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2020 Vol.37(6)

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2020, (6): 1-4.
[Abstract](3796) [FullText HTML] (1044) [PDF 339KB](89)
Effects of excrement application on greenhouse gas emissions in a typical steppe
LIU Yue, NIAN Huiwen, HOU Fujiang
2020, 37(6): 1017-1024. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0493
[Abstract](2322) [FullText HTML] (1047) [PDF 816KB](44)
An excrement application experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of excrement application time and temperature on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in a typical by measuring CH4, CO2 and N2O at 7, 14 and 21 days and different temperature using the chamber-gas chromatography method.This study indicated following results: 1) The excrement application decreased the GHG flux in a typical steppe, which also decreased with the application time. Additionally, the excrement application decreased the absorption for CH4, which was lower than that of control. Emission for CO2 and N2O increased, and then decreased to lower than the control by 21 days later. 2) In addition to the positive correlation between CO2 emission and soil temperature of control, a negative correlation was found for the soil temperature with the CH4 absorption and N2O/CO2 emission in the excrement application and control groups.
Study on the compensatory growth of alpine meadows along a degradation gradient in northwestern Yunnan Province
ZHAO Hongyi, ZHANG Yong, CUI Yuan, ZHENG Qiuzhu, TIAN Kun, HUANG Xiaoxia
2020, 37(6): 1025-1034. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0526
[Abstract](3218) [FullText HTML] (1051) [PDF 810KB](51)
To identify the compensatory growth ability of alpine meadows and the mechanisms underlying the process of land degradation in northwestern Yunnan province (NYP), this study specified three degradation levels, i.e., heavy degradation (HD), moderate degradation (MD), and control (CK). An in situ mowing experiment was conducted to test the strength of alpine meadow compensatory growth across these three degradation levels from July to September 2018. Meanwhile, soil samples were collected and soil physical and chemical properties, such as bulk density, moisture, average particle size, pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, and available phosphorus, were measured. The results showed that the total coverage, average height, and aboveground biomass of alpine meadows decreased along the degradation gradient. Regarding soil variables, the soil bulk density, soil moisture, average particle size, total nitrogen, and total organic carbon decreased along the degradation gradient. There were no significant differences in soil pH or available nitrogen content among degradation gradients, while the order of available phosphorus was MD > CK > HD. Additionally, the over-compensatory phenomenon was detected across all degradation levels, and there was no significant difference in the strength of over-compensatory growth among the degradation levels. The strength of over-compensatory growth of Gramineae and forbs did not change significantly across the degradation gradient, whereas the strength of over-compensatory growth of Cyperaceae increased as degradation level increased, i.e. CK < MD < HD. Compared to Gramineae and Cyperaceae, the over-compensatory growth of forbs was less affected by soil physicochemical properties. Finally, the effects of soil physicochemical properties on the over-compensatory growth of alpine meadows in HD were stronger than in those in CK and MD. This study suggests that although the plant communities and some soil physicochemical properties could be negatively affected by land degradation, the over-compensatory growth of plant communities could remain stable if the negative changes of soil physicochemical properties do not restrict the over-compensatory growth of plants in the alpine meadows of NYP.
Soil temperature and moisture stratification characteristics in the marginal desert grassland of the Dzungaria basin
FU Haoyu, JING Changqing, GUO Wenzhang, CHEN Chen, DENG Xiaojin
2020, 37(6): 1035-1046. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0567
[Abstract](1986) [FullText HTML] (945) [PDF 1672KB](27)
The wide distribution of arid and semi-arid desert grasslands, low soil temperature, and low soil moisture greatly affect the growth of desert vegetation and regional climate environment. The automatic observation data of soil temperature and humidity probes were obtained at a desert grassland site on the southern edge of the Gurbantonggute desert, Dzungaria basin, Xinjiang, from May 2017 to April 2019. The variation in the soil temperature and humidity at different depths and their correlation with meteorological data were analyzed. The results showed that: 1) The soil temperature and humidity of each layer had obvious periodic change characteristics with the seasonal change. The vertical gradients of soil temperature and humidity at different depths were obvious, and the surface layer had the biggest fluctuation. The shallow soil temperature obviously fluctuated with the seasons and reached a maximum value at 18:00. The trend in the soil moisture at 5 cm was spring > summer > autumn > winter, and soil moisture increased with the increase in depth. 2) The correlation between the soil temperature and meteorological factors was stronger than that with the soil moisture. The soil temperature was positively correlated with the ground temperature, air temperature, and evaporation, for which the correlation coefficients were 0.955, 0.942, and 0.823, respectively (P < 0.01). This paper presents the changes to the soil temperature and humidity in a desert-oasis zone, to provide a basis for the model simulation of land surface processes using initialization data.
