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2017 Vol.34(2)

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2017, 11(2): 216-216.
[Abstract](554) [PDF 369KB](470)
Research of soil aggregate stability in different degradation stages of Songnen grassland
Shuai Chen, Tao Sun
2017, 11(2): 217-223. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0170
[Abstract](934) [FullText HTML] (68) [PDF 570KB](306)
Due to the combined effects of overuse by humans and climate changes, the Songen grassland is rapidly degrading, and the influence on soil structure and function have become a serious issue. In this study, four grassland communities (Leymus chinensis, Chloris virgata, Puccinellia distans, and Suaeda glauca communities) were selected as representatives of different degradation stages. To reveal the effect of degradation on soil structure and anti-erodibility, samples of vegetation, soil profiles, and surface soil were taken to the laboratory, where community characteristics, soil properties, and soil aggregate stability were analysed. Vegetation biomass, diversity index, and vegetation coverage generally declined with succession of degradation. Soil moisture, organic matter, and total N decreased, while pH and soil bulk density increased; the soil pH value of every stage of degradation was above 8.0. The size classes of water-stable soil aggregates had a trend such that the proportion of micro-aggregates increased, while the proportions of macro-aggregates and soil aggregate stability decreased. Within one degradation stage, soil aggregate stability decreased with increased soil depth in layers 0-10 cm to 20-30 cm. The results revealed the effects of the Songen grassland degradation on soil aggregate stability and have implications for the restoration of degraded grasslands.
Characteristics of soil microbial respiration and its response to temperature change in different soil depths in Yunwu Mountain grassland
Hao Zhang, Cheng-long Ye, Yi Wang, Hui Guo, Shui-jin Hu
2017, 11(2): 224-230. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0278
[Abstract](929) [FullText HTML] (89) [PDF 850KB](247)
Soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity are two important parameters to predict carbon cycling. In the Loess Plateau region, however, soil microbial respiration and its temperature sensitivity at different soil depths have not been investigated. This study focused on the characteristics of soil microbial respiration and temperature sensitivity at different soil depths, by taking advantage of a typical grassland in the Yunwu Mountain Natural Conservation area of the Loess Plateau, which has been fenced for 30 years. In this study, soils were sampled from different soil layers (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-50, and 50-60 cm) and incubated at 25 ℃ or 35 ℃, and the changes of soil respiration were examined. We found that soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, total phosphorus, microbial biomass carbon, and microbial nitrogen contents decreased significantly with increasing soil depth (P<0.05). In addition, soil respiration rate and cumulative C loss by respiration at both temperatures significantly decreased with increasing incubation period and soil depth (P<0.05). However, temperature sensitivity showed an increasing trend with increasing soil depth. Redundancy analysis showed that soil respiration rate was positively correlated with soil properties, while temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was negatively correlated with all soil factors.
Infection characteristics and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere of Inula japonica in Songnen saline-alkaline grassland
Chun-xue Yang, Shou-chen Huang, Fei Chen, Li-li Li
2017, 11(2): 231-239. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0175
[Abstract](817) [FullText HTML] (35) [PDF 2271KB](273)
In order to inspect the infection characteristic and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the rhizosphere of Inula japonica in the Songnen saline-alkaline grassland in Zhaodong, Heilongjiang Province, roots and rhizosphere soil of I. japonica were collected from the southwest part of the grassland in July 2015. All roots, despite different soil pH levels, were infected by AM fungi. The infection rate reached 100% at pH 8.76, when the abundance of arbuscules and vesicles also reached maximums of 75.67% and 74.32% respectively. When the soil pH was 8.71, the infection rate was 85%, and the abundance of arbuscules and vesicles were at their lowest levels. 37 AM fungal species from 8 genera were isolated by mor-phological analysis. The 21 species belonging to Glomus accounted for 56.7% of all species, making Glomus the dominant genus; G. intraradices and G. etunicatum were the most common species. There were 6 species of Acaulospora (16.2% of all species), 3 species of Scutellospora (8.1% of all species), 2 species of each Pacispora and Entrophospora (each 5.4% of all species), and 1 species of each Gigaspora, Pacispora, and Entrophospora (each 2.7% of all species).
Effects of planting Italian ryegrass in winter fallow fields on soil fertility and microorganisms
Wei-yan Qiao, Hong-ru Gu, Yi-xin Shen
2017, 11(2): 240-245. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0142
[Abstract](787) [FullText HTML] (39) [PDF 473KB](195)
Soil physical properties are important indicators of the potential for agricultural production, and different tillage methods affect the richness and numbers of soil microorganisms. The experiment was carried out to study the effects of a ryegrass-rice rotation on soil fertility and microorganisms. When Italian ryegrass was planted in a winter fallow rice field, the content of soil organic matter was increased by 8.5% and the amount of total nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in the soil were increased by 8.22%, 7.58%, and 14.96%, respectively. The populations of aerobic bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in the soil were increased by 13.03%, 3.22%, and 4.16%, respectively. Therefore, a ryegrass-rice rotation can not only provide large quantity of animal feed, but also improve soil features and increase crop yields.
