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2019 Vol.36(7)

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2019, 36(7): 1-4.
[Abstract](768) [FullText HTML] (415) [PDF 443KB](4)
Plant community characteristics of grazing grassland in a deer farm in summer
XIAO Xiang, LI Duocai, AN Yufeng, MA Zhouwen, WU Zhe, PENG Zechen, HOU Fujiang
2019, 36(7): 1693-1705. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0354
[Abstract](1546) [FullText HTML] (924) [PDF 1049KB](44)
In the summer pasture in the middle section of the northern slope of Qilian Mountain, the species diversity, functional group diversity, height, crown width and important values of alpine meadow and alpine shrub community under different topographical and different grazing intensities were analyzed. We found that: 1) with the increase in grazing intensity, the total species number was the highest under grazing, which is consistent with the " moderate disturbance hypothesis”. Under ‘shady slope’ conditions, the community functional diversity of light and moderate grazing was significantly higher than that of heavy grazing (P < 0.05). 2) The alpha diversity index was almost greatest in moderate grazing and the lowest in heavy grazing conditions of different topography. Under different grazing intensities, the valley had the highest species richness but the lowest Shannon-Wiener diversity index. 3) The plant height, crown width and important value of legume in light grazing on shady slope were the largest, the important values of Cyperaceae in valley and sunny slope increased with the increase of grazing intensity, the contrary in shady slope; the important value of Gramineae was the highest in middle grazing. The important value of Edible broadleaf increased with the increase of grazing intensity, and reached the maximum in the valley; the important value of Undesirable plant increased with the increase of grazing intensity, and there was the maximum value on the sunny slope.
Root distribution characteristics of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus community in Ulan Buh Desert
QI Kai, XIN Zhiming, ZHANG Jingbo, ZHU Yajuan
2019, 36(7): 1706-1715. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0544
[Abstract](1340) [FullText HTML] (860) [PDF 855KB](26)
The method of oven-drying and stratified digging was adopted to study the dry mass and length of roots of varied diameters of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus and its associated plants in the community, and the spatial differences in root distribution of different plants at different soil depths were analyzed in A. mongolica community in Ulan Buh desert.The results showed that there are four types of root systems based on their distribution depth for the seven plants in this community. The shrub A. mongolicus has the deepest root, which was mainly distributed in soil up to 120 cm. The root of two sub-shrubs, Artemisia xerophytica and A. ordosica, were mainly distributed within 80 cm and 70 cm depth, respectively. The root of the perennial herb Oxytropis neimonggolica was mainly distributed within 50 cm depth. Two perennial herbs, Jurinea mongolica and Allium mongolicum, and the annual herb Corispermum mongolicum have shallow root systems, which are mainly distributed within 30 cm, 20 cm, and 10 cm depth, respectively. The order of the maximal root depth was: A. mongolicus (160 cm) > A. xerophytica (130 cm) > A. ordosica (100 cm) > O. neimonggolica (80 cm) > J. mongolica (30 cm) > A. mongolicum (20 cm), and C. mongolicum (20 cm). Therefore, utilization of soil water in different soil depths is achieved through spatial differences in the distribution of roots having different diameters, which promotes the coexistence of species and improves plant diversity in A. mongolicus community.
Biomass allocation and growth analysis of Panicum virgatum ramets under two planting conditions in Songnen Plain
HU Zonghao, YANG Yunfei, LI Haiyan
2019, 36(7): 1716-1724. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0532
[Abstract](1513) [FullText HTML] (1026) [PDF 816KB](26)
Using a random sampling method, the plasticity and regularity of biomass allocation of ramets in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) planted in sandy and saline-alkaline soils were analyzed at the milk-ripe and wax-ripe stages. The results showed that differences in the plant height and aboveground biomass of switchgrass between the two planting conditions were extremely significant at both stages (P < 0.01). The average aboveground biomass of each component in the sandy soil was 2.08~3.32 and 1.60~1.97 times that in saline-alkaline soil at the milk-ripe and wax-ripe stages, respectively. Plant height, total biomass, and biomass of each component of ramets in the switchgrass increased with increasing ramet height and aboveground biomass, indicating an extremely linear isogonic or allometric growth of power and exponential functions under both planting conditions and at the two growth stages. The height growth and biomass allocation of switchgrass ramets show both great ecological plasticity and strong adjustability.
Study on root architecture characteristics of wild Lespedeza bicolor in flatland and sloped sites
WU Hongyan, ZHAO Qian, SONG Guilong, CAO Yuhai, HU Xingbo, ZHANG Lu, ZHANG Aibin
2019, 36(7): 1725-1733. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0174
[Abstract](1240) [FullText HTML] (619) [PDF 783KB](35)
Our objective was to study the root differences of Lespedeza bicolor under natural conditions in flatland and sloped sites, and to reveal the root changes and adaptive strategies of plants growing in different sites. The root distribution and fractal characteristics of two years old L. bicolor growing in flatland and sloped conditions (24°, 35°, 45°) in Jiufeng Forest Farm were compared by excavating whole root systems and using a Win-RHIZO root analysis system. 1) There were significant differences in the root distribution range and number of base roots growing in different directions between the four sites (P < 0.05). Root systems tended to occur in the surface layer in flatland sites, while vertical expansion of L. bicolor root systems tended to be enhanced in sloped sites. 2) Sloped sites had more significant effects on root biomass and root-shoot ratio than flatlands, and root biomass was the highest in 35° sloped sites. 3) The root depth-width ratio and root-shoot ratio of L. bicolor tended to increase with increasing slope. 4) Different site conditions had certain effects on the root architecture of L. bicolor. The changes in root length, root fractal dimension, and root abundance were consistent between the four site conditions, which showed as 35° > flatland > 45° > 24°. Root volume and root surface area differed between the sites (35° > 45° > flatland > 24°). The root length, root surface area, root volume, fractal dimension, and root abundance of L. bicolor were the highest in the 35° sloped sites and the root systems were more developed. The results show that different site conditions affect root morphogenesis in varying degrees, and plants form unique root adaptation strategies, which shows the plasticity of plant roots to adapt to heterogeneous environments.