Warming affects the invasion ability and competitiveness of the invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides
TANG Meng'e, ZHANG Qiaoying, ZHANG Yunchun
2020, 37(6): 1047-1057. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0619
[Abstract](2166) [FullText HTML] (870) [PDF 685KB](48)
Invasive plants may positively adapt to temperature increases caused by global warming, and these changes could promote their harmful effects. Therefore, it is important to control invasive plants in order to decrease the harm they cause. In this study, we focused on the invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides and chose Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens as its competition plants. There were three treatments. These were one plant of each species per pot (no competition), two plants of the same species in one pot (intraspecific competition), and two plants from different species in one pot (interspecific competition). Half the pots were placed under warming conditions. The results showed that (1) under warmer conditions, A. philoxeroides allocated more biomass to the growth of aboveground parts through improvements to light energy capture by its leaves and stems. Warming also increased the competition between A. philoxeroides and L. perenne or T. repens. Both responses indicated that warming will enhance invasion by A. philoxeroide. (2) Interspecific competition inhibited the growth of A. philoxeroides, but the inhibition did not significantly change (P > 0.05) as the competition density increased. The results showed that L. perenne and T. repens significantly inhibited A. philoxeroides growth, and an analysis of the A. philoxeroide relative yield under the different competition conditions showed that L. perenne inhibition of A. philoxeroide was more significant (P < 0.05) than inhibition due to T. repens. (3) Warming generally promoted L. perenne growth. However, growth was inhibited by interspecific competition under warming conditions, but there was no significant (P > 0.05) inhibition under non-warming conditions. In contrast, warming had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on T. repens growth, but its growth was considerably inhibited by interspecific competition. Furthermore, interspecific competition decreased A. philoxeroide aboveground biomass by 89.5%, L. perenne by 55.8%, and T. repens by 82.5%. The results suggest that L. perenne could be used as a competitive plant to control A. philoxeroide.
Effects of carpet on turf performance quality, biomass, and root growth of hybrid turf
ZHANG Tongrui, LI Fucui, LI Hui, JI Shuangxuan, FAN Zhihao, HAN Liebao
2020, 37(6): 1058-1065. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.20196-0626
[Abstract](2051) [FullText HTML] (967) [PDF 791KB](27)
Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne ‘Neruda 1 BT’) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea ‘Crown’) were used to study the effect of the carpet on turfgrass quality and root growth. Pot experiments with a no-carpet control were carried out to study the effects of carpet on turf performance quality, aboveground and underground biomass, and root morphological parameters under different seeding conditions (perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, and their mixture). The carpet significantly decreased turfgrass performance traits such as color. Turfgrass color was significantly lower than that of the control for perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, and their mixture by 3.8%, 5.3% and 3.9%, respectively. At the same time, the carpet decreased the aboveground biomass of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue by 11.8% and 16.9%, respectively. Additionally, as for the root morphological parameters of the root under the carpet, the total root length, root surface area, and root volume were all lower than those in the control to different degrees under different seeding conditions. Therefore, in artificial-natural hybrid turf, the carpet inhibited root growth under the carpet and further affected the growth of aboveground turf grass.
