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2021 Vol.38(5)

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2021, 38(5): 0-0.
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2021, (5): 1-4.
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Effects of yak dung deposition on soil enzyme activities in an alpine meadow in the Tibetan Plateau
ZHANG Zhiyang, ZHANG Shiting
2021, 38(5): 803-811. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0706
[Abstract](2938) [FullText HTML] (976) [PDF 839KB](48)
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Yak dung deposition is one of the important ways to maintain the function of grassland ecosystems in the Tibetan Plateau. The effects of yak dung deposition on soil physicochemical properties are well established; however, little is known regarding the effects of yak dung deposition on soil enzyme activities. the present study investigated the effects of yak dung deposition on soil enzyme activities and its potential regulatory factors in a Tibetan alpine meadow. Dung deposition significantly increased soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) (P < 0.001) and nitrogen (MBN) (P < 0.001) content by 14.24% and 20.29%, respectively. Dung depositionn significantly increased the enzyme activity of β-1, 4-glucosidase (BG) (P < 0.001), β-1, 4-xylosidase (BX) (P < 0.001) and urease (URE) (P < 0.001) by 8.4%, 8.2% , and 6.6%, respectively. Further, dung deposition significantly increased soil moisture content (SMC) (P < 0.01) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (P < 0.001), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) (P < 0.001), but decreased soil pH (P < 0.001). Redundancy analysis revealed that soil enzyme activities were significantly and positively associated with DOC (P < 0.001), DON (P < 0.001), MBC (P < 0.001) and MBN (P < 0.001) but significantly and negatively associated with soil pH (P < 0.05). Moreover, dung-induced variations in available substrates (DOC and DON) were more important in regulating soil enzyme activities than those in microbial biomass (MBC and MBN). These results indicate that yak dung deposition can improve soil microbial activity through providing liable carbon and available nutrients, and it can be play an important role in regulating soil carbon and nutrient cycling in a grazed alpine grassland ecosystem in The Tibetan Plateau.
Changes in fine particulate matter concentration of near-ground air and its influence on environmental factors at farmlands in Sishui during Spring
WU Yatang, WU Jianguo, WANG Li
2021, 38(5): 812-822. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0311
[Abstract](1320) [FullText HTML] (636) [PDF 909KB](20)
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The present study observed changes in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration and environmental factors of air 80 cm above the ground surface of cultivated farmlands in Sishui County, Shandong Province, China, during spring (March 1st – May 31st, 2019). PM2.5 samplers and automatic weather stations were installed. Soil temperature and moisture data were monitored, and the associations between changes in PM2.5 concentration and environmental factors were assessed using regression analysis. From March to May, the average PM2.5 concentration was 160.98 µg·m−3, ranging between 16.67 and 333.33 µg·m−3. In addition, changes in PM2.5 concentration were exponentially and positively correlated with wind speed (P < 0.05),and exponentially but negatively correlated soil moisture in the 0 – 5 cm layer (P < 0.05). Moreover, changes in PM2.5 concentration were significantly and inversely correlated with ambient temperature (P < 0.01). Furthermore, multiple regression analysis revealed a significant effect of wind speed and soil moisture in the 5 cm layer on PM2.5 concentration (P < 0.01). These results suggest that in spring, PM2.5 pollution of near-ground air at farmlands in Sishui is significantly affected by wind speed and soil moisture in the 0 – 5 cm layer, in addition to other factors that have a non-negligible impact on the atmospheric environment.