Study of rhizome characters and endogenous hormones of Trifolium ambiguum at different growth stages
REN Yixiao, LI Xu, YI Kun, ZHANG Mingyu, HE Taotao, YIN Xiujie
2019, 36(7): 1734-1742. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0526
[Abstract](1272) [FullText HTML] (725) [PDF 891KB](20)
Caucasian clover (Trifolium ambiguum) is the only perennial grass with the roots of the genus Trifolium. It has developed underground roots and a strong clonal growth ability. Plant growth on the Caucasus clover was analyzed at the regreening, branching, flowering, and full-blossom stages in this experiment. The rhizome and endogenous hormone content in different parts of the root system were determined. The results showed that 1) plant height, branching number, bundle number, and rhizome amplitude all increased with the growth over the growth period; the ratio of the height to amplitude was approximately 1 at all four stages. 2) Among different growth stages, the root hormone content was highest at the full-flowering stage. Compared with the total amount of different hormones in the same growth period, the IAA content was highest at the regreening and flowering (2.88 and 6.25 μg·g–1, respectively). Compared to the total amount of different hormones in the same period, at the branching stage and full-blossom stages, the ABA content was highest (3.75 and 9.63 μg·g–1, respectively). 3) Barring the flowering stage, the contents of GA3, IAA, and ABA at the other three stages of swollen non-buds were higher than those of swollen buds. Three kinds of hormones reacted together to inhibit the burgeoning of rhizome buds in swollen parts. IAA in all three parts firstly decreased and then increased with the progress of growth period, while ZT was continuously increased. ABA content with swollen buds and horizontal roots followed an N-type trend (up-down-up). 4) GA3 was significantly positively correlated with branching number, as was ABA with amplitude, and bundle number; their correlation coefficients were 0.942, 0.899, and 0.813, respectively. This study is helpful to ascertain the characteristics of rhizome traits of the Caucasian clover, which gives a foundation for elucidation of the regulation mechanism of hormones and the occurrence of specific rhizome characteristics.
Differences in resistance to high temperature stress of 10 cold-season turfgrass varieties
ZHAO Na, XU Qingguo, SU Peng, LIANG Dongming, TANG Yao
2019, 36(7): 1743-1753. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0529
[Abstract](1145) [FullText HTML] (699) [PDF 574KB](26)
To screen the suitability of cold-season turfgrass varieties for Hunan and solve their problems associated with summer in Hunan, 10 cold-season turfgrass cultivars of six species adapting well and widely naturalized in Hunan were selected as research objects, namely, Festuca arundinacea, Festuca rubra, Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis, Trifolium repens, and Agrostis stolonifera. The changes in their turf characteristics; physiological and biochemical indicators of free proline, soluble sugar, chlorophyll, and malondialdehyde content; and leaf membrane lipid permeability at 25 ℃ (CK) and three stress-related high temperatures, 30 ℃, 35 ℃, and 40 ℃ were analyzed. The results showed no obvious differences in turf characteristics and physiological and biochemical indicators between the 10 cold-season turfgrass cultivars of the six species under high-temperature stress. The soluble sugar, malondialdehyde, and proline content in the leaves and leaf electric conductivity increased with increasing temperature. The chlorophyll content decreased with increasing temperature. According to the turf characteristics expressed in the field planting experiment and the physiological and biochemical index changes under high-temperature stress of the different cold-season turfgrass cultivars, their high-temperature resistance was concluded to be in the following order: Festuca arundinacea ‘Vegas’ > Festuca arundinacea ‘Barrera’ > Festuca rubra ‘Bridgeport II’ > Festuca arundinacea ‘Ikay’ > Trifolium repens ‘Koala’ > Poa pratensis ‘Barrister’ > Lolium perenne ‘Bartwingo’ > Lolium perenne ‘Accent’ > Poa pratensis ‘Wellow’ > Agrostis stolonifera ‘Regent’.
Comprehensive response of Medicago sativa when used to ecologically remediate a site in the eastern region of the Loess Plateau contaminated with different concentrations of oil
SONG Xi, WANG Jincheng, JING Mingbo, LIU Guangxiu, CHEN Tuo, WU Shengwei, ZHOU Tianlin
2019, 36(7): 1754-1764. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0533
[Abstract](1221) [FullText HTML] (748) [PDF 874KB](15)
In order to clarify the comprehensive response of Medicago sativa when used to ecologically remediate a site in eastern Gansu Province that contained oil-contaminated soil, a 3 month ecological site remediation program was implemented at the Sludge disposal station of a secondary oil production plant affiliated to the Petro china Changqing Oilfield Company. The growth responses and physiological indicators of Medicago sativa under stress at different total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) concentrations were determined. We found that plant height, root length, plant underground biomass, amount of TPH degrading bacteria, and the TPH degradation rate of Medicago sativa decreased as the TPH concentration increased (P < 0.05). The 7% TPH concentration significantly reduced the rhizosphere BCF index, but there were no significant differences between the 1% and 4% concentrations (P > 0.05). The activities of antioxidant enzymes showed a single hump-shaped tend, and the greatest antioxidant enzyme activity was observed when the TPH concentration was 5%. All the results indicated that the TPH concentration should not exceed 5% when Medicago sativa is used to ecologically remediate sites containing oil-contaminated soil in the eastern region of the Loess Plateau.