Effects of LBD on improving heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass
WANG Qian, WANG Kai, YU Jingjin, YANG Zhimin
2020, 37(6): 1066-1073. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0535
[Abstract](2765) [FullText HTML] (974) [PDF 828KB](13)
LBD is a new type of biostimulant based on amino acids and polypeptides, which can improve plant heat tolerance. However, the physiological mechanisms by which it works are not clear. This study examines the effects of LBD on creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) turf quality, yellow leaf rate, chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, MDA content, root length, and the ratio of root and shoot under heat stress conditions that last for 15 d. The results showed that three LBD treatments: spraying LBD once before heat stress (L-preH-1), spraying LBD once after heat stress (L-aftH-1), and spraying LBD twice before and after heat stress(L-2), resulted in significantly higher turf quality and lower yellow leaf rate than did treatments involving spraying LBD and Primo MAXX together once before heat stress (LP-preH-1), spraying foliar fertilizer once before heat stress (Y-preH-1), and spraying Primo MAXX alone once before heat stress (P-preH-1) (P < 0.05). In addition, the LBD treatments resulted in leaves that maintained a high level of cell membrane stability, higher net photosynthesis rate, increased root length, and an increased ratio of root and shoot. Furthermore, chlorophyll content and transpiration rate were significantly higher in the L-preH-1 treatment than in the L-aftH-1 treatment (P < 0.05), and better than that in the L-2 treatment according to the cost control. Our data indicate that spraying LBD was more effective than spraying Primo MAXX, foliar fertilizer, or LBD + Primo MAXX; meanwhile, spraying LBD before heat stress was more advantageous for improving heat tolerance of creeping bentgrass.
Effects of vetiver grass root exudates on the germination of two turfgrass species under heavy metal stress
NIU Xueli, QIU Wenxin, YANG Jinyu, LIU Jinxiang, ZHANG Wu
2020, 37(6): 1074-1087. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0534
[Abstract](3797) [FullText HTML] (1154) [PDF 1523KB](40)
The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) root exudates (RE) on alleviating the effects of heavy metal toxicity on the germination of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Moisture germination bed text was employed to study the effects of vetiver grass RE on the germination and seedling growth of two turfgrass species under the single stresses of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and cadmium (Cd) at different concentrations. The results showed that vetiver grass RE significantly (P < 0.05) improved the seed germination percentages (SGP) of the two turfgrass species under Cu2+ stress at 200 mg·L–1 and improved the SGP of tall fescue under Cd2+ stress at 200 mg·L–1 compared to the control treatment. Compared to distilled water, vetiver grass RE significantly (P < 0.05) increased the shoot length (SL) of perennial ryegrass under Zn2+ treatments at 200, 400, and 600 mg·L–1, Cu2+ treatments at 100 and 200 mg·L–1, and Cd2+ treatment at 200 mg·L–1. Vetiver grass RE also increased perennial ryegrass root length (RL) under Cu2+ treatment at 50 mg·L–1 and Cd2+ treatments at 50, 100, and 200 mg·L–1. In addition, vetiver grass RE significantly (P < 0.05) increased the SL of tall fescue under Cu2+ treatments at 50 and 200 mg·L–1 and Cd2+ treatments at 50, 100, and 200 mg·L–1, and increased the RL, with the longest roots and greatest root numbers under Cu2+ treatments at 50 and 100 mg·L–1 and Cd2+ treatment at 200 mg·L–1. This experiment provides a scientific basis for improving the germination characteristics of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass using vetiver grass RE under Cu2+ and Cd2+ stresses, and provides basic information for the wider utilization of vetiver grass.