Effect of slope on plant diversity of a Stellera chamaejasme communityin subalpine meadow
CUI Boliang, AN Yanming, ZHANG Qipeng, PU Meng, CHEN Kelong
2021, 38(5): 823-834. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0490
[Abstract](2402) [FullText HTML] (698) [PDF 856KB](23)
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Stellera chamaejasme is an important indicator species for degradation of natural grassland ecosystems. Exploring the response characteristics of S. chamaejasme community diversity to different slopes is of great significance for the control of S. chamaejasme. In this study, the community characteristics and grassland habitat conditions of an S. chamaejasme community in Hezuo, Gannan were studied by means of Quadrat survey. The S. chamaejasme community in a subalpine meadow was taken as the research object, and the slope of sample plot in the study area was divided into five gradient grades: Ⅰ (0° ~ 5°], Ⅱ (5° ~ 15°], Ⅲ (15° ~ 25°], Ⅳ (25° ~ 35°] and Ⅴ (> 35°). Our results showed that: (1) S. chamaejasme is mainly distributed in the dry and sunny slope with good soil nutrient and moderate water condition at 2900 ~ 3050 m altitude and 15° ~ 35° slope in the subalpine meadow. (2) Most of the plant communities in the study area are adapted to the cold and windy environment. Plants were categorized into 10 families, 18 genera and 30 species in gradient Ⅰ, 7 families, 13 genera and 27 species in gradient Ⅱ, 6 families, 9 genera and 20 species in gradient Ⅲ, 14 families, 30 genera and 35 species in gradient Ⅳ, and 5 families, 10 genera and 15 species in gradient Ⅴ. (3) The distribution of the important values of Cyperaceae on different gradients was Ⅱ > Ⅳ > Ⅰ > Ⅴ > Ⅲ, and the distribution of important values of perennial rhizome grasses was Ⅴ on different gradients. The important values of perennial clump grasses on different gradients were Ⅴ > Ⅳ > Ⅰ > Ⅲ > Ⅱ, the important values of shrubs and subshrubs were Ⅳ > Ⅴ > Ⅲ > Ⅱ > Ⅰ, and the important values of perennials on different gradients were Ⅲ > Ⅱ > Ⅳ > Ⅴ > Ⅰ, while the important values of 1 and 2 years on different gradients were Ⅴ > Ⅳ > Ⅲ > Ⅱ > Ⅰ, the important values of shrubs and subshrubs on different gradients were Ⅴ > Ⅳ > Ⅲ > Ⅱ > Ⅰ, the distribution of important values of perennials on different gradients was Ⅴ > Ⅳ > Ⅰ > Ⅲ > Ⅰ, and the distribution of important values of perennials on different gradients was Ⅴ > Ⅳ > Ⅲ > Ⅱ > Ⅰ. Most of the plant functional groups had the most important values at gradient Ⅳ and Ⅴ, and the lowest values at gradient Ⅰ and gradient Ⅱ. (4) The richness index of plant community in the study area varied greatly on different slopes, and the diversity index of the community with complex habitat structure was high, the species diversity was relatively rich, and the slope was shown to influence the plant diversity distribution of the S. chamaejasme community.
The response of total grassland biomass in Sanjiangyuan to future climate change scenarios
ZHANG Wenjuan, YE Lizhu, MA Bingyun, MA Wenwen, HOU Fujiang
2021, 38(5): 835-847. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0575
[Abstract](958) [FullText HTML] (510) [PDF 1460KB](35)
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The DNDC (denitrification–decomposition) model was calibrated using 2 055 field monitoring data collected from 2005 to 2016 in Sanjiangyuan, and the model parameters suitable for the region were established. The dynamics of total grassland biomass in Sanjiangyuan were studied based on a process-based model and changes under different periods and different future climate scenarios (representative concentration pathways: RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) were analyzed. Therefore, the influence of climatic variables on total grassland biomass was explored, and the countermeasures of grazing and utilization of grassland in different regions of Sanjiangyuan under the future climate scenarios were discussed. Our results showed that this model could accurately capture the variation of total grassland biomass under different climates, and the model explained 69% of total biomass variation, while the RMSE was 96.414 g·m–2; When comparing the two climate scenarios, the temperature increase in the climate scenario of RCP8.5 was higher than that of RCP 4.5, while the precipitation increase was lower; Under both the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios, total grassland biomass tended to decrease significantly in the study area, with the simulated values of total grassland biomass decreasing by 16.91%~18.51% and 23.82%~26.44%, respectively. Climate change is the main factor leading to changes in total grassland biomass. Grassland management should actively respond to the potential climate change effects and formulate corresponding countermeasures to achieve sustainable development in this region.
