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Although different grazing management regimes have different effects on plant communities and soil in grasslands, little is known regarding the effects of different grazing patterns on plant communities and soils in alpine meadows. In this study, we sought to examine the differences in plant community and physical and chemical properties of soil in alpine meadows under winter grazing (WG), summer grazing (SG), and year-round grazing (AG) in Hongyuan County, Sichuan Province, in the northeastern part of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. We found that plant community coverage and number of species under AG were significantly lower than those in meadows subjected to WG and SG (P < 0.05). In addition, the community height, above- and belowground biomass under AG and SG were significantly lower than those under WG (P < 0.05). However, the proportion of unpalatable forbs showed the opposite pattern. There were, however, no significant differences with respect to root: shoot ratio among the three treatments (P > 0.05). The dominant plants were significantly different under the three grazing management regimes, with those in meadows under AG being species in the families Compositae and Ranunculaceae. The dominant plants under WG were Gramineae, Ranunculaceae, and Sedge, whereas those in meadows under SG were from Compositae and Gramineae. There was no significant difference in soil pH at depths of between 0 and 20 cm in meadows under AG and WG (P > 0.05), although the values were both significantly higher than that under SG (P < 0.05). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in pH between soil at depths of 0 – 10 cm and 10 – 20 cm (P > 0.05). The contents of NH4+-N, NO3−-N, available phosphorus, and total nitrogen in soil were all higher in WS and SG than in AG, whereas the contents of soil total phosphorus showed no significant differences in meadows under AG and SG (P > 0.05), both of which were, however, lower than that in WG. With regards to soil depth, all assessed soil contents were significantly higher in the surface soil (0 – 10 cm) than in deeper soil (10 – 20 cm) (P < 0.05). The findings of this study revealed that, compared with seasonal grazing (WG and SG), year-round grazing reduced plant community height, coverage, biomass, litter, and the number of species, and altered the proportion of forage, thus reducing the stability of alpine meadow plant communities and resulting in pronounced soil nutrient loss and reduced fertility. Accordingly, we suggest that seasonal grazing can contribute to stabilizing meadow plant communities, and ensure the maintenance of community productivity and stability. This is in turn will be conducive to the sustainable development of alpine meadow pastures on the eastern Qinghai–Tibet Plateau.
Ecological conservation redline zoning is a new research field that has arisen due to ecological and environmental issues. Redline zoning can effectively protect the structure and function of the ecosystem and help maintain regional ecological security. The “from bottom to top” quantitative merging concept and the “from top to bottom” idea, along with spatial systems; the comprehensive consideration of ecological vulnerability, ecosystem service function, ecological sensitivity and regional ecological risk in northwest China; and the use of the multidimensional clustering method, were used to establish a “multi-scale, multi-factor” comprehensive ecological conservation redline zoning system. The system is based on two zoning levels: “ecological vulnerability – first level zoning, and ecosystem status – second level zoning”. In this study, ecological conservation redline zoning in ecologically fragile areas across northwest China was carried out using this system. The basic results of this research are as follows: 1) According to ecological vulnerability, the northwest region can be divided into six first-level zones. The area of each district accounts for 24.5%, 45.3%, 6.9%, 15.8%, 0.3%, and 7.2% of the total area of northwest China, respectively; and 2) based on the constraints of the first-level zoning, northwest China can be further divided into 50 second-level zones according to their ecosystem status as determined by ecosystem service function, ecological sensitivity, and regional ecological risk. These results not only provide a theoretical basis and reference for land space management, planning, and policy-making, but also maintain ecological security and promote the construction of an ecological civilization in northwest China.