Screening of planting matrices for a green roof in Lanzhou City
HUANG Rong, WU Yonghua, ZHANG Jianqi, ZHANG Ji'na, ZHOU Deqi, ZHAO Feng
2020, 37(6): 1088-1097. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0485
[Abstract](2123) [FullText HTML] (964) [PDF 678KB](28)
To select a suitable substrate ratio for the planting of vegetation on green roofs in Lanzhou City, Anemone rivularis and Hemerocallis fulva ‘Golden Doll’ were used as experimental materials and pastoral soil, peat, vermiculite, and coconut were selected as plant media. Garden soil was used as a control. A pot experiment was designed using the orthogonal test L9(34) to measure and analyze the physical properties of 10 kinds of vermiculite raw materials using four media, the survival rate of plants in each matrix, the over-summer rate, the over-winter rate, and the plant height, crown, and growth rate at 120 days. The results showed that the No.2, No.3, and No.6 matrices had longer water holding capacities, and the survival rates of A. rivularis and H. fulva ‘Golden Doll’ in the No.3, No.4, No.5, and No.6 matrices were 100%. The over-summer and over-winter rates of A. rivularis and H. fulva ‘Golden Doll’ in the No.5 and No.6 matrices were both 100%. The plant height and crown of A. rivularis and H. fulva ‘Golden Doll’ in the No.3 and No.6 matrices were higher than those in the other matrices, and the growth potential was also good. The results of the range analysis were as follows: the order of the factors regarding their influence on the growth rate of A. rivularis was peat, coconut, pastoral soil, and vermiculite, while the order regarding their influence on H. fulva ‘Golden Doll’ was peat, pastoral soil, coconut, and vermiculite. The best matrix for the growth of A. rivularis and H. fulva ‘Golden Doll’ was the No. 6 substrate, namely the pastoral soil:peat:vermiculite:coconut ratio of 3:6:1:2. Therefore, we recommended that the matrix ratio of No. 6 be used for the green roofs in Lanzhou City.
Effects of different mulching measures on the fine-root adaptation strategies of Amorpha fruticosa in saline soil
LIU Tao, WANG Baitian, CAO Qiqi, WANG Wentao, LIN Xiaoguang, XIAO Huijie
2020, 37(6): 1098-1106. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0558
[Abstract](1326) [FullText HTML] (709) [PDF 856KB](21)
In order to provide a reference for soil improvement and revegetation in the saline wastelands of the Ningxia Irrigation Area, we investigated the effects of different mulching materials on the soil microenvironment and vertical distribution of the fine roots of Amorpha fruticosa. In 2016 and 2017, we examined the effects of mulching using three different mulch materials, namely, plastic mulch (PM), sand mulch (SM), and rice straw mulch (RSM), and compared these with a non-mulch control (CK). To assess the effects of mulching, we measured the following soil microenvironmental factors at depths from 0 to 60 cm: soil water content (SWC), soil temperature (ST), electrical conductivity of a saturated paste extract (ECe), soil organic carbon (SOC), and available nitrogen (AN). Plants under different mulches were sampled to analyze extensive strategies (fine root biomass and fine root length) and intensive strategies (specific root length and specific root area). The results revealed that in both years of the study, RSM retained the highest SWC with increases of 13.59%~14.38% at depths of between 0 and 60 cm. Compared with CK, PM and SM increased ST by 8.48%~20.17% and 5.07%~18.20%, respectively, whereas the use of RSM reduced ST due to its greater heat capacity and lower thermal diffusivity. PM (12.05%~45.10%) showed the best performance with respect to a reduction in ECe at depths between 0 to 60 cm, followed by RSM (10.34%~34.73%) and SM (4.42%~19.61%). In both years, RSM promoted the largest increase in SOC, by 6.61%~9.22%. In 2016, PM and SM reduced SOC by 13.95% and 7.80%, respectively, whereas in 2017, respective increases of 7.07% and 5.77% were obtained using these mulches. In both years, all mulching treatments increased AN, in the order RSM (28.58%~48.20%) > PM (26.00%~39.39%) > SM (10.18%~24.40%). Fine roots in the 0 – 40 cm layer under PM showed the best performance with respect to extensive strategies, whereas those in the 40 – 60 cm layer performed best in terms of intensive strategies. These adaption would be beneficial with regards to acquiring larger amounts of resources in saline soils characterized by resource heterogeneity. Comparatively, we found that fine roots in the 0 – 40 cm showed the best intensive strategies under CK conditions. The findings of this study thus indicate that among the different mulches assessed, a plastic mulch would be the most effective in improving the saline soil environment, thereby enhancing performance of the fine roots of A. fruticosa in different soil layers with respect to two adaptive strategies.