Influence of mulching of different non-woven materials on the growth of alpine ecological restoration grasses
CHEN Baijie, WANG Fengyi, ZHOU Huakun, ZHANG Zhenhua
2021, 38(5): 848-858. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0601
[Abstract](898) [FullText HTML] (402) [PDF 965KB](13)
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This study aimed to explore the effects of different degradable non-woven cloths on the growth of commonly ecological restoration grasses in alpine regions, and to thus select the more suitable non-woven cloth materials for establishing different types of ecological restoration grasses. In May 2019, five commonly used alpine ecological restoration grass species, including Poa pratensis, Poa crgmophila, Elymus nutans, Puccinellia tenuiflora and Festuca sinensis, were selected, to measure the seedlings out, plant height, forage yield, and analyze forage quality (crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, etc.) under mulches of five biodegradable non-woven fabrics (straw fiber, hemp fiber, wool fiber). Our results showed that, 1) Brown straw fiber non-woven cloth is not suitable for all alpine ecological restoration grasses selected in this study due to the inhibition of seedlings out and growth; 2) Compared with the control, hemp fiber non-woven fabric significantly increased the plant height of Poa pratensis by 48.81% and the crude fat content of Festuca sinersis by 16.59%, but significantly reduced the aboveground biomass of Elymus nutans by 32.73% and the acid detergent fiber content of Festuca sinersis by 14.88%; 3) Compared with the control, white thick wool fiber non-woven cloth significantly increased the plant height of five forage grasses (29.61% ~ 133.70%), the biomass of forage grasses (except Elymus nutans, 138.97% ~ 1023.24%), and the crude protein content of Poa pratensis by 9.11%; 4) Compared with the control, brown thick wool fiber non-woven cloth significantly increased the crude protein content of Festuca sinersis by 10.51%; 5) Compared with the control, white thin wool fiber non-woven cloth significantly increased the above-ground biomass of Poa crgmophila by 456.97% and the crude fat content of Elymus nutans by 17.41%. These results will provide a theoretical basis for ecological restoration of regions with harsher environmental conditions such as "black soil beaches" in alpine regions and engineering sites.
Analysis of the population spatial distribution patterns of wet and saline ecotype Phragmites australis in the oasis-desert transition zone of the Hexi Corridor
ZHI Xianghong, DU Xiaoyan, LI Chaozhou, JIAO Jian, LIU Xin
2021, 38(5): 859-869. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0378
[Abstract](1082) [FullText HTML] (555) [PDF 697KB](16)
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The vegetation growth and health status in the oasis-desert transition zone of the Hexi Corridor plays a decisive role in the stability of the oasis. The experimental plots used in this study were set up at wetland and saline habitats with a natural distribution of Phragmites australis population. The spatial distribution patterns of wet P. australis and saline ecotype P. australis population were subsequently investigated. Six kinds of aggregation indexes and Iwao model were used to comprehensively analyze the distribution pattern and aggregation intensity of P. australis populations in different sampling scales and height grades, to obtain information for the investigation of the population behavior and population diffusion type. Our results showed that: both the wet P. australis and saline P. australis population spatial distribution patterns were measured by cluster distribution on six scales, with sampling areas of 4, 8, 16, 20, 40 and 100 m2, and saline P. australis showed a random distribution trend. The aggregation intensity of wet P. australis was higher than that of saline P. australis, which meant that the wet habitat was more beneficial to improve aggregation intensity than saline habitats. The aggregation intensity of wet P. australis and saline P. australis were similar in different sampling scales. At all height classes, the aggregation intensity of wet P. australis was higher than that of saline P. australis, especially at the Ⅴ and Ⅵ grades, where the wet P. australis aggregation intensity was the highest. There was a certain random trend at the Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ, and Ⅵ height classes of the saline P. australis but no random trend at the Ⅰ and Ⅴ height classes. As water was not the limiting factor for the growth of P. australis in the wet habitat, the population aggregation intensity of P. australis was higher than that in the saline habitat. Owing to the saline stress and water deficit in the saline habitat, the development of the P. australis population in the saline habitat was limited; in order to acquire more water and nutrients, the P. australis population in the saline habitat showed random distribution trend, so as to get more space and resources for its survival and expansion.