An experiment was conducted in the Stipa breviflora desert steppe on the Inner Mongolian Plateau with four grazing intensity treatments: control with no grazing (CK), light grazing (LG), moderate grazing (MG), and heavy grazing (HG). The multifractal degree of the Cleistogenes songorica spatial distribution increased with the increase in grazing intensity, and the multifractal characteristics of C. songorica were the most complex in CK. The complexity of the multifractal characteristics increased with increasing grazing intensity across the LG, MG, and HG treatments, but were less complex than those in CK. In the LG and MG treatments, the evenness of the C. songorica spatial distribution was larger than that of the other treatments. In the CK treatment, the complexity of the C. songorica spatial distribution was mainly determined by the propagation, dispersal, and competitiveness of the mother tillers in the plant community. The complexity of the C. songorica spatial distribution was mainly determined by selective foraging due to sheep grazing, tramping by sheep movement, and plant tolerance to grazing.
Timely flowering is one of the most important life history strategies for plants species, while global changes, such as nitrogen deposition, increasingly influence the process of flowering phenology. Based on in situ experiments with different concentrations of nitrogen addition, we studied the first flowering date and flowering duration in an alpine meadow of eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, to evaluate effect of nitrogen addition on the flowering phenology. The results showed that: 1) Nitrogen addition significantly delayed the first flowering date for grasses species under the low nitrogen (LN) and high nitrogen (HN) addition level (P < 0.01), and significantly shortened the flowering duration under the high nitrogen addition level (P < 0.05). Nitrogen addition significantly extended flowering duration for all forbs species (LN: P < 0.05; HN: P < 0.01), and high nitrogen addition significantly advanced first flowering date for the forbs species (P < 0.05). 2) We identified a significant negative correlation between the first flowering date and flowering duration for the investigated species (P < 0.05). 3) The richness of flowering species decreased with nitrogen addition; for example, the numbers of flowering species decreased by 29% under low nitrogen level and 49% under high nitrogen level. These findings indicated that nitrogen addition plays an important role in regulating plant flowering phenology in alpine meadow. In summary, our study suggested that nitrogen addition had a species-specific impact on flowering phenology of the plants, which might further influence community composition, structure and function in the alpine meadow.
Winter farmland utilization in 61 counties within Guizhou Province was determined using a questionnaire survey and GIS technology. The utilization rates, land use practices, and factors influencing winter farmlands were examined. The results revealed that 46.4% of farmland in Guizhou Province was utilized during winter and that the main land uses were the planting of oilseed rape and other vegetables, as these crops can produce higher and direct economic benefits. The extent of Guizhou Province winter farmland utilization was found to be proportional to the available household labor force, and a reduction in labor will probably lead to the extensive management of arable land. There was no significant correlation between land utilization and climatic factors, including temperature, precipitation, altitude, and solar radiation. However, land use methods were found to differ under different climatic conditions. Guizhou Province can be divided into four winter farmland regions, namely the northeast cabbage, south oilseed rape, low-temperature northwest potato, and high-rainfall southeast aquaculture region. In the future, to enhance local farmers' incomes and promote the efficient utilization of winter farmland in Guizhou Province, appropriate agricultural extension measures, determined by local socioeconomic conditions, household labor force structure, and climatic conditions, should be adopted for the four farmland regions of Guizhou Province.
This study conducted a vegetation quadrat survey of typical degraded subalpine grassland in Huize county, Yunnan Province, and performed multidimensional scale (NMDS) measurement analysis to examine areas at different stages of degradation, grassland plant community species composition and diversity, and trends in the variation of soil physical and chemical properties, and assessed the implications of degradation. The results revealed that although the species diversity index, coverage, and evenness of grassland plants increased with an intensification of degradation, the species diversity and proportion of forage plants in the plant community all showed a decreasing trend, whereas the species diversity and proportion of noxious weeds showed an increasing trend. Overall, the soil nutrient contents of moderately and severely degraded grasslands were significantly lower than those of minimally degraded grasslands. In grassland communities at different stages of degradation, the plant species diversity index was significantly related to pH in the 0 – 20 cm soil layer (P < 0.05), whereas a combination of edaphic factors were found to influence variation in diversity of plant species in degraded grasslands, for which the explanatory rates were inconsistent. Our preliminary findings in this study, with respect to characteristics of the plant community and soil physical and chemical properties of subalpine grassland in southern China at different stages of degradation. and their inter-relationships, will provide a scientific basis for further examination of the mechanisms of grassland degradation, and also contribute to measures for the restoration of degraded grassland in this region.