Effects of nitrogen application rate and density on the stoichiometric characteristics of C, N, and P in oat leaves
LIN Zhiling, GAO Yang, ZHU Tiexia, GAO Kai
2020, 37(6): 1107-1114. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0697
[Abstract](1765) [FullText HTML] (725) [PDF 708KB](40)
By measuring the contents of C, N, and P in oat leaves under different densities and nitrogen applications, and calculating the ratios of C/N, C/P, and N/P, the effects of density and nitrogen application on the stoichiometric characteristics of C, N, and P in oat leaves were discussed. This study aimed to provide a reference for exploring the nutrient limitations of oat leaves in the Horqin Sandy Land. The results showed that the C, N, and P contents in the leaves varied with the increasing nitrogen application, in which the N contents first decreased and then increased. With the increasing density, the contents of C, N, and P showed a gradually decreasing trend. Under different nitrogen application rates, the ranges of leaf C/P, C/N, and N/P were 7.11~19.80, 1.95~4.13, and 4.94~12.13, respectively. At different planting densities, the ranges of leaf C/P, C/N, and N/P were 7.11~17.66, 1.64~2.80, and 2.56~12.18, respectively. When the amount of applied nitrogen and density interact, the N/P ratio was between 2.56 and 14.18, and the growth of the oats was restricted by N.
Effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and rhizobium on the growth and nutritional value of Medicago sativa
WEI Yong, WU Xixi, LI Yingde, WANG Xiaoyu, CHANG Shenghua, DUAN Tingyu
2020, 37(6): 1115-1123. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0484
[Abstract](1752) [FullText HTML] (806) [PDF 1017KB](23)
The present research aimed to study the effects of the rhizobium Sinorhizobium medicae (S+) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Funneliformis mosseae on the growth and nutritional value of alfalfa (Medicago sativa ‘Longdong’) in a greenhouse. The results showed that the influence of the rhizobium and AMF on alfalfa growth and nutritional value varied with different cuttings. Compared to the NMS (dual inoculation of rhizobium and AMF) treatment, the dual inoculation of AMF and rhizobium significantly increased the shoot, root, and total biomass of alfalfa by 114.17%, 42.10%, and 24.32% (P < 0.05) for the first cutting, respectively. At the same stage, AMF alone increased the phosphorus content of alfalfa by 45.53% (P < 0.05). However, the individual inoculation of rhizobium decreased the stem to leaf ratio by 33.76% (P < 0.05) for the third cutting. AMF + rhizobium increased the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of alfalfa for the third cutting (P < 0.05). Except for that mentioned above, the AMF and rhizobium did not affect the growth or nutritional value of alfalfa. Cuttings improved the plant growth. Compared with the first cutting, the plant height, shoot biomass, NDF content, and acid detergent fiber (ADF) content of alfalfa improved by 79.42%, 72.50%, 15.19%, and 26.50% (P < 0.05), respectively, while the nitrogen content and relative feeding value (RFV) decreased by 13.51% and 18.03% (P < 0.05) for the second cutting, respectively. For the third cutting, the plant height, branch numbers, stem to leaf ratio, NDF content, and ADF content of alfalfa were 105.97%, 26.20%, 119.23%, 47.63%, and 58.07% (P < 0.05) higher than those of the first cutting, respectively, while the N content and RFV decreased by 12.67% and 40.92% (P < 0.05), respectively.
Production performance evaluation of introduced cultivars of Italian ryegrass and oat in the Chengdu Plain
YANG Jian, LEI Xiong, CHEN Yukun, LIU Wei, DONG Zhixiao, XIONG Yi, XIONG Yanli, MA Xiao
2020, 37(6): 1124-1132. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0590
[Abstract](1538) [FullText HTML] (754) [PDF 597KB](30)
In the Chengdu Plain, five Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and five forage oat (Avena sativa) varieties were comprehensively assessed using the DTOPSIS and grey correlation methods, based on seven agronomic traits, including biomass yield, leaf-stem ratio, growth rate, crude protein contents, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF). The results indicated that there were no significant differences regarding the growth rate of all tested varieties, and the highest value was 0.70 cm·d–1 for oat ‘Aba’ and Italian ryegrass ‘Corden’. The leaf-stem ratio of Italian ryegrass was significantly higher than that of oat (P < 0.05). The fresh and hay yields of oat ‘Cayuse’ were the highest, achieving 76 989 and 23 766 kg·ha–1, respectively. The crude protein content of Italian ryegrass was slightly higher than that of oat, but the NDF and ADF contents were significantly (P < 0.05) lower. According to the results of two comprehensive evaluation methods, Italian ryegrass ranked higher than oat. Italian ryegrass ‘Corden’ and ‘Abundant’ ranked the highest, followed by oat ‘Cayuse’. Thus, all three of these varieties are suitable for cultivation in the Chengdu Plain.