Effects of NaCl stress on seed germination and seedling growth of two cold-season grasses
CHEN Yaqi, SU Kaiqi, LI Chunjie
2021, 38(5): 870-879. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0391
[Abstract](958) [FullText HTML] (436) [PDF 548KB](18)
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This study investigated the effects of NaCl on seed germination and seedling growth of infected Achnatherum inebrians and non-infected A. inebrians, Festuca arundinacea ‘Island’, and F. arundinacea ‘Hound 6’, to determine the tolerance level of single salt NaCl stress at seed germination stage and seedling growth stage and to conduct a comprehensive salt tolerance evaluation. In endophyte-infected A. inebrians and non-endophyte-infected A. inebrians, ‘Island’, and ‘Hound 6’ as the experimental material, the mass fractions of 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.7%, and 0.9% of the salt solution were used to process seeds, and germination rate, germination potential, vigor index and seedling height, and radicle length index, were measured to establish the related function equation to determine the tolerance values of four kinds of germplasms planted under saline conditions. The results showed that, compared with the control group, the germination rate, germination power, germination index, vigor index, seedling height, and radicle length decreased with increasing salt concentrations, whereas the root-cap ratio showed the opposite trend. Mild salt stress (0.1% and 0.3%) had a positive effect on seed germination and seedling growth (P < 0.05). In the germination stage, the appropriate salt tolerance concentrations of E + A. inebrians, E – A. inebrians, ‘Island’, and ‘Hound 6’ were 0.70%, 0.60%, 0.37%, and 0.49%, respectively. The salt-tolerance semi-lethal concentrations were 0.98%, 0.72%, 0.46%, and 0.61%, respectively, and the salt tolerance limit concentrations were 1.02%, 0.91%, 0.62%, and 0.87%, respectively. In the seedling stage, the salt tolerance thresholds of E + A. inebrians, E – A. inebrians, ‘Island’, and ‘Hound 6’ were 1.23%, 1.01%, 0.44%, and 1.09%, respectively. The comprehensive salt tolerance levels were; E + A. inebrians > F. arundinacea‘Hound 6’ > E – A. inebrians > F. arundinacea ‘Island’.
Research on seasonal water use strategy of artificial Haloxylon ammodendron in the lower reaches of the Shiyang River
ZHANG Wenlong, ZHAO Peng, ZHU Shujuan, CHAI Chengwu, JIANG Shengxiu, GEN Dongmei, ZHANG Fu
2021, 38(5): 880-889. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0435
[Abstract](2055) [FullText HTML] (607) [PDF 984KB](7)
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As the main sand-fixing afforestation tree species, artificial Haloxylon ammodendron has strong stress resistance and ecological adaptability, which are also the first lines of defense against wind-sand hazards in the lower reaches of the Shiyang River. Based on the methods of in-situ observation and isotope tracing, we studied the seasonal patterns of the water source of artificial H. ammodendron, which has important practical guiding significance for the restoration of the degraded protection system in the Minqin oasis. In the growing season, the average soil moisture in the 0-200 cm vertical soil layer of the rhizosphere of artificial H. ammodendron was 0.87%, and the soil moisture content in the 120 cm depth was relatively high. Soil moisture content seasonally showed the pattern: May (1.22%) > April (1.05%) > June (0.83%) > July (0.80%) > October (0.67%) > August (0.65%). Soil moisture δ18O in the 0 − 60 cm surface layer showed obvious enrichment, with drastic changes being observed, whereas that in the middle and lower layers was decreased and relatively stable. In spring, the proportions of soil water in the deep layer of 120 − 200 cm, the middle layer of 60 − 120 cm, and 20 − 60 cm shallow layer were 45.15%, 20.6%, and 20.6%, respectively. In summer, the soil water utilization ratios of 0 − 20 cm surface layer, 60 − 120 cm middle layer, and 120 − 200 cm deep layer were 32.5%, 24.75%, and 22.1%, respectively. In autumn, the soil water utilization ratios in the 0 − 20 cm surface layer and the 120 − 200 cm deep layer were relatively high, accounting for 44.4% and 48.75%, respectively. Soil water at different depths is an important seasonal water source of artificial H. ammodendron. It has been suggested that the methods of artificial supplementary rainfall infiltration were optimal to maintain the soil water balance of forestland in tending management.
Advances in research of miRNA156 and targeted SPL gene in plants
HAN Jiating, FENG Guangyan, SHUAI Yang, JIAO Yongjuan, ZHANG Xinquan
2021, 38(5): 890-902. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0639
[Abstract](1085) [FullText HTML] (587) [PDF 863KB](19)
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The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SPL) gene family is a class of transcription factors unique to green plants. The majority of the members of the SPL family contain miR156 binding sites and can be negatively regulated by miR156 at the transcriptional level. Studies on Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and other model plants have shwon that miR156-SPL is involved in flowering regulation, morphology transition, secondary metabolism, light signal transduction and stress response. With the development of biotechnology, increasing studies on the role of miR156-SPL in plants have been reported. This review summarizes the various functions and molecular mechanisms of miR156-SPL, and aims to lay a foundation for further exploration and application of miR156-SPL in grass.