Different types of artificial turf are characterized by differing fiber densities and gaps in the base fabric, which have a considerable influence on turf growth and are key factors contributing to the successful establishment of hybrid turf. In this study, two types of conventional synthetic turf and four types of woven synthetic turf were seeded with common bermudagrass to establish different hybrid turfs. Following the establishment of hybrid turf, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the characteristics and quality of different types of turf compared with the common bermudagrass turf, The results revealed that after the complete establishment of hybrid turf, the density of bermudagrass in the woven synthetic turf, with a longitude density of 31.49 yarns·cm−1 and weft density of 157.48 yarns·cm−1, and artificial turf density of 1.71 fiber·cm−2 and 2.54 shoot·cm−2, coverage of 88.57%, biomass of 9.97 g·pot−1, uniformity of 6.44 points, and weighted mean of 8.44 points, were all higher than those of the other types of synthetic turf. On the basis of our comprehensive evaluation, this type of woven synthetic turf was accordingly identified as the most suitable for the fabrication of natural-synthetic hybrid turf.
Early screening for characteristics associated with superior Epichloë sinensis endophytic fungal strains that may be suitable for further screening has been growing rapidly. However, it is not clear which are the best carbon and nitrogen sources for E. sinensis growth. Therefore, this study investigated different carbon sources (glucose, starch, maltose, mannitol, sorbitol) and nitrogen sources (ammonium chloride, peptone, tryptone, yeast powder, urea). Three E. sinensis strains (strain ID: 1, 41C, and 111C) were cultured on solid or liquid media to explore the growth status and total antioxidant capacity of E. sinensis when supplied with different carbon and nitrogen sources. The results showed that the colony diameter, colony growth rate, mycelium biomass, and the total antioxidant capacity of strain 111C were significantly higher than those of strains 1 and 41C (P < 0.05), while the mycelium diameter of 111C was lower than that for 1 and 41C. The correlations among the mycelial diameter, mycelium biomass, and colony diameter of the three E. sinensis strains were different. Correlations among the three indexes for strain 111C were the highest, strain 41C was second, and strain 1 was the lowest. The most suitable carbon and nitrogen sources for the different strains were also different. Among the five carbon and nitrogen sources tested, the best carbon and nitrogen sources for strain 111C were maltose and tryptone, respectively; the best for strain 41C were glucose and tryptone, respectively; and the best sources for strain 1 were glucose and tryptone, respectively. The total antioxidant capacity of the three endophytes was highest when yeast extract powder was used as the nitrogen source. In this study, the superior strain 111C was selected for subsequent development and utilization, and the optimal carbon and nitrogen source for the growth of E. sinensis endophytes was preliminarily studied.
The WRKY transcription factor (TF) superfamily is one of the largest TF superfamilies and has been found in a variety of plants. WRKY TFs, named for their highly conserved WRKY domain, bind to the W-box in the promoters of target genes to regulate their expression. WRKY TFs have complex regulatory functions and play a key role in the response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this review, we introduced the characteristics of the molecular structure and binding mechanism of WRKY TFs, analyzed the function and mechanism of WRKY TFs in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses (such as salt stress, drought stress, and oxidative stress), and summarized the research development of WRKY TFs in pasture. Finally, we suggest that the WRKY TFs of wild plants should be further studied, which may provide a new perspective for exploring the regulatory functions of WRKY TFs. This review laid a theoretical foundation and provided ideas for in-depth research on the regulatory mechanisms of WRKY TFs.