Spectral characteristics of main plant in Seriphidium transiliense desert grassland
WU Hongqi, FAN Yanmin, JIN Guili, XIA Xiaowei
2019, 36(7): 1765-1773. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0535
[Abstract](1267) [FullText HTML] (825) [PDF 1120KB](20)
The community composition of desert grassland in different regions is quite different. Using this difference to identify the constituent species and distinguish the community quickly and efficiently is worth studying. In this study, using a portable spectrometer, the spectral characteristics of community and plants were collected on two communities: Seriphidium transiliense + Petrosimonia sibirica (W community) and Seriphidium transiliense + Kochia prostrata (S community). By analyzing the spectral characteristics, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and ratio vegetation index (RVI), the feasibility of using spectral features and vegetation indices for vegetation classification was discussed. The results showed that the reflection characteristics indicated by the green band and absorption depth indicated by the red band of different plants were significantly different in May and September. The NDVI of S. transiliense was similar to that of Malcolmia maritima and Ceratocarpus arenarius. Affected by the seasonal phase, the RVI of species and community was significantly different in May; however, in September, the RVI differences between species and communities were not obvious, possibly owing to the influence of soil, which made it impossible to clearly distinguish species and communities based on RVI in this month. Therefore, RVI can be used to classify S. transiliense desert grassland composed of different species in May.
Effects of grassland fairy rings on vegetation and soil fungi
2019, 36(7): 1774-1780. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0512
[Abstract](1143) [FullText HTML] (752) [PDF 789KB](26)
Fairy rings are a unique ecological phenomenon caused by soil fungi. Through analyzing the influence of fairy rings on nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition supply to vegetation, physical and chemical properties of soil, and soil fungi structure, this paper aims to provide a theoretical basis for revealing soil fungi-fungi interaction. The results showed that the vegetation biomass, nitrogen content, and phosphorus content in the area above the fairy ring were significantly higher than those outside and inside the rings (P < 0.05). Soil physical and chemical properties of the three regions also changed significantly (P < 0.05). The analysis of the alpha-diversity index of the fungal community showed that the diversity index of soil fungi was significantly higher in the upper zone than in the outside zone (P < 0.05). Classification results showed that the relative abundances of Agaricaceae, Cystobasidiaceae, Davidiellaceae, and Nectriaceae in the upper zone were significantly higher than those in the outside area (P < 0.05). On the contrary, the relative abundance of fungi in Cystofilobasidiaceae, Chytridiaceae, and Cordycipitaceae was significantly lower in the upper zone than in the outside zone (P < 0.05). Correlation analysis showed that soil organic carbon and available phosphorus were important factors affecting the composition of soil fungi.
Variation analysis of different types of callus induced from immature inflorescences of Miscanthus sacchariflorus
ZHAO Haoyan, LIU Jianxiu, CHEN Jingbo, LI Jianjian, WANG Yi, WANG Kai, ZONG Junqin
2019, 36(7): 1781-1791. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0081
[Abstract](1415) [FullText HTML] (928) [PDF 779KB](32)
Miscanthus sacchariflorus is an excellent energy plant that originated in China, belonging to the genus Miscanthus of Gramineae. The immature inflorescences of the strongly salt-tolerant M. sacchariflorus accession collected from coastal saline-alkali soil were used as explants for callus induction in this study. To reveal the callus differentiation performance and plant regeneration ability of the different types of calli induced from immature inflorescences, the differences in callus induction, differentiation, rooting and, survival rate of seedlings were compared. A high frequency regeneration system of M. sacchariflorus was established based on this, which laid the foundation for the promotion, propagation, somatic cell screening, and genetic transformation of M. sacchariflorus germplasms. The optimum medium for callus induction was MS + 3.0 mg·L–1 2, 4-D + 0.1 mg·L–1 6-BA + 0.72 g·L–1 proline. Four types of callus could be induced by using immature inflorescences as explants, namely, yellow callus, white callus, purple-red callus, and transparent watery stain callus, with induction rate of 7.01%, 61.92%, 21.02%, and 9.72%, respectively. The optimal differentiation medium was MS + 2.0 mg·L–1 6-BA + 0.5 mg·L–1 NAA. The yellow, white, and purple-red calli were all embryonic, with differentiation rates of 93.16%, 90.60%, and 29.91%, respectively. When 1/2 MS + 0.5 mg·L–1 NAA was used as the rooting medium, the rooting rates of the regenerated plants derived from three types of callus tissue reached 100%. After seedling hardening-off, the regenerated plants were transplanted into pots filled with sterile vermiculite. All transplanted plants were still alive after 20 days. Here, we not only established an efficient regeneration system for M. sacchariflorus, but also clarified that all three types of calli (yellow, white, and purple-red), can be used for establishment of regeneration systems. However, the white callus was more easily obtained, and its differentiation rate was significantly higher than that of the purple-red callus, but there was no significant difference with the yellow callus. Therefore, the white callus is an ideal callus type for constructing an efficient regeneration system for M. sacchariflorus and is also the basis and prerequisite for the construction of efficient genetic transformation systems for germplasm improvement of M. sacchariflorus.