Screening and identification of drought tolerance varieties of wild Elymus sibiricus at seedling stage
WANG Chuanqi, LIU Wenhui, ZHANG Yongchao, ZHOU Qingping
2021, 38(5): 903-917. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0635
[Abstract](909) [FullText HTML] (405) [PDF 615KB](7)
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Elymus sibiricus selections suitable for growing in semi-arid areas were screened out according to their response to drought stress at the seedling stage; this provides the basis for artificial grassland construction, grassland replanting improvement and grassland ecological restoration in semi-arid areas of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. This study selected material from 19 wild Elymus sibiricus provenances from different habitats in Huzhu County, Menyuan County, Datong County, and Gangcha County of Qinghai Province. Taking Elymus sibiricus ‘Qingmu No.1’ and E. sibiricus ‘Chuancao No. 2’ as reference materials, the selections were cultivated in pots in a simulated typical drought stress environment (soil relative water content 45%~50% of field water capacity). Phenotypic and physiological indexes of Elymus sibiricus were determined in fixed plants. The drought tolerance of the wild and cultivated Elymus sibiricus selections at the seedling stage were comprehensively evaluated by the subordinate function method. The results were as follows: With increased numbers of drought stress days, the plant height, leaf area, dry matter accumulation percentage and chlorophyll content in the control group showed an increasing trend, while the percentage root dry matter accumulation and relative electrical conductivity showed a decreasing trend. Compared with the control group, the plant height, relative growth rate, relative survival percentage and chlorophyll content of Elymus sibiricus selections in the treatment group decreased continuously with increased numbers of drought stress days, while the relative conductivity value increased continuously. The morphological plasticity of plant height, leaf area and root system dry matter accumulation is an important way for Elymus sibiricust to adapt to drought environments at the seedling stage. Among the 21 Elymus sibiricus materials tested, the 15-195 Elymus sibiricus selection from Datong County had the strongest drought resistance and was notably better than the other materials.
Effects of shading on phenotypic plasticity, clonal characteristics, and reproduction index of Euphorbia thymifolia
YANG Xiaoqin, HE Linjiang, LIU Jinping, LAN Fang, MA Yong
2021, 38(5): 918-926. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0518
[Abstract](893) [FullText HTML] (412) [PDF 634KB](7)
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Euphorbia thymifolia is a wild native turfgrass germplasm resource, whose shade tolerance and coping mechanisms determined its values of development and utilization. In this experiment, we treated the seedlings of E. thymifolia under four shading degrees of 0 (CK), 30%, 50%, and 70% for four months. In summer, the component properties, biomass structure, cloning efficiency indexes and sexual reproduction indexes of the genet were determined, to analyze the growth and reproduction strategy of E. thymifolia under different degrees of shading. The results showed that: 1) E. thymifolia exhibited altered quantity and quality character components by decreasing leaf number, leaf area, stolon length, branching strength, root diameter and so on (P < 0.05), to adapt to or respond to shade stress. 2) The response order of leaf characteristics to shading was number > total leaf area > length > single leaf area > width > thickness, that of stem characteristics was branch strength > plant height > stolon length > branch density > primary branch number, and that of root characteristics was indefinite root number > main root diameter > lateral root number > main root length. 3) With a decrease of genet biomass under shading (P < 0.05), E. thymifolia adjusted the component biomass allocation ratio to form a growth strategy adapted to the shading degree. 4) E. thymifolia could reduce the sexual reproductive allocation and reproductive index to cope with > 30% shading (P < 0.05), simultaneously decreasing the clonal structure biomass and cloning efficiency index to adapt to the shading habitat (P < 0.05). In summary, E. thymifolia is a light-loving plant, with a strong ability to adjust the component traits and biomass structure according to shading degrees, and thus, clonal growth and sexual reproduction could be adapted to the environment.