Combination schemes of grass species in high density dwarf rootstock apple orchard in Guanzhong area
TAI Jianhui, YANG Jiangshan, MAO Peichun, ZHANG Nan, PENG Weidong, ZHENG Mingli, MENG Lin
2020, 37(6): 1133-1139. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0060
[Abstract](1458) [FullText HTML] (829) [PDF 608KB](20)
The popularization of high-density dwarf rootstock apple planting technology provides a good development opportunity for its application to orchard grass technology. However, it simultaneously is associated with higher requirements for the standardization of orchard grass technology application. Generally, it is difficult, using single-seeded grass species, to meet the requirements for modern management in apple orchards. In this experiment, the growth characteristics of five different combination schemes of grass species were compared and evaluated in a high-density dwarf rootstock apple orchard in Guanzhong area. The combination scheme of tall fescue (70%) + kentucky bluegrass (20%) + perennial ryegrass (10%) not only had faster seedling emergence and a longer green period, but also had excellent flatness, which was highly suitable for mechanical operation. The combination scheme of tall fescue (30%) + perennial ryegrass (30%) + cocksfoot (20%) + kentucky bluegrass (20%) had fast seedling emergence, good reproducibility, a medium green period, and good persistence. This scheme satisfied the requirements for artificial management, and was also an ideal combination scheme in Guanzhong area. The combination scheme of white clover (50%) + cocksfoot (20%) + perennial ryegrass (30%) had good persistence and increased the proportion of white clover in the grassland population year by year, with the proportion increasing to more than 50% in the third year. The grass can be used for silage or forage feeding livestock after mowing, which also makes this an ideal combination scheme in Guanzhong area.
Effects of grass intercropping on root physiology and morphology of olive seedlings under varying water conditions
SONG Jiacheng, JIAO Run'an, WANG Tian, JIAO Jian, LI Chaozhou
2020, 37(6): 1140-1149. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0490
[Abstract](2077) [FullText HTML] (922) [PDF 732KB](23)
In the present study, the effects of intercropping grasses on the physiology and morphology of olive roots were examined under different water conditions to provide scientific and feasible guidance for optimizing the grass pattern and strengthening the ecological management of olive orchards. The experiment used the 2-year-old Olea europaea variety "Arbequina" as the test material and divided the material into three groups, including planted Paspalum notatum and Trifolium repens and no grass treatment as the control. Different amounts of irrigation were used each time, including 300, 350, 400, 450, and 500 mL. After sampling, the physiological and morphological indexes of olive roots were measured. The results demonstrated that 1) intercropping with grass improved the root vigor, the active absorbing surface area, the ratio of the active absorbing surface area to the total absorbing surface area of the olive roots, and intercropping grasses reduced the superoxide anion production rate and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of olive root, increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), and the content of proline, soluble protein, and soluble sugar in the olive root, thus enhancing the root osmotic adjustment function; 2) intercropping grasses significantly improved the total root length, surface area, root volume, and root tip number of the olive roots, and the root average diameter indicated an increasing tendency when the two species of grasses were intercropped. Intercropping grasses could also increase root dry weight, shoot dry weight, and root-to-shoot ratio. Based on a comparison of these treatments, intercropping P. notatum with 450 mL of irrigation each time demonstrated the best growth and development of the olive roots.