Improving the growth of oregano (Origanum vulgare) root system and increasing the rate of strong seeding represents the main technical problem of its cutting propagation. This study aimed at investigating the effects of nutrient solution concentration and soil substrate ratio on the cutting propagation of Greek oregano (O. vulgare ssp. hirtum), a perennial plant belonging to the family Labiatae. The results showed that the fresh weight, branch number, plant height, total root length, root surface area, root volume, number of root tips, and capillary root length and volume initially increased then decreased along with higher concentrations of macroelements in Hoagland's nutrient solution. Among these, the 0.25 × nutrient solution yielded the best effects with 242% and 464% of higher fresh weight and root volume than those of the water control, respectively. Furthermore, different combinations of soil substrates with peat and vermiculite also significantly affected the survival rate and growth indices of the oregano cuttings (P < 0.05); among which peat ꞉ vermiculite at 25 ꞉ 75 (volume ratio) showed the best effects on the survival rate (100%), growth, and root development of oregano cuttings. Therefore, the optimal condition for vegetative propagation of oregano is using peat soil substrate including vermiculite at 25 ꞉ 75 and weekly irrigation with 0.25 × Hoagland's nutrient solution.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)–plant symbiosis plays an important role in agricultural ecosystems but is easily affected by agricultural practices such as tillage and plant residue retention. In this study, the effects of different AMF and their combinations on the growth of Medicago truncatula and soil water-stable aggregates (SWA) under soil disturbance/non-disturbance and residue application/non-application were investigated by simulating a crop rotation system of wheat (Triticum aestivum) followed by alfalfa (M. truncatula). The results showed that 1) the responses of AMF and M. truncatula symbiosis to soil disturbance and residue application were different. 2) The growth rate and phosphorus absorption of M. truncatula promoted by AMF were inhibited by soil disturbance, which had a negative effect on AMF. 3) The growth rate and P absorption of M. truncatula were improved by residue application. 4) AMF improved the content of SWA, and the influence of soil disturbance and residue application on SWA depended on the diameter of the soil aggregates. In conclusion, the proper application of AMF, no-till, and residue had the potential to improve soil structure, reduce water and soil loss, and increase crop yield under field conditions.
In order to investigate the effects of different doses of 60Co-γ on the seeds and seedlings of Bromus catharticus, we compared the seed germination index, root morphology index, seedling morphology, and physiological index of B. catharticus treated with different doses of 60Co-γ (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 Gy). The main results obtained were as follows. In terms of seed germination and seedling morphological indices, we found that in response to an increase in radiation dose, the germination potential of seeds showed a trend of initial increase and subsequent decline, reaching a maximum value of 32% at a radiation dose of 50 Gy. In addition, percentage B. catharticus seed germination and seedling height and root length at 50 Gy radiation, and seedling leaf length at 50 and 100 Gy radiation, were slightly higher those of the control. In contrast, at all other radiation doses assessed, these indices were lower than those of the control group. Although the leaf width and stem diameter of seedlings exposed to 150 Gy radiation were higher than those of the control seedlings, the leaf area of seedlings at this dose was smaller than that of control seedlings. The root surface area and volume of seedlings were found to be inversely proportional to the radiation dose, although there were no significant differences in mean root diameter between seedlings subjected to 60Co-γ radiation and control treatments (P > 0.05). At the higher radiation doses of 250 and 300 Gy, seedling mortality approached 100%. With respect to the physiological and biochemical indices of seedlings, the contents of proline (Pro), malondialdehyde (MDA), and chlorophyll (Chl), as well as the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were significantly affected by exposure to 60Co-γ radiation (P < 0.05), showing a trend of initial increase and subsequent decline in response to exposure to an increasing radiation dose. Membership function analysis indicated that optimal seed germination and seedling growth were obtained in response to 60Co-γ radiation mutagenesis at doses of 50 and 100 Gy. Moreover, the semi-lethal dose of 60Co-γ radiation for B. catharticus was calculated to be approximately 224 Gy. The results obtained in this study will provide a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the innovative development of B. catharticus germplasm resources.