Progress in research on the seed-borne fungi of forage in China
GAO Chenxuan, NAN Zhibiao
2019, 36(7): 1792-1802. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0351
[Abstract](1206) [FullText HTML] (764) [PDF 530KB](33)
Seed-borne fungi can seriously affect the quality of forage seeds and is among the main factors limiting forage production. In this paper, methods used to isolate and detect seed-borne fungi in China in recent years are summarized and their different characteristics are described. The results of recent studies of fungi isolated from forage species and the pathogenicity of various fungi are reviewed. Currently, 50 genera of seed-borne fungi were isolated from 12 species of herbage. The pathogenic effects of seed-borne pathogenic fungi mainly included reducing the seed germination rate, inhibiting seedling growth, and reducing seedling biomass. The different conditions affecting seed-borne fungi under different environmental conditions, storage times, and seed parts are summarized. Finally, common seed treatment methods for effectively preventing and controlling seed-borne pathogenic fungi are summarized, and the different control effects were introduced. Suggestions are also provided for further studies on seed-borne fungi.
Effect of NaCl treatment on the anatomy of Lycium ruthenicum leaves
NI Qiang, MA Yanjun, YANG Wanpeng, YANG Yongyi
2019, 36(7): 1803-1810. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0170
[Abstract](1070) [FullText HTML] (657) [PDF 713KB](16)
The present study investigated the effects of NaCl treatment on the anatomy of Lycium ruthenicum leaves. The leaf anatomy was studied using paraffin sectioning, and the relationship between NaCl concentration and various anatomical parameters were analyzed. The results confirmed that L. ruthenicum is a typical salt-tolerant plant that possesses salt-resistant structures. With increasing NaCl concentration, the thickness of the leaves, palisade parenchyma and main veins increased, the thickness of the epidermis increased initially and then decreased, and the thickness of the spongy parenchyma decreased. When the NaCl concentration was 100 mmol·L–1, the thicknesses of the upper and lower epidermises and the cell tense ratio of the leaf after 15 days were 67.72 μm, 44.39 μm, and 29.90%, respectively, and after 30 days were 79.70 μm, 55.99 μm, and 33.54%, respectively. However, with increasing NaCl concentrations, the thickness of the upper and lower epidermises and the CTR decreased. Meanwhile, no significant or regular changes were observed in the other indicators. Therefore, L. ruthenicum can grow normally at NaCl concentrations below 100 mmol·L–1 but is adversely affected by higher concentrations.
Determination of nutritive value and analysis of the CNCPS contents in barley grass cultivated using a hydroponic system
HUANG Wanli, WANG Jianping, LIU Ning, BU Dengpan
2019, 36(7): 1811-1818. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0541
[Abstract](5219) [FullText HTML] (1087) [PDF 455KB](31)
The nutritive value of green barley grass (Hordeum vulgare) was investigated by sprouting barley grain in a still, hydroponic growing chamber for the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th days and then sampling it to determine the dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude ash (Ash), crude fat (EE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), starch, neutral detergent insoluble protein (NDIP), acidic detergent insoluble protein (ADIP), acidic detergent lignin (ADL), soluble protein (SOLP), and the non-protein nitrogen (NPN) contents. A simultaneous determination of minerals and the contents of 18 kinds of amino acids was also undertaken along with an analysis of the grain components using the Cornell net carbohydrate-protein system (CNCPS). The results showed that 1) the CP, NDF, ADF, NDIP, ADIP, SOLP, and NPN contents in the grain on the 7th day were significantly higher than on the 4th, 5th, and 6th days (P < 0.05); 2) the calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn), and iron (Fe) contents of the grain on the 7th day were significantly higher than on the 4th, 5th, and 6th days (P < 0.05); 3) the lysine (Lys), total amino acid (TAA), and essential amino acid (EAA) levels in the grain on the 7th day were significantly higher than on the 4th, 5th, and 6th days (P < 0.05); and 4) the medium speed degradation protein (PB2) contents in the grain on the 7th day were significantly higher than on the 5th, and 6th days (P < 0.05). The slow degradation protein (PB3) and non-degradable crude protein (PC) contents were significantly higher on the 7th day than on the 4th day (P < 0.05). The non-structural carbohydrate (CNSC) contents on the 7th day were significantly lower than on the 4th, 5th, and 6th days (P < 0.05). Finally, the available fiber (CB2) contents on the 7th day were significantly higher than on the 4th, 5th, and 6th days (P < 0.05). In summary, on the 7th day, barley grass had higher nutritional value than the other days and could be a high quality forage grass resource that can be used for herbivore development and nutrition.