Research progress on the AP2/ERF transcription factor in plants
GOU Yanli, ZHANG Le, GUO Huan, MA Hongping, BAO Aike
2020, 37(6): 1150-1159. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0440
[Abstract](5984) [FullText HTML] (3156) [PDF 513KB](134)
AP2/ERF (APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor), a transcription factor superfamily, is widely presented in plants, which contain 1-2 AP2/ERF domains consisting of approximately 60 amino acids. According to the number of AP2/ERF domains and the binding sequence, AP2/ERF can be divided into five subfamilies: AP2 (APETALA2), ERF (ethylene-responsive factor), DREB (dehydration-responsive element-binding protein), RAV (related to ABI3/VP1), and Soloist. This transcription factor family plays important roles in the regulation of plant growth and development as well as the response of plants to stress, including floral development, fruit and seed maturation, pathogen defense, drought and salinity responses, and so on. This review summarizes the recent research progress concerning the structure, classification, and biological function of the AP2/ERF transcription factor.
Analysis of the current research status of oats based on bibliometrics from 2010 to 2019
NIAN Lili, YANG Yingbo, YI Xianfeng, QI Lin, LIU Xuelu
2020, 37(6): 1160-1173. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0511
[Abstract](2821) [FullText HTML] (767) [PDF 1009KB](43)
Using the visualization software of CiteSpace, the current development and research issues concerning oats (Avena sativa) were explored by critically reviewing the publications from a 10-year period (2009–2019), which were collected from both the China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI, including Chinese core journals and CSCD) and Web of Science Core Collection of Science Citation Index Expanded Database (WOS). The results showed that, during the past 10 years, 1) there was an increasing trend concerning the publications on oats. Regarding the number of publications, the top five most productive countries were the United States, China, Canada, Brazil, and Poland, with the proportion of publications exceeding 8%; 2) the research topics and hotspots of oats are listed as follows: β-glucan, breeding, physicochemical properties, resistance, yield, and quality; 3) there were few studies concerning oat molecular marker-assisted and genetic engineering breeding, which will be a major task for domestic oat genetics and breeding workers in China; and 4) at present, research on the structure, properties, and extraction methods of oat-glucan needs to be more in-depth, and research on the mechanisms behind the physiological functions of oat-glucan should be strengthened in the future.
Effects of feeding straw emergency feed to sheep under extreme conditions in a pastoral area
SUN Weibo, ZHANG Liping, WANG Chunhui, ZHANG Changji, JIN Jipeng, WU Jianping
2020, 37(6): 1174-1182. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0496
[Abstract](1551) [FullText HTML] (836) [PDF 563KB](22)
This study investigated the effects on Gansu alpine fine-wool sheep when they were fed wheat straw type and corn straw type full-price granular feed as emergency feed during the livestock forage vacancy period. These feeds may affect the growth and development of the sheep when they are growing under the special climatic conditions found in alpine pastures. We selected 48 six-month-old growing Gansu alpine fine-wool sheep with similar body conditions. They were randomly divided into two experimental groups. These were experimental group Ⅰ (18 sheep, only fed wheat straw type full-price granular feed) and experimental group Ⅱ (17 sheep, only fed corn straw type full-price granular feed). Each sheep was fed 1.2 kg of feed per day in the two test groups. There was also a control group (13 sheep) where the sheep were fed oat grass and corn (Each sheep was fed 0.05 kg corn and 0.2 kg oat grass per day). The feeding trials lasted 16 days under house-feeding conditions. The results showed that the average daily test group Ⅱ weight gain was significantly higher than the weight gain recorded in the control group (P < 0.05). The total protein and globulin concentrations in the serum from test group Ⅱ were also significantly higher than in the control group serum (P < 0.05). The aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, and the albumin concentration in the serum from test group Ⅰ were significantly higher than in the control group serum (P < 0.05), but there were no differences between the test group Ⅱ and the control group (P > 0.05). The results showed using corn straw type full-price granular feed as the emergency feed produced better results than the traditional oat grass and whole-grain corn feed. The results also showed that the corn straw full price feed fully satisfied the nutritional needs of growing Gansu alpine fine-wool ewes during the growth and development period in the alpine pastures areas of Sunan, especially when there were forage vacancies and insufficiency periods.