In this study, with a view toward improving forage supply capacity, we sought to determine the best mixed sowing method for oats and vetch in arid areas of Ningxia. The study was based on a single-factor randomized block design, and we examined the effects of mixed sowing (inter-row mixed sowing, cross-mixed sowing, strip mixed sowing, oat single sowing, and single sowing) on the agronomic traits, interspecific relationships, and nutritional quality of forage grass under drip irrigation conditions. Comprehensive evaluations were performed using principal component analysis (PCA). The results obtained revealed that the four mixed sowing methods for oats and vetch significantly increased forage yield and improved forage quality (P < 0.05). The output of forage hay reached 11 164.47 kg·ha−1, which is 50.76% and 47.94% higher than that of oats and vetch, respectively. Furthermore, the total relative yields of the four mixed sowing methods were all greater than 1, thereby indicating that intraspecific competition is stronger than interspecific competition. Oats and vetch were found to show a certain niche differentiation. The relative feeding value of interline mixed pasture was 124.38, which was lower only than that of unicast vetch. The findings of PCA analysis revealed that the performance of mixed forage inter-planting with oats and vetch ranked highest. Therefore, we recommend that the inter-row mixed sowing of oats and vetch should be promoted and applied under drip irrigation conditions in the arid regions of Ningxia.
In order to study the production performance of Legume – Gramineae artificial grassland, we assessed five different patterns of mixed sowing with Medicago sativa, Onobrychis viciifolia, Bromus inermis, and Elytrigia elongata. The results indicated that the Legume – Gramineae mixtures contributed to a significant increase in forage yield, among which, that of the “M. sativa + B. inermis + E. elongata” mixture was the highest. Compared with the other mixed and unicast sowings, this mixture increased yield by 4.2%～92.5%, 7.5%～134.9%, and 11.6%～313.6% in the first, second, and third years, respectively. The land equivalent ratio of all mixed sowing combinations was greater than 1, among which, the ratio obtained for the “M. sativa + B. inermis + E. elongata” mixture was the highest. The stability of this combination gradually increased with an increase in the time post-sowing and tended to become stable. The Legume – Gramineae mixtures were found to contribute to increases in the contents of crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, and semi-fiber, as well as the yield of digestible nutrients per unit area, with the quality of the “M. sativa + B. inermis + E. elongata” combination being found to be the best among all mixed sowing combinations. To comprehensively evaluate the indices of yield and quality of each treatment, we evaluated order preference by similarity to an ideal solution model, which revealed that the “M. sativa + B. inermis + E. elongata” combination has the highest degree of fit with the ideal mixed sowing combination. This mixture is thus considered suitable for planting in the desert oasis area of the Hexi Corridor Region and should accordingly be promoted.
This research was conducted to investigate the effects of different nitrogen application rates on the dry matter accumulation and allocation, soil water storage, water consumption, and water use efficiency of silage maize (Yu silage 23) in the Longdong Loess Plateau in 2019 and 2020. Five nitrogen application rates, i.e., 0, 70, 140, 210, and 280 kg·ha−1 (designated as N0, N70, N140, N210, and N280, respectively), were used. The results indicated that dry matter accumulation tended to increase as the nitrogen application rate increased. The yield of silage maize at the milking stage was the highest in the N210 treatment, i.e., 22.0 t·ha−1 in 2019 and 23.2 t·ha−1 in 2020. With the development of the growth stage, the proportion of leaf dry matter decreased, the proportion of stem dry matter increased at first and then decreased, and the proportion of ear dry matter increased gradually. As the nitrogen application rate increased, the water consumption of silage maize increased at first and then decreased. The water use efficiency in the N210 treatment was the highest, i.e., 45.7 kg·(ha·mm)−1 in 2019 and 65.0 kg·(ha·mm)−1 in 2020. In conclusion, in consideration of dry matter accumulation and water use efficiency, the N application rate of 210 kg·ha−1 is recommended for silage maize production in the Longdong Loess Plateau.