Effect of seedbed types on seed germination and seedling growth of Epilobium fangii
HUANG Liu, FAN Xuan, LIU Jinping, YOU Minghong, ZENG Xiaolin
2019, 36(7): 1819-1825. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0012
[Abstract](1241) [FullText HTML] (785) [PDF 480KB](15)
Taking the seeds of the high-altitude plant Epilobium fangii as seeding material, five kinds of soil beds (meadow soil A, bactericidal meadow soil B, sandy soil, purple soil, and humus soil) and one paper bed were set up. The culture was carried out at a constant temperature of 18 ℃. The germination index was measured from 0~21 d after sowing: seedling traits were measured on the 30th day, and seedling survival was measured on the 40th day. The effects of seedbed type on seed germination and seedling growth were studied. The results showed that: 1) Seedbed type had a highly significant influence on seed germination (P < 0.01).The initial germination time in the meadow soil was the shortest, and germination rate and germination index both reached a maximum in the sand soil and paper bed, yet germination indices were lower in the purple soil and humus soil. 2) Seedbed types had a highly significant effect on seedling traits (P < 0.01). In the meadow soil A, seedling rate reached 98.33% and root-shoot ratio was the largest. Number of leaves, seedling height, and stem diameter in the sandy soil and purple soil were all lower than those in meadow soil, but higher than those in paper bed and humus soil. The seedling rate of humus soil was only 46.67%, in which seedlings were dwarfed. The root-shoot ratio of paper bed was the smallest. 3) Seedbed types had a highly significant influence on lodging rate, mortality, and seedling rate (P < 0.01). The lodging and mortality rates of paper bed and sand bed were the highest, yet the lowest lodging rate and 0 seedling rate were observed in the humus soil. The seedling rate in the purple soil was 2.01% and meadow soil A had the highest seedling rate. 4) The source soil was beneficial to seed germination, growth, and survival of E. fangii seedlings. The reasons for serious seedling lodging and death require further study.
Morphological characteristics of water stress in mixed or unicast seeding of Vicia sativa and Secale cereal in Tibet
WANG Fuqiang, XIANG Jie, WANG Liwei, YU Chengqun, SHEN Zhenxi, SHAO Xiaoming
2019, 36(7): 1826-1836. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0498
[Abstract](1146) [FullText HTML] (827) [PDF 952KB](20)
In this study, the effects of different degrees of water stress on mixed or unicast forage grasses were simulated by using annual grazing peas and green wheatgrass, and the responses of morphological characteristics to water stress were preliminarily investigated. The results showed that after 16 days of water stress, the soil moisture content of a pea (Vicia sativa) unicast was significantly higher than those of other mixed treatments and rye (Secale cereal) unicast (P < 0.05). Water stress affected the growth and development of forage grass, inhibited the leaf length and width of pea, and inhibited the leaf width of rye, but had little effect on the leaf length of rye. Additionally, water stress promoted root elongation. The root length of peas reached a maximum at 20 days after water stress (part of the treatment was the end of stage stress when drought causes plant death), and the root length of unicast pea was the longest (37.83 cm). The change in root length in rye was similar to that in pea. The root length of rye in JL1 (pea 25% + rye 75%) was 60.5 cm, which was significantly higher than those after other mixed treatments (P < 0.05). The drought resistance coefficient of the plant height and leaf length width was less than 1, and the root drought resistance coefficient was greater than 1, which inhibits plant growth aboveground, while the elongation and growth of underground roots were promoted. In this study, comprehensive evaluation of the drought resistance of pea and rye by the membership function method showed that the unicast pea has the strongest drought resistance, and the 3 proportionally mixed sowing designs exhibited no obvious drought resistance advantage when compared with the unicast.
Effects of salt and alkali stress on biomass and nitrogenous compounds of Kochia sieversiana
TIAN Haoran, YANG Ao, LIU Hangshuo, HE Liuguijie, ZHAO Hang, MA Ying
2019, 36(7): 1837-1842. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0510
[Abstract](1102) [FullText HTML] (596) [PDF 692KB](15)
Seedlings of Kochia sieversiana were exposed to salt stress and alkali stress treatments. Differences in nitrogenous compound accumulation in K. sieversiana under salt and alkali stress were investigated by determining and analyzing the changes in biomass and contents of nitrogenous compounds, among other factors. The results showed that treatment with both salt and alkali stress inhibited the biomass accumulation of K. sieversiana, with the inhibition effects of alkali stress being more serious than those of salt stress. Contents of nitrogenous compounds, such as NO3-N, NH4+-N, proline, and betaine, among others, in K. sieversiana shoots were affected by increasing duration of salt and alkali stress. The effects of alkali stress was more severe than those of salt stress. Therefore, alkali stress strongly disturbs nitrogen metabolism in K. sieversiana. The regulation mechanism of nitrogen metabolism in K. sieversiana in response to alkali stress is extremely complex and requires further analysis.
Comparison of production performance and nutritional value of 16 oat varieties in Yellow River Beach area
LOU Chunhua, WANG Bo, LI Defeng, ZHU Xiaoyan, QI Shengli, WANG Chengzhang
2019, 36(7): 1843-1851. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0536
[Abstract](1716) [FullText HTML] (666) [PDF 508KB](27)
The objective of this study was to explore the production performance and nutritional quality of 16 oat varieties planted in spring in the Yellow River Beach area using a complete random block design. The comprehensive evaluation was carried out using the grey correlation analysis to select oat varieties with high yield and superior quality that are suitable for popularizing the area. The test results were as follows: 1) There were significant differences in plant height (%), effective tiller number, hay yield, fresh/dry ratio, grain yield, and stem/leaf ratio among the different oat varieties (P < 0.05). The plant height, tiller number, and hay yield of Helios were the highest at 111.7 cm, 4.38 per plant, and 11.79 t·hm–2, respectively. The fresh/dry ratio of Baler Ⅱ was the lowest. The effective tiller number of ESK was the highest while its stem /leaf ratio was the lowest (0.69). 2) There were significant differences in crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and ether extract among the different oat varieties (P < 0.05). The crude protein of Sweety was the highest (17.33%). The Helios and Jiayan2 varieties had the lowest content of neutral and acid detergent fiber (35.80% and 27.22%, respectively). The ether extract content of ESK was the highest (9.94%). The result of the grey correlation comprehensive analysis showed that ESK, Baler, Hewang, Helios and Sweety showed excellent performance and were suitable for popularizing and planting in the Yellow River Beach area of Henan Province.