A Trichoderma longibrachiatum strain with antagonistic effects against three soil-borne pathogenic fungi
Yuan Chang, Xing-tang Yang, Chuan-ying Jiang, Zhi-hong Yao, Rang Jia, Long-hui Ren, Rong-shu Zhang
2017, 11(2): 246-254. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0234
[Abstract](1094) [FullText HTML] (62) [PDF 1676KB](256)
To enrich the microbial resources of Trichoderma spp. for biocontrol, a dominant Trichoderma strain was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a landscape plant, Sedum spectabile Boreau. The isolated Trichoderma strain was identified using colonial-and micro-morphological observations, ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence alignment, and homology analysis using a Neighbour-Joining method. An agar disk diffusion method was used to investigate the antagonism between the isolated Trichoderma strain and three other soil-borne pathogenic fungi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Alternaria alternata. The tissue-cultured plantlets of Populus davidiana×P. alba var. Pyramidalis were further inoculated with the isolated Trichoderma strain and the resistance of the inoculated seedling leaves against A. alternata was evaluated in vitro. The results demonstrated that the isolated Trichoderma strain was Trichoderma longibrachiatum and it exhibited evident and differential antagonistic effects against each of the three tested soil-borne pathogenic fungi. We designated the isolated Trichoderma strain as Tl-70. The antifungal activity of Tl-70 against S. sclerotiorum was a 77.71% inhibition, which was the highest and significantly higher than that against R. solani or A. alternata (P<0.05). The antifungal activity against R. solani was a 58.56% inhibition, and significantly higher than that against A. alternata (P<0.05, 53.32%), which was the lowest of the three tested strains. Moreover, inoculation with Tl-70 enhanced the disease resistance of the leaves of tissue-cultured Populus davidiana×P. alba var. Pyramidalis seedlings against the pathogen A. alternata. Our results suggest that Tl-70 is a potential biocontrol strain.
Dynamics and driving forces of landscape patterns in Mu Us Sandy Land, from 1990 to 2014
Juan Liu, Hua-min Liu, Yi Zhuo, Dong-wei Liu, Li-xin Wang
2017, 11(2): 255-263. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0258
[Abstract](896) [FullText HTML] (76) [PDF 2311KB](237)
Land use is affected by climate and human activities, which in turn affects the landscape pattern. In this study, we combined 3S technology and landscape index to investigate the land use and landscape pattern change characteristics of Mu Us Sandy Land, a semi-arid area of China, in 25 years (1990, 1995, 2002, 2008, and 2014), select climate and human activities 10 factors analysing driving force. The results showed that the area of fixed sandy land increased by 7.5%, semi-fixed sandy land increased by 3.8%, shifting sandy area decreased by 47.8%, the rate of farmland increased by 4.6%, surface water and low-wet land were essentially the same, and the urban construction area increased. Fixed sandy land mainly by semi-fixed sandy land and shifting sandy land changed from; increased semi-fixed sandy land mainly by shifting sandy land and fixed sandy land changed from; the reduced shifting sandy land mainly changed into fixed and semi-fixed sandy land. Landscape structure became complex, the total number of patches and landscape fragmentation indices increased, and the change in each type of patch number and isolation indices are very significantly. Climate change and human activities are the two driving forces for the change in land use. Human factors include population, GDP, gross out of farming, forestry, animal husbandry and per capita net income of peasant & herdsman. The contribution of climate to the change in land use is not significant.
Research on relationship between vegetation cover fraction and vegetation index based on flexible spatiotemporal data fusion model
Jie Wang, Wei-peng Li
2017, 11(2): 264-272. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0256
[Abstract](960) [FullText HTML] (113) [PDF 6661KB](302)
The spatiotemporal data fusion model has been widely used to obtain high temporal and spatial resolution vegetation indexes and vegetation cover fractions, but its accuracy is often affected by low spatial resolution images [e.g., moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images]. This study design was based on the flexible spatiotemporal data fusion model (FSDAF), and investigated the effects of three different MODIS image pairs of the FSDAF model for vegetation cover fraction extraction in arid region of China. Furthermore, the linear and non-linear relationships between six vegetation indexes and vegetation cover fractions were investigated. The results showed that the retrieval accuracy of the vegetation cover fraction of FSDAF simulated images depended on the rate of change of the MODIS images in two periods. In addition, the accuracy of the image with a slight change was significantly higher than that of the image with a great difference. When vegetation indexes were used to simulate the vegetation cover fraction, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and green NDVI (GNDVI) linear fitting methods produced better results than other methods did, and provided the ideal results. The experimental results showed that the FSDAF model could be used to determine the retrieval of vegetation cover in arid area, and it had a good effect and applicability.