The morphological characteristics, grass yield, and nutritional value of eight forage sweet sorghum varieties (‘Jackpot 505’, ‘Jackpot 1000’, ‘Jackpot 1180’, ‘Jackpot 1230’, ‘Baizhan’, ‘Monste’, ‘Big kahuna’, and ‘Biaogan’) grown in Lanzhou, Gansu Province, were compared and analyzed. The results showed that the height and blade and leaf width of the ‘Big kahuna’ plants were high, the regeneration ability of the second plant was strong, and the hay yield was the highest (53.32 t·ha−1), but the number of leaves was smaller and the crude protein content was lower (8.14%) than other plants; ‘Jackpot 1180’ plants were high, the stems were thick, the leaves were abundant, and the values for leaf morphological characteristics were high; the hay yield was 42.43 t·ha−1, and the crude protein content was 8.05%; ‘Jackpot 1230’ growth and development was fast, both the medley cutting plant height reached 2 m, plant height and stem coarse performance was good, and the leaves were wider, and the crude protein content was higher (10.58%) than other plants; however, owing to the small number and reduced size of leaves, the hay yield was only 40.06 t·ha−1. Comprehensive analysis showed that the grand ‘Jackpot 1180’, ‘Jackpot 1230’, and ‘Big kahuna’ in the region were adaptable, had strong regeneration capacity, and a high feeding value. These varieties could thus be suitable for the promotion and cultivation of sweet sorghum varieties for feeding.
In order to promote the trial of the “Replace Grain Crop Cultivation with Feed Crop Cultivation” and improve the economic benefits of planting and breeding, eight varieties of maize and sweet sorghum were analyzed for agronomic traits and the yield of whole plant silage to screen out high-yield and excellent silage varieties suitable for planting in the Guanzhong area. The results showed that there were significant differences in agronomic traits and yield among varieties within or between species (P < 0.05). The growth period was 99～116 days for maize and 124～175 days or more for sweet sorghum. The number of leaves was approximately 14 for maize and 8～23 for sweet sorghum. The height interval was 225.8～281.5 cm for maize and 165.3～338.8 cm for sweet sorghum. The silage yield was 40.2～83.9 t·ha−1 for maize and 35.6～125.3 t·ha−1 for sweet sorghum. The dry matter yield was 12.0～25.1 t·ha−1 for maize and 10.7～37.7 t·ha−1 for sweet sorghum. The variety with the highest yield for corn was ‘DB08’, while that for sweet sorghum was ‘Aurora’, which increased the yield by 84.5% and 211.6%, respectively, over the yield of the control grain-type corn variety ‘Qiangsheng 58’. Further nutritional analysis found that there were significant differences in contents of nutrients such as crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, ash, and nitrogen-free extract between corn and sweet sorghum species or varieties, and the single optimal nutrient indices did not converge in the same variety. Considering the silage production and the nutritional requirements of ruminants, we suggest that the maize ‘DB08’ and sweet sorghum ‘Aurora’ are the most suitable for promotion and planting as silage in the Guanzhong area.
Dicers, argonautes, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) are core and important components in RNA interference (RNAi) pathways, but there is no systematic report about them in Setaria italica (foxtail millet). In order to elucidate the characteristics of these genes related to RNA interference in foxtail millet, this study undertook a complete analysis of these gene families in S. italica, which included protein physical and chemical properties, prediction of subcellular location, protein conservative motif analysis, gene conserved domains, phylogenetic relatedness, and transcriptome expression profiling. A total of 24 RNA interference-related enzyme genes were identified. The group contained 7 dicers, 13 argonautes, and 4 RDRs. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that these genes cluster into three clades. Genes in the same clades have common conserved domains. Although most of the genes can be expressed simultaneously in leaves, stems, and panicles at six different development stages, the expression is most significant during the different development stages of the panicles and stem. This study provides a theoretical basis for further studies, and improves understanding about the function of epigenetic modification during the reproduction and development of S. italica.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of quercetin on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses of goat rumen epithelial cells (GRECs) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). GRECs were initially cultured in basal medium containing 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 120, 160, and 320 μg·mL−1 quercetin for 6 h. On the basis of the measurement of cell activity, a quercetin concentration of 80 μg·mL−1 was used in subsequent experiments, which had the following four treatment groups: GRECs cultured in basal medium without quercetin or LPS (control group, Con); basal medium containing 80 μg·mL−1 quercetin (Q); basal medium containing 1 μg·mL−1 LPS (L); and basal medium containing 80 μg·mL−1 quercetin and 1 μg·mL−1 LPS (L + Q). Relevant indices of GRECs were determined after 6 h of culture. The following results were obtained. 