Nutrient release regulation of stubble in the Italian ryegrass–rice rotation (IRR) system
HE Hongbin, ZHANG Yuwei, CHENG Junkang, ZHANG Ying, LI Junnian, XIN Guorong
2019, 36(7): 1852-1860. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0130
[Abstract](1127) [FullText HTML] (592) [PDF 758KB](17)
The dynamic release of nutrients from rice (Oryza sativa) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) stubble was studied to explore the soil fertilization mechanisms in the Italian ryegrass–rice rotation (IRR) system. The results showed that the fastest degradation of rice and Italian ryegrass stubble occurred during the first 30 days: 19.12% of rice stubble and 38.89% of Italian ryegrass stubble degraded during this period. The degradation rate of rice stubble showed a tendency of first decrease and then increase with the change in air temperature. The degradation rate of Italian ryegrass stubble decreased significantly at an increasing temperature in summer. The release rate of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in Italian ryegrass was significantly faster than that of rice (P < 0.05) during the rotation period. The release rate of calcium and magnesium in rice was significantly faster than that of Italian ryegrass (P < 0.05). Soil analysis before and after degradation showed that the total nitrogen content of rice degraded soil was significantly higher than that of the control soil (before degradation) (P < 0.05). The total nitrogen content of Italian ryegrass degraded soil was the highest, and significantly higher than after rice degradation (P < 0.05). Soil total phosphorus content decreased with the degradation of rice and Italian ryegrass stubble, but there was no significant difference with the pre-degradation content (P > 0.05). Soil total potassium content increased after the rice stubble degradation (P < 0.05) but decreased after the Italian ryegrass stubble degradation (P < 0.05). The results demonstrate the nutrient release mechanisms of two kinds of stubble and their effect on the soil nutrient content during rice and Italian ryegrass rotation. This study can provide theoretical support for fertilization methods in the Italian ryegrass–rice rotation system.
Effect of biogas slurry on the growth performance and quality of king grass in the overwintering period
LIN Hongling, HAN Jiancheng, JIANG Hanqing, ZHANG Hualin, JIA Rumin, Wang Chun, ZHOU Hanlin, JIANG Yang, LI Hailiang, CHEN Yonghui, ZHANG Qiuyan
2019, 36(7): 1861-1868. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0506
[Abstract](1054) [FullText HTML] (598) [PDF 607KB](12)
A single factor design was used to treat king grass (Pennisetum sinese) with different fertilizers, sheep manure biogas slurry (A1), urea (A2), and no fertilizer (CK), to study the effect of biogas slurry on the production performance and quality of king grass in Leizhou peninsula in winter. The results showed that the fresh / dry ratio of grass in the A1 and A2 groups was significantly improved. The fresh / dry ratio of group A1 was 3.17 / 3.84, which was significantly lower than that of the other treatments (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between the A2 and CK groups (P > 0.05). The plant height and growth rate of group A1 were higher than those of the A2 and CK groups (P < 0.05). The stem / leaf ratio was not significantly different in the A1, A2, and CK groups (P > 0.05). The crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) of group A1 were significantly higher than those of the A2 and CK groups (P < 0.05). The content of crude ash (Ash), crude fibre (CF), and nitrogen free extract (NFE) showed a significantly decreasing trend in the A1 and A2 groups compared to that in the control group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the application of sheep manure biogas slurry can effectively increase the production performance and improve nutrition quality of overwinter king grass.
Comparison of carcass and meat quality among three different types of Tibetan sheep
ZHOU Wenjing, YUAN Zehu, LI Xicheng, GUO Shuzhen, LAN Guisheng, YAN Baipeng, LI Fadi, LI Wanhong, YUE Xiangpeng
2019, 36(7): 1869-1878. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0585
[Abstract](2781) [FullText HTML] (648) [PDF 588KB](28)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the slaughtering performance, meat quality, and muscle fatty acid composition of three different types of Tibetan sheep in Gannan, Gansu Province, which will provide a theoretical basis for the improvement of meat quality and breeding of fine varieties of Tibetan mutton. A total of 18, 3-year old Oula, Ganjia, and Qiaoke Tibetan sheep (6 individuals for each type) were slaughtered to measure their slaughter performance, meat quality, and muscle fatty acid. The results showed that 1) The slaughter performance, body weight, carcass weight, slaughter rate, leaf fat, leaf fat / carcass weight, back fat thickness, small intestine weight / body weight, rumen net weight / body weight, thigh muscle thickness, lumbar muscle thickness and left forequarter bone weight / carcass weight of three types Tibetan sheep were extremely significantly different (P < 0.01). The eye muscle area, carcass length, kidney weight / carcass weight of Oula sheep was higher than that of Ganjia sheep (P < 0.05). The left trunk muscle weight /carcass weight of Ganjia and Qiaoke sheep was higher than Oula sheep (P < 0.05). The left posterior bone weight / carcass weight of Ganjia sheep was higher than Qiaoke sheep (P < 0.05). 2) There were significant differences in lightness, yellowness and ΔE among the three different types of Tibetan sheep (P < 0.05). The water loss of the longissimus dorsi of Oula and Qiaoke sheep was much greater than that of Ganja sheep (P < 0.01). The muscle pH45 min of Ganja sheep was much greater than that of Oula and Qiaoke sheep (P < 0.01). 3) There was no significant difference in dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, and crude ash content in the different types of Tibetan sheep muscles (P > 0.05). 4) The muscle fatty acid C18:0, C18:2 trans, C18:2 cis and C18:3 of Oula sheep were significantly higher than in Qiaoke sheep (P < 0.05). The C20:5 of the muscle fatty acids of Oula and Ganja Tibetan sheep was extremely significantly higher than that of the Qiaoke sheep (P < 0.01). From the above, the slaughter rate of Oula and Ganjia Tibetan sheep is better than that of Qiaoke, but the left muscle and left bone of Ganjia sheep were better, and there was no significant difference in the nutrient content of muscles of the three types of Tibetan sheep. In addition, the content of saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids in Oula muscle was higher than that of Qiaoke and Ganja sheep.