The responses of Pa, SPI, and SPEI to dry climate in alpine meadows of eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
Xin-lai Zhao, Wen-long Li, Guo Xulin, Cui Yu, Yu-ting Zhao, Jing Xu
2017, 11(2): 273-282. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0187
[Abstract](1090) [FullText HTML] (113) [PDF 1658KB](287)
Using precipitation and temperature data from 33 meteorological stations around Gannan in 1965-2013, the percentage of precipitation anomalies (Pa), standardized precipitation index (SPI), and standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) were calculated. To select a suitable index to describe dry climatic factors in alpine meadows, we analysed the response of these indexes to drought. In addition, verification was conducted by comparing historical disaster statistics with the drought indexes. The correlation analysis of SPI, SPEI, and Pa with grassland normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) showed that the reaction of Pa, SPI1, SPEI1, SPI3, and SPEI3 to precipitation was too sensitive; however, SPI12 and SPEI12 were slightly hysteretic. SPI6 and SPEI6 were both well suited to quantitatively evaluating the dry climatic factors in this area. Based on historical statistics, two drought indexes were somewhat better. These results provide effective data in support of further research on drought risk analysis in alpine grasslands.
Progress of the research on invasive plant species Eupatorium adenophorum over the last decade
Xia-xia Li, Qin-di Zhang, Xun-zhi Zhu
2017, 11(2): 283-292. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0194
[Abstract](1207) [FullText HTML] (155) [PDF 660KB](478)
Eupatorium adenophorum is the most invasive weed in China and has caused enormous losses to agriculture, the livestock industry, and the environment. This review focuses on E. adenophorum biological characteristics, invasion mechanisms, ecological effects of invasions, and controls and utilizations, and summarizes the progress of research on E. adenophorum over the past decade. We review reproduction and phenological characteristics of E. adenophorum, which illuminates the physiological factors that could benefit its expansion. Then, we summarize the molecular, biological, and chemical mechanisms of E. adenophorum invasion, and clarify its effect on microorganisms and soil biological and chemical properties. We summarize the research on controls, replacements, and utilizations of E. adenophorum. This paper also points out that research on the mechanism of allelopathic degradation and the relationship between allelochemicals and the microbial community should be strengthened, and the utilization value of E. adenophorum should be explored. The importance of studies on population establishment and community succession of E. adenophorum under natural conditions is emphasized.
The construction of greenways in mountain meadow scenic areas——Wugong Mountain Scenic Area as an example
Ping-fang Huang, Ming-wen Hu, Xiao-wen Xie
2017, 11(2): 293-301. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0147
[Abstract](847) [FullText HTML] (54) [PDF 875KB](201)
A greenway is a linear green open space that has ecological, recreational, cultural, and aesthetic significance. These functions include ecological protection, entertainment expansion, economic development, and social culture. This paper took the Wugong Mountain Scenic Area as an example to investigate the basic principles, general requirements, and technical standards of the construction of greenways in mountain meadow scenic areas. We showed that the ecosystem was damaged, cultural opportunities insufficient, and reception facilities incomplete. Under tourism disturbances, security risks are increased in highland meadow scenic areas. The construction of greenways in mountain meadow scenic areas should follow the principles of ecology, culture, humanization, and security according to scientific and technical standards.
Study on niche characteristics of the plant community in the alpine grassland of Big Youerdusi under a degeneration gradient
Ai-ning Zhang, Sha-zhou An, Rui-si Zhang, Xiao-wei Xia, Kasidaer·, Nuerdanbieke, Lei Dong
2017, 11(2): 302-309. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0289
[Abstract](891) [FullText HTML] (49) [PDF 506KB](233)
The Levins niche breadth index (BLi) and Pianka niche overlap index (Qik) were used to study the niche breadth and the niche overlap of 17 main kinds of plants within different degradation gradient in an alpine grassland of Big Youerdusi. Results showed that the niche breadth of dominant species Stipa purpurea was higher than others in the non-degraded stage, it was decline in the light degradation and moderate degradation stages, and then it increased in the heavy degradation stages. The change of niche breadth of other species changed based on the community structure. There was a phenomenon that plant species with narrow niche breadth had high niche overlap in different degeneration stages; the reason for this change of niche overlap was the interactive effects of different species’ ecological characteristics and grassland degradation on interspecific relationships. In conclusion, overgrazing has led to grassland degradation, and the plant species niche overlap is relatively low, in the alpine grassland of Big Youerdusi.