Introduction and cultivation of the mid-late silage maize ‘Tieyan53’ in Qinghai Province
GAN Shuping, YANG Xuegui, MA Yuqing, LI Xiang, ZHU Lili, CHEN Zhiguo, HE Chenbang, MAO Xiaofeng
2021, 38(5): 927-934. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0553
[Abstract](1272) [FullText HTML] (393) [PDF 617KB](10)
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A cultivation experiment of the mid-late silage maize ‘Tieyan 53’ was performed in four agricultural areas of Qinghai. The results were as follows. 1) ‘Tieyan 53’ should be planted at a density of 75 000~82 500 plants·ha−2, seven days before the last frost date in Haibei and Hainan, and at a density of 90 000 plants·ha−2, seven days before the last frost date in Haixi. In the eastern agricultural region, high yields could be achieved by planting ‘Tieyan 53’ at a density of 105 000 plants·ha−2, 15 days before the final frost date. 2) The results of quality analysis at the Ledu test site in the eastern agricultural region showed that ‘Tieyan 53’ had a protein content of 6.82%, neutral detergent fiber content of 40.3%, acid detergent fiber content of 20.1%, and starch content of 48.7%, with the best quality, on the last frost day. 3) The best comprehensive nutritional quality was achieved when the planting density of ‘Tieyan 53’ was 60 000 plants·ha−2. Based on the results of fertilizer efficiency test and quality analysis, when ‘Tieyan 53’ was planted in various regions of Qinghai, the yield and comprehensive nutritional quality were the best when nitrogen fertilization was applied reasonably and the planting density was controlled at 75 000 ~ 82 500 plants·ha−2.
Effects of planting density and variety on biomass and nutrient quality of green maize
SU Yajun, JIAO Ting, WU Jianping, LI Yu, DOU Siyuan, LIU Ting, GONG Xuyin, WANG Jianfu, LEI Zhaomin
2021, 38(5): 935-946. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0307
[Abstract](1024) [FullText HTML] (583) [PDF 670KB](20)
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The effects of planting density and variety on biomass and nutrient quality of green maize were studied in order to provide a theoretical basis for the promotion of high-quality green forage resources for cattle and sheep. In 2019, the green maize varieties “Dongdan 13” (H1), “Zhengda 12” (H2), “Keyu 188” (H3), “Hengyuan Y4038” (H4), and “Pudan 6” (H5) were selected as test materials and grown at planting densities of 4.50 × 104 (D1), 5.25 × 104 (D2), 6.00 × 104 (D3), 6.75 × 104 (D4) and 7.55 × 104 (D5) plants·hm−2. The results showed that planting density had significant effects on the yields of fresh grass and hay (P < 0.01) and on the ash content (P < 0.05). The contents of ether extract, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acidic detergent fiber, starch, calcium, phosphorus, and total digestible nutrients, and the in vitro dry matter digestibility at 48 h were significantly affected by the varieties (P < 0.01), and the contents of dry matter and water soluble carbohydrates were significantly affected (P < 0.05). After comprehensive evaluation of biomass and nutrient quality indexes of each treatment with grey correlation degree, the three best varieties and their densities were H1D5 > H2D4 > H3D5 . In conclusion, the three green maize varieties (and their densities) with the best performance in Huanxian region were “Dongdan 13” (7.50 × 104 plants·hm−2), “Zhengda 12” (6.75 × 104 plants·hm−2) and “Keyu 188” (7.50 × 104 plants·hm−2); these varieties could be popularized in this region.
Comparative study on the yield and nutritional quality of different sweet sorghum varieties in the dry farming area of Gansu Province
HE Zhenfu, HE Chungui, CHEN Ping, WANG Fei
2021, 38(5): 947-957. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0358
[Abstract](2387) [FullText HTML] (654) [PDF 726KB](19)
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This study aimed to determine the most suitable sweet sorghum varieties in the dry farming area of Gansu province to enrich local forage resources and to support the development of herbivorous animal husbandry. Fifteen sweet sorghum varieties were selected for the randomized block experiment to analyze the variance of the yield and nutritional quality. The membership function method was used to evaluate the comprehensive production performance. The results showed that the content of CP, NDF, ADF, WSC, and TDN were significantly different among the varieties/lines (P < 0.05). The sequence of nutrient contents was irregular among varieties, except for ADF and TDN, which were consistent. The highest content of CP and TDN were found in Liaotian 3 (7.61%, 62.50%), respectively and the highest content of WSC was found in 2018 JT-7 (27.77%). The lowest content of NDF and ADF were found in Jintianza 3 (47.90%) and Liaotian 1 (27.70%), respectively. There were significant differences in dry matter yield among varieties (lines). The highest dry matter yield was 20.63 t·ha−1, in Jintianza 3. CP yield difference between varieties was not significant with the highest yield, 1.31 t·ha−1, in Zhuangmu 79141; TDN yield difference between varieties was significant (P < 0.05) with the highest yield, 12.67 t·ha−1, in Jintianza 3. The DM yield and the content of CP, WSC, NDF, and ADF were evaluated by the membership function method using fuzzy mathematics. As a result, Jintianza 3, 2018 JT-7, and Liaotian 3 were the most suitable varieties in this arid region, as they had the best integrated production performance.