Effects of Pennisetum purpureum and Pennisetum sinese proportions on in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics of goats
WU Zhengmin, FAN Chaojie, LI Longwen, YANG Shanxiong, LIU Juan, WANG Zhijing, WU Haohao, ZHAO Zhihui, YIN Fuquan
2019, 36(7): 1879-1889. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0465
[Abstract](1096) [FullText HTML] (642) [PDF 530KB](20)
The effects of different proportions of Pennisetum purpureum (PP) and Pennisetum sinese (PS) on rumen fermentation characteristics in Leizhou goats were studied using an in vitro gas production technique. Results of this study will provide references for the production of formula feed in South China. According to the dry substance ratio, PP and PS were mixed in ratios of 100∶0, 75∶25, 50∶50, 25∶75, 0∶100 and separated into groups T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. Samples in groups T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 were cultured for 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours, respectively. Triplicates were used for each group and three blank controls were used for each time point. Microbial fermentation stopped at the end of the culturing period. We determined organic matter degradability (OMD) and crude fibre degradability (CFD) in fermentation residue. We also measured acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid concentrations and acetic acid and propionic acid ratios in fermentation liquor. The single factor associative effects index (SFAEI) and multiply factors associative effects index (MFAEI) were calculated. Results showed that OMD increased gradually as PS increased in every group, with markedly higher increases observed for T3, T4 and T5 groups relative to the T1 group (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed for in vitro fermentation after 48 hours for T3 and T4 groups (P > 0.05). CFD showed no significant differences between T3 and T4 groups and T1 and T5 groups at 48 hours of fermentation (P > 0.05). OMD and CFD significantly increased from 12 to 48 h of in vitro fermentation in each group (P < 0.05). After 48 hours, the proportion of acetic acid in T4 was significantly lower than in other groups (P < 0.05). The proportion of propionic acid was significantly higher than in T2 after 48 hours (P < 0.05), while no significant difference was observed for T3 (P > 0.05). The proportion of butyric acid in T4 was significantly higher than that of other groups (P < 0.05). Additionally, the ratios of acetic acid and propionic acid in T3 and T4 ranged from 2.71 to 3.50 after 8 to 48 h of fermentation are normal levels. The highest observed MFAEI was 1.68, which occurred when proportion of PP and PS was 25∶75. In conclusion, the optimal ratio of PP and PS was determined to be 25∶75.
Analysis of stretched film-wrapped silage oat forage for feeding young sheep in winter
GANG Yonghe, ZHANG Haibo, DU Jiang, NIU Yong, GANG Fuxin
2019, 36(7): 1890-1896. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0693
[Abstract](1836) [FullText HTML] (821) [PDF 649KB](53)
In order to promote the technology of wrap-covered silage in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and improve the utilization level of oat forage, 40 Qinghai Oula sheeps aged 5 to 6 months were selected in winter and divided into two groups, 20 in each group, with the same supplementary feed. On the basis of feeding, the stretched film-wrapped silage oat forage and oatmeal green hay for 51 days showed that the crude protein, crude fat, and ash content of the wrapped silage oat forage reached 9.09%, 2.91%, and 6.55%, respectively (increases of 94.23%, 95.30%, and 31.53%, respectively). The crude fiber and nitrogen-free extracts comprised 35.27% and 46.18%, which were 11.14% and 6.06% lower than the oat-green hay, respectively; The average daily forage intake and crude protein intake of wrapped silage oat forage was 3.55 kg·d–1 and 88.81 g·d–1, respectively, which is 130.52% and 33.65% higher than those of oat green hay (P < 0.01); the daily gain reached 197.35 g·d–1, and the average profit was 87.13 CNY, which was 40.96% (P < 0.01) and 127.91% higher than that of oat green hay, respectively. The cost of raising weight was 11.35 CNY·kg–2, which was 29.07% lower than that of oat hay. The results show that oat forage could increase crude protein content, retain nutritional quality of green forage, improve palatability, increase feed and digestive absorption, reduce breeding costs, increase meat and milk yield of herbivorous animals and raise economic benefits of breeding by wrapping silage with stretch film, which is worthy of popularization and application in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
A preliminary study on amino acid nutrition requirements of lactating yak grazing in a warm season pasture in alpine meadows
WANG Hucheng, ZHAO Zhiwei, ZHOU Enguang
2019, 36(7): 1897-1907. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0493
[Abstract](1240) [FullText HTML] (855) [PDF 507KB](27)
In order to investigate the amino acid (AA) nutrition requirements of lactating yak during grazing, it was determined that the AA content in edible forage and yak blood, hair coat, milk, and feces, and the correlation between them. Three lactating Tianzhu white yaks were selected from a warm season pasture(August) and blood, hair coat, milk, and fecal samples were collected. In addition, the edible forage samples were also collected from the grazing pasture. Three major results were observed. 1) The concentration of total AA (TAA) was 1 257.06, 9 007.87, 8 752.68, 1 318.36 mg·kg–1, and 499.58 mg·L–1 in forage, blood, hair coat, feces, and milk, respectively. The ratios of essential AA (EAA) to TAA were close to 40% and EAA/non-essential AA (NEAA)(E/N) was more than 60% in edible forage. 2) The correlation was significant between AA in forage and AA in blood, milk, hair coat, and feces (P < 0.05); it was significantly correlated with the AA content in the forage and in blood, yak milk, and hair coat (P < 0.05); Further, there were negative correlations between some the content of AA in blood and in hair coat (P < 0.05). 3) The yak milk AA, had a relatively lower score of Lys and His (81.96% and 84.52%) in the edible forage; the yak hair coat AA had a lower score of Cys + Met and Arg (37.83% and 46.39%); and the yak blood AA, had a lower score of His, Arg, Leu, and Lys (35.69%, 73.31%, 76.65%, and 77.25%). In summary, the warm season pasture of alpine meadows could provide high-quality forage for lactating yak. Meanwhile, the nutrition management in the area of lactating yak, should be paid more attention to Lys, His, Arg, Cys, and Met deficiencies. If not, it may lead to poor health and inefficient production in yaks.