1) Compared with the control group, the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly reduced in group L (P < 0.05), whereas the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly increased (P < 0.05). In group Q, compared with the control group, the activities of CAT, SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and total antioxidant capacity were significantly increased (P < 0.01), whereas the content of MDA was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Compared with group L, the activities of CAT, SOD, and GSH-PX, and total antioxidant capacity were significantly increased in the L + Q group (P < 0.05). 2) Compared with the control group, relative mRNA transcript levels of the IK cytokines CCL5, CXCL6, CXCL8, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β were significantly elevated in group L (P < 0.01), whereas compared with group L, the relative mRNA transcript levels of these six cytokines were significantly reduced in the L + Q group (P < 0.01). 3) Compared with the control group, the relative mRNA transcript levels of TLR 2, NF-κB, MyD 88, and IRF3 were significantly elevated in group L (P < 0.05), whereas those of TOLLIR and TLR 4 were significantly reduced in group Q (P < 0.05). Furthermore, compared with group L, the relative mRNA transcript levels of TLR 2, NF-κB, MyD 88, TOLLIR, and TLR 4 were significantly reduced in the L + Q group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, quercetin can enhance the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of goat rumen epithelial cells and promote cell proliferation.
This study aimed at evaluating the effects of silage-specific mixed cellulase on alfalfa silage quality and nutrient components. We designed four treatments with six replicates per treatment according to completely random single factors. The cellulase, xylanase, amylase, and β-glucanase activities were ≥ 60 000, ≥ 2 500, ≥ 300 000, and ≥ 300 000 U ·g−1 of the silage cellulase used in the experiment. These factors were added to alfalfa silage in four different treatment concentrations: 0 (T1), 2.5‰ (T2), 5.0‰ (T3), and 7.5‰ (T4). The results showed that after 60 days, the supplementation of the silage-specific compound enzyme improved the content of crude protein content in group T4 (P < 0.05). The contents of acidic detergent fiber in groups T3 and T4 were significantly lower than those in group T1 (P < 0.01), whereas the relative feeding values of T3 and T4 were significantly higher than those of T1 (P < 0.01). The pH of the silage significantly reduced on adding cellulases (P < 0.01); the lactic acid and lactic acid/acetic acid contents of groups T2 and T3 were significantly higher than those of group T1 (P < 0.05), and the stable aerobic exposure times of T2 and T3 were significantly lower than those of T1 and T4 (P < 0.05). In summary, under the conditions of this study, the silage-specific cellulase improved the fermentation quality and nutritional value of alfalfa silage, and the optimum supplementation level of silage-specific cellulase was 5.0‰.
The combined teaching platform used in the “Plant Taxonomy Experiment” course for Pratacultural Science at Gansu Agricultural University was investigated. This study clarifies the reform direction of the experimental teaching mode, and further explores the construction and application of the blended teaching mode used on the course, which uses digitalized and traditional classrooms. Relying on the Internet, the teaching modes positively build an online teaching platform for the “Plant Taxonomy Experiment” course and establish a multiple interactive teaching method based on three techniques: systematic teaching in traditional laboratory classrooms, network-guided teaching, and comprehensive teaching of outdoor practice. This combined method is then used as an entry point to develop a “flipped classroom” with MOOC(massive open online courses) and APP (application), and modularized experimental teaching content. In addition, and process-based comprehensive evaluation system was also adjusted. In conclusion, the results show that the teaching effect of the “Plant Taxonomy Experiment” course under a mixed teaching mode can be effectively improved. The system fully reflects the time and space needed for teaching and promotes the improvement of student learning interest, autonomy, and comprehensive practical ability. In addition, this study summarizes the teaching experience and shortcomings, and proposes further strategies to improve the curriculum. The purpose of this study was to provide references and suggestions for improving the teaching mode used to teach the blended curriculum in Pratacultural Science.