Comparative study on short-term fattening of Hu and Australian-Hu F1 lambs
SONG Qizhi, LI Fadi, LI Guoze, ZHAO Yuan, LI Xiaolong, ZHANG Yukun, ZHANG Deyin, ZHANG Xiaoxue, LI Chong, WANG Weimin
2021, 38(5): 958-966. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0616
[Abstract](1441) [FullText HTML] (449) [PDF 672KB](18)
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In this study, the production performance, slaughtering performance, body composition, and muscle quality of Hu and Australian-Hu F1 lambs (Australian white sheep ♂ × Hu sheep ♀) were compared and evaluated. Equal numbers (61 each) of Hu and Australian-Hu F1 lambs were randomly selected and kept under the same feeding conditions and diets. Their fattening and performance were measured and they were slaughtered immediately after the fattening period. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the initial body weight (0 d) and final body weight (60 d) (P > 0.05, average daily weight gain and average daily feed intake between Hu and Australian-Hu F1 lambs over the total fattening period, although the daily weight gain of Hu lambs in the early fattening period (0~20 d) was significantly higher than that of Australian-Hu F1 lambs (P > 0.05, while the daily weight gain of Australian-Hu F1 lambs in the middle fattening period (20~40 d) and late fattening period (40~60 d) was significantly higher than that of Hu lambs (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in carcass weight, dressing percentage, carcass grade (GR), and back fat thickness between Hu and Australian-Hu F1 lambs (P > 0.05), and the differences in carcass chest circumference, carcass hip circumference and eye muscle area in Australian-Hu F1 lambs were significantly higher than in Hu lambs (P < 0.05). Heart weight, liver weight, lung weight and its relative weight (pre-mortem weight) were all significantly (P < 0.01) higher in Australian-Hu F1 lambs than Hu lambs, but fur weight, perirenal fat weight, mesenteric weight, tail fat weight and its relative weight (pre-mortem weight) were all significantly (P < 0.01) lower than Hu lambs. The rate of meat ripening and muscle pH1 45 min were significantly higher in Hu than in Australian-Hu F1 lambs (P < 0.01), but the muscle water loss rate, meat color 24 h b*2 value and meat color 24 h l*2 value were significantly higher in Australian-Hu F1 lambs (P < 0.05). In general, the early growth and development of Hu lambs were faster, but the later growth potential of Australian-Hu F1 lambs was greater, and the carcass performance was better than Hu lambs, with less carcass fat deposition than Hu lambs and significantly improved meat performance.
Effects of grassland sowing on the feeding habits of Eospalax baileyi in the Gannan alpine meadow
ZHANG Caijun, YAO Baohui, WANG Xiaoyan, SUN Xiaomei, SU Junhu
2021, 38(5): 967-975. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0382
[Abstract](1012) [FullText HTML] (501) [PDF 667KB](18)
Abstract:
In order to clarify the effects of grassland supplementary sowing on feeding habits of plateau zokor and to provide a reference for its control and grassland management, the differences of feeding habits and ecological niche of plateau zokor between reseeded and degraded grassland of Gannan alpine meadow were analyzed using microanalysis analysis of stomach contents. Our results showed that reseeding significantly changed the food resources of plateau zokor. The dominant plants under degraded grassland mainly belonged to Asteraceae (45.30%), Lamiaceae (26.40%), and Rosaceae(18.72%). After supplementary sowing, the plants of Poaceae (37.00%), Rosaceae (25.68%), and Cyperaceae (16.54%) became the dominant species. Plateau zokor fed on 27 species of plants belonging to 27 genera and 15 families in degraded grassland, but the plants of Rosaceae (45.72%), Gramineae (19.68%), and Polygonaceae (17.11%) were the main food. In reseeded grassland, plateau zokor fed on 28 species of plants belonging to 25 genera and 15 families, the plants of Rosaceae (40.71%), Gramineae (25.32%), Liaoaceae (11.70%), and Cyperaceae (11.45%) were the main food source. Grassland supplementary seeding affected the proportion of plants that plateau zokors fed on, and the niche breadth, food diversity index, and evenness was improved. Thus, reseeding can reduce the food source of plateau zokors by reducing the proportion of weeds, while the reduction of edible plants may increase the feeding time of plateau zokor, thereby increasing their foraging cost.