Effects of wavelengths and standard products on the analysis of isoflavone content in red clover
LI Yongsheng, LIN Yonghe, YANG Qin, LIU Quan
2019, 36(7): 1908-1914. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0466
[Abstract](942) [FullText HTML] (602) [PDF 697KB](22)
Red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavones exhibit many medicinal and health food functions and are widely used as phytoestrogens in clinical practice. Accurate quantification of isoflavones is of great importance for their further study and application. The four major isoflavones are biochanin A, formononetin, genistein, and daidzein, which are usually used as standard products for quantitative determination of isoflavones. However, scientific selection of standard products and their effects on the determination results have not been reported. In this study, the effects of different wavelengths on isoflavone content in red clover were studied using these four chemical constituents as standard products. The experimental results showed highly significant differentiation of content under different wavelengths and by the use of different standards (P < 0.05). Based on the results, the four isoflavones could be divided into two groups, the FD group (formononetin and daidzein) and the BG group (biochanin A and genistein). The inter-group differences were highly significant (P < 0.05), whereas the intra-group differences were small. The differences may be primarily caused by the compatibility of compounds with red clover UV absorption, and were not closely related to the content of compounds. The UV absorption curve for biochanin A and genistein was close to the slope of the red clover extract at 275 nm. Therefore, it is suggested that these two compounds can be used as standards to determine isoflavone content at 275 nm. In addition, this study showed that the difference in the content of isoflavones was so small that the four standards were all used in semi-quantitative or qualitative comparisons.
Spatiotemporal evolution of China’s silage corn industry and the factors driving its development
NI Yinfeng, WANG Mingli
2019, 36(7): 1915-1924. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0516
[Abstract](1143) [FullText HTML] (598) [PDF 591KB](36)
To promote the better implementation of the ‘Changing Grain to Forage’ pilot program, the coordinated development of the agricultural planting structure from the ‘food + economy’ dual structure into the ‘food + economy + forage’ ternary structure is needed. In this study, the silage corn industry in China was used as an example of this development process, and comprehensive models and methods, such as industrial concentration assessment, center of gravity models, and exploratory spatial data analysis, were used to analyze the characteristics of its spatial and temporal evolution and the driving factors behind this. The results showed that the degree of agglomeration of China’s silage corn industry became very high from 2001 to 2016, with an obvious three-staged pattern in its development through time. The industrial center of gravity was found to be relatively stable, and industrial development has occurred in a spatially unbalanced manner. From a global perspective, there a positive spatial autocorrelation was found in the production of silage corn, which is thus spatially agglomerated. At the local scale, there is was significant regularity, in which production was agglomerated densely in the north and sparsely in the south, and the positive agglomeration of production tended to increase at the local scale. The spatiotemporal patterns in the evolution of the silage corn industry in China have been less strongly affected by natural resource conditions, while policies, economic benefits, market fluctuations, and agricultural science and technology have been the main drivers affecting the spatiotemporal evolution of the industry. The development of the silage corn industry in China and its spatial and temporal evolution has also been closely related to the development of the dairy industry.
Application of DeltaGen in plant breeding
MA Tiantian, LUO Dongwen, JAHUFER Mohamed zain zulfiqhar, LUO Kai, LI Jie, ZHANG Jiyu
2019, 36(7): 1925-1934. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0663
[Abstract](1393) [FullText HTML] (898) [PDF 946KB](35)
DeltaGen is a comprehensive breeding analysis tool developed by the AgResearch Grasslands in New Zealand. It provides breeders with an integrated service from experimental design to statistical analysis and generate a statistical analysis report. In addition, DeltaGen can calculate the genetic gain of each trait in the selection cycle and simulate the breeding process to calculate the breeding cost. DeltaGen is currently the only statistical analysis software designed for plant breeders, which is easy to learn and free to open for users. Firstly, this article compares DeltaGen with other commonly used softwares to illustrate its main advantages; secondly, introduces the main menu and basic functions of DeltaGen; finally shows the methods and steps of using DeltaGen with specific examples, which shows that DeltaGen can provide comprehensive solutions for breeders in plant breeding, shorten breeding cycle, reduce blindness and save a lot of resources.