Control measures and effect of tourism activities on grassland vegetation and soil environment
Ya-zheng Jin, Zhi-xin Zheng, Mei-hua Chang, Ju-cai Jia, Ji-qing Wang, Liang Ren
2017, 11(2): 310-320. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0213
[Abstract](1241) [FullText HTML] (92) [PDF 716KB](295)
Grassland tourism has obtained the good graces of tourists, but grassland environmental problems becoming more and more serious with increasing development of grassland tourism. This review summarizes and analyses the effects of tourism activities on vegetation and soil. The effects of tourism on vegetation and soil were clear. Due to the tourism disturbance, vegetation species number, vegetation coverage, species richness index, evenness index, withered vegetation content, soil water content, soil nutrients, and soil microorganism numbers were all decreased, and soil bulk density, pH, and soil hardness were increased. With increased disturbance intensity the effects on both vegetation and soil were more pronounced. To protect and restore vegetation resources along with development of grassland tourism, we propose some control measures, including establishment of a database of vegetable resources and a modern soil environment monitoring system, use of restoration techniques for vegetation, improvement of soil management, and to increase characteristic region of tourism, were proposed.
The draft and characterization of the complete chloroplast genome of Vicia sativa cv. Lanjian No.3
Xiao-li Tao, Li-chao Ma, Bin Nie, Yan-rong Wang, Zhi-peng Liu
2017, 11(2): 321-330. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0054
[Abstract](1349) [FullText HTML] (222) [PDF 878KB](252)
The common vetch (Vicia sativa) is a self-pollinating and diploid annual legume, which provides high-quality protein roughage for ruminants of high altitude areas in China. In this study, we evaluated the V. sativa cv. Lanjian No.3 using Illumina Hiseq 2000 to analyze the chloroplast genome sequence. The results showed that this cultivar chloroplast genome is 121 883 bp in length with only one copy of the IR region. It encodes 109 genes, including 4 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 29 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 75 protein-coding genes, and 1 pseudogene. Compared with other legume species, V. sativa chloroplast genes have few differences in size, order, and structure. This genome sequence has been registered in GenBank under accession number KU053796. The successful sequencing of this genome contributes to chloroplast molecular biology and will be useful in studying genetic breeding and molecular evolution of the common vetch.
Powdery mildew resistance evaluation of 213 oat germplasm resistance to powdery mildew
Feng Zhao, Man-ku Guo, Cheng Guo, Xin-xin Shang, Zhi-peng Zhao, Gui-qin Zhao
2017, 11(2): 331-338. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0734
[Abstract](914) [FullText HTML] (55) [PDF 500KB](248)
In order to confirm the difference of oat germplasm resistance to Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae, the resistance of 213 oat germplasm to this pathogen were evaluated using the method of naturally infected under field conditions from 2012 to 2014. The results showed that there was no immune material. Twelve materials were high resistance, including Qingyongjiu 420, Qingyongjiu 316, Qingyongjiu 9, Qingyongjiu 252, Qingyongjiu 98, Qingyongjiu 180, Qingyongjiu 479, Qingyongjiu 25, Qingyongjiu 87, Yong 118, Qingyongjiu 304 and Wuyan No.6. Eighteen materials were middle resistance, for example, 199, Qingyongjiu 164, Qingyongjiu 237, Qingyongjiu 260, Qingyongjiu 83, Qingyongjiu 49, Qingyongjiu 016, Qingyongjiu 94, Qing 321, Qingyongjiu 154, Yuan 45, Yong 73-1, 83-27, S20-36-6, Paul, 330, Yuan 15 and Baisulu 2055. There were 5.6%, 8.5% and 85.9% of the left 183 materials were middle susceptible, high susceptible and extremely high susceptible, respectively. These evaluation can provide core resource for disease resistance breeding and varieties reasonable distribution.
Effects of a desert plant-specific organic fertilizer on Haloxylon ammodendron seedlings
Xiao-wen Zhang, Jian-quan Zhang, Qi Chai, Ji-shu Zhang, You-yong Zhang, Fu-nian Shi, Suo-min Wang
2017, 11(2): 339-346. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0085
[Abstract](885) [FullText HTML] (58) [PDF 572KB](198)
To discover the effects of a desert plant-specific organic fertilizer on the germination of Haloxylon ammodendron seedlings and the dynamic changes of the Na+ and K+ accumulation in the plant during seedling growth, we applied a desert plant organic fertilizer to H. ammodendron seedlings at Yabulai Town and Duguitala Town, China, in 2015. Desert plant organic fertilizer can significantly promote seed germination(P<0.05), and in Yabulai Town the plant height, main stem diameter, main stemnode number, and branch number all increased significantly (P<0.05). In Duguitala Town, the plant height, crown diameter, and main stem diameter significantly increased. The accumulation of Na+ in the shoot increased significantly in both places (P<0.05); Na+ accumulation can enhance H. ammodendron’s drought resistance. Desert plant organic fