysine content was the highest, at 11.3 g·kg −1, and the essential amino acid index was 120.40. Protein has high nutritional value in K. foliatum seeds. The trace element contents were 332 mg·kg−1 for iron, 44.1 mg·kg−1 for zinc, and 1590 mg·kg−1 for calcium. The major fatty acids were linoleic acid, oleic acid, and linolenic acid, and the content of the fatty acids essential for human nutrition was 73.91%. In summary, K. foliatum seeds are rich in nutrients and can be used as ideal raw materials for the development of high-protein, high-crude fiber, and iron-rich functional foods.
At present, our country is accelerating innovation and actively consolidating the effective connection between poverty alleviation and rural revitalization. Against the background of the new era and striving for "Double First-Class,” the number of postgraduate applicants has increased remarkably, and the societal demand for high-level animal husbandry talent is also increasing. However, in the process of talent training, many colleges and universities do not differentiate between academic student training and professional graduate student training, thus leading to a deviation from national demand orientation, which hinders the goal of meeting the national demand for professional talent. The South China Agricultural University has cooperated with WEN’s Group for 30 years and has created a new model for classification and training of graduates in animal production with distinctive features and has become a model for industry-university-research cooperation in similar disciplines in China. This study summarizes the graduate classification training model to provide a reference for the reform and evaluation of the classification training model of graduates in animal production.
This experiment was aimed to study the associative effects of diets with different proportions of corn straw, wheat straw, alfalfa hay, and Pennisetum giganteum. The total ratio of concentrate to roughage was set at 40 ꞉ 60, and gas production was determined in vitro. Whereas, the proportion of concentrate, corn straw (wheat straw, or alfalfa ) and P. giganteum were set as follows: 40 ꞉ 60 ꞉ 0, 40 ꞉ 50 ꞉ 10, 40 ꞉ 40 ꞉ 20, 40 ꞉ 30 ꞉ 30, 40 ꞉ 20 ꞉ 40, 40 ꞉ 10 ꞉ 50, and 40 ꞉ 0 ꞉ 60. The gas production in these 21 feed combinations and 5 individual raw materials (concentrate, corn straw, wheat straw, alfalfa hay, P. giganteum) were recorded at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h. After incubation, the incubation fluid was used to determine pH, ammonia nitrogen, and total volatile fatty acid; while the residue was used to determine dry matter digestibility. The single-factor AE indexes and multiple-factor AE indexes were then calculated. The results showed that after fermentation for 48 h, the gas production was ranked: concentrate > alfalfa hay > wheat straw > P. giganteum > corn straw. From the different combinations, the average gas production of concentrate + alfalfa hay + P. giganteum > concentrate + wheat straw + P. giganteum > concentrate + corn straw + P. giganteum at each time point. For the combination of concentrate + alfalfa hay + P. giganteum, the gas production in A6P0, A5P1, A4P2 groups was significantly higher than that in A3P3, A1P5, and A0P6 groups (P < 0.05) at 12 h of fermentation. The gas production increased with a higher proportion of alfalfa and a lower proportion of P. giganteum. For the concentrate + wheat straw + P. giganteum combination, the gas production in W3P3, W2P4, W1P5, and W0P6 groups was significantly higher than that in W6P0, W5P1, and W4P2 (40 ꞉ 40 ꞉ 20) (P < 0.05) at 12 h of fermentation. The gas production increased with a lower proportion of wheat straw and a higher proportion of P. giganteum. These results demonstrate that in the concentrate + corn straw + P. giganteum combination, the AE was best at a ratio of 40 ꞉ 20 ꞉ 40; while in the concentrate + wheat straw + P. giganteum combinations, the AE was best at a ratio of 40 ꞉ 20 ꞉ 40; and in the concentrate + alfalfa hay + P. giganteum combination, AE was better when the ratio was 40 ꞉ 50 ꞉ 10.
This study aimed to explore the effects of Zygophyllum xanthoxylum tonoplast Na+ compartmentalization gene ZxNHX1, H+-PPase (H+-pyrophosphatase) encoding gene ZxVP1-1, and cuticular wax transport gene ZxABCG11 on alfalfa “Xinjiang daye” growth, development and forage quality. We measured the indicators of growth, development and forage quality of wild type, ZxNHX1-VP1-1 transgenic, and ZxABCG11 transgenic alfalfa under field conditions. The results showed that: 1) Leaf area and hay yield of ZxNHX1-VP1-1 transgenic alfalfa were 56.4% and 74.5% higher than those of the wild type (WT), respectively; the net photosynthesis rate and water use efficiency were significantly higher than those of the WT (P < 0.05). The flowering period was 19 days longer than that of the WT. 2) The leaf area and stem diameter of ZxABCG11 transgenic alfalfa were significantly higher than those of the WT (P < 0.05). The net photosynthesis rate and water use efficiency were 81.7% and 80.5% higher than those of the WT (P < 0.05), respectively. The flowering period was 38 days longer than that of the WT. 3) Neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) of ZxNHX1-VP1-1 transgenic alfalfa were significantly lower than those of the WT (P < 0.05). The relative feed value of ZxNHX1-VP1-1 transgenic alfalfa was 35.4% higher than that of the WT. These results showed that overexpression of ZxNHX1 and ZxVP1-1 increased the biomass and nutritional quality of alfalfa and prolonged flowering time. Overexpression of ZxABCG11 affected the leaf area, stem diameter and photosynthetic capacity of alfalfa. Meanwhile, the flowering period of ZxABCG11 transgenic alfalfa was longer than that of the WT.