Biological and ecological characteristics of Pardosa astrigera: Status and prospect
LI Min, LUO Fangzhen, LIU Jia, YUAN Minglong
2020, 37(6): 1183-1193. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0497
[Abstract](2005) [FullText HTML] (1056) [PDF 613KB](34)
Pardosa astrigera, one of the dominant species of farmland spiders in the Yangtze River and Yellow River basins, is an important natural predator of pests. Comprehensively understanding the bio-ecological characteristics of P. astrigera is a prerequisite for developing effective biological control agents. We reviewed the research status of P. astrigera and summarized the previous research concerning bio-ecological characterizations of P. astrigera, with a particular focus on the life history, predatory behavior, reproduction, and development, as well as the effects of environmental factors on the growth and development of P. astrigera. In the future, toxicity, predatism, ecological adaptation, population dynamics, and adaptive evolutionary mechanisms should be further explored, which will provide a theoretical basis for the protection and utilization of P. astrigera and integrated pest management.
Scenario simulation analysis of the livestock-carrying development potential of the feed utilization of straw resources in central Gansu Province
LUO Feng, ZHANG Haozhen, LIANG Xiaolong, JIANG Liwei, ZHAO Rongfang, CHEN Qiangqiang
2020, 37(6): 1194-1203. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0509
[Abstract](1612) [FullText HTML] (732) [PDF 705KB](17)
Using the scenario simulation analysis method, two scenarios were constructed : adjustments to the crop planting structure and straw feed utilization rate. Taking the agro-pastoral ecotone of Dingxi, Baiyin, Lanzhou, and Linxia in the central part of Gansu Province as an example, nine different schemes were used for an empirical study on the development potential and economic benefits of straw livestock. The results show that A3 + B3 was the optimal scheme as it had the largest straw carrying capacity, the development potential was as high as 1.31 million sheep units, and the economic benefit could reach 1.379 692 billion CNY. In addition, there was a significant difference in the livestock carrying capacity of the collected straw resources under different combinations of scenarios Ⅰ + Ⅱ. The difference between the optimal and worst (A1 + B1) schemes was 963 300 sheep units, and the livestock-carrying potential of straw resources is huge. The adjustments to the straw feed utilization rate (scheme B) had the greatest impact on the straw livestock carrying capacity. If the central region adjusts the crop planting structure and improves the utilization rate of straw feed, this will greatly improve the level of economic development in agricultural and pastoral areas and promote the integrated and circular development of agricultural and animal husbandry industries.
Quantitative analysis of nutrients in corn straw and wheat straw using near-infrared spectroscopy
GUO Tao, HUANG Youqin, LAN Guisheng, YAN Baipeng, LI Fadi, LI Fei
2020, 37(6): 1204-1214. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0446
[Abstract](3034) [FullText HTML] (1168) [PDF 920KB](47)
This study aimed to establish a near-infrared prediction model for corn straw and wheat straw by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). In total, 155 samples of corn straw and 135 samples of wheat straw were collected in the three provinces Gansu, Xinjiang, and Henan. A total of 124 corn stalks was used as calibration set, and 31 samples were used as verification set; 108 wheat straw samples were selected as calibration set, and 27 were used as verification set. Near-infrared prediction models of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, and ADL of corn straw and wheat straw were established by near-infrared spectroscopy combined with modified partial least squares and other stoichiometry methods. The results showed that 1) the average content of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, and ADL was 94.60%, 5.16%, 63.88%, 36.33%, and 3.32%, respectively, in corn straw and 95.35%, 3.42%, 77.31%, 46.59%, and 6.84%, respectively, in wheat straw; 2) the prediction model for CP content in corn straw and wheat straw showed an interactive verification coefficient (1−VR) of > 0.90, and the external verification determination coefficient (RSQ) was > 0.84, the constructed model can be used for accurate prediction; and 3) the 1−VR value of the calibration model for corn straw DM, NDF, and ADF and for wheat straw DM was > 0.80, which roughly predicts the nutrient content. The prediction results of other indicators were suboptimal, thus the respective model requires optimization. In summary, this study provides a theoretical basis for rapid prediction of nutrient content of corn straw and wheat straw in production practice, and we established a near-infrared prediction model through NIRS.