Bibliometric analysis of grass-based livestock husbandry in China
HAN Chengji, WANG Jiating, WANG Guogang
2021, 38(5): 976-991. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0618
[Abstract](942) [FullText HTML] (455) [PDF 50939KB](23)
Abstract:
Using the CiteSpace document visualization tool, the present study analyzed the current status, hotspots, evolution paths, and frontiers of grass-Based livestock husbandry (GLiH) research in China. The results are as follows. 1) GLiH research began in 1992. Since then, the number of related documents has shown an increasing trend, and a number of influential research institutions have been established; however, the overall correlation between authors and institutions is not strong. 2) From the perspectives of the co-occurrence and clustering of keywords, research hotspots mainly focused on the following three aspects: animal husbandry development and grasslands or grassland ecological environmental protection, GLiH production technology, and GLiH sustainable development. The first research stage focused on animal husbandry development; the second stage on grassland ecological protection and sustainable development; and the final stage focused on GLiH and related industry development, transformation, and upgrade. These stage characteristics of the frontier research on animal husbandry were consistent with the evolution path of keywords. Frontier analysis indicated that future research should pay attention to the efficient supply of herbivore and livestock products, the “three-way” adjustment of planting structure, the transition of grassland production to ecology, and the development of GLiH to the increase the income of farmers and efficiency of farming.
Application of a technology coupling satellite remote sensing and the internet of things for dynamic land and bio-resource management
YANG Ying, DING Luming, TANG Xia, ZHANG Jinlong, SHI Baoguang, XU You, LI Guozheng
2021, 38(5): 992-1000. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0395
[Abstract](823) [FullText HTML] (408) [PDF 1448KB](11)
Abstract:
Nature reserves are complex systems that include land and ancillary resources, wildlife, livestock, and human society. The coupling of internet of things technology with satellite telemetry can significantly improve management efficiency. In this study, the relationship between animal husbandry and grassland resources is used as a model scenario. NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) analysis of Sentinel-2 satellite images is used to obtain vegetation coverage. Positions and behavior of yaks are obtained through wearable smart terminals. The minimum convex polygon (MCP) and overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) methods were adopted to calculate home ranges and activity status. NDVI decreased significantly in autumn, but did not change in winter. Average NDVI reached a maximum (0.65) in September 2019, then decreased sharply. Pasture fences and feeding demand imposed limiting boundaries on activity capacity of experimental organisms, but there was no obvious difference in home range size between yaks with calves and yaks without calves. Among the factors that affected the scope of an animal’s home range, human factors were based on subjective characteristics, and their influence was far greater than that of other factors. Physical isolation factors exerted greater impact than seasonal and other environmental factors. The yak’s home range was smallest in February 2020. Due to limited feeding resources after winter, pastures are often supplemented with grain feeding, and additional fences are used to control the range of yak activity to prevent excessive energy consumption. Driven by human intervention and reduced feeding resources, experimental organisms tend to adopt conservative energy consumption strategies. At the same time, organisms without calves have a lighter burden, less activity and energy consumption, and have better survival capabilities in harsh environments. This research provides new ideas for analytical methods including methods for data acquisition, data coupling, analysis, and decision-making systems. Subsequent research embeds existing experimental process methods into a relatively infinite space with a low-interference experimental environment, and completes a closed feedback loop of data collection-coupling analysis-reverse decision intervention verification.
Teaching reform of forage biotechnology course in Yangzhou University
ZHANG Bing, WANG Xiaoshan, YAN Xuebing, LIU Dalin, WEI Zhenwu
2021, 38(5): 1001-1009. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0278
[Abstract](1107) [FullText HTML] (606) [PDF 9100KB](29)
Abstract:
Forage biotechnology is an important major course in the undergraduate education of pratacultural science. Additionally, forage biotechnology is also a foremost interdisciplinary research area in pratacultural and life sciences. To meet the demands of education reform in the “new agronomy” era, the course teaching of forage biotechnology was intensely reformed in the College of Animal Science and Technology of Yangzhou University. The main reform actions included: reducing teaching contents, adopting the case teaching method, using the Rain Classroom software, designing initiative experimental classes, developing research-based teaching mode, and augmenting political education. These reforms significantly improved students' interest in the courses, their study efficiency, and their overall ability.
2021, 38(5): 1010-1010.
[Abstract](1604) [FullText HTML] (445) [PDF 242KB](12)
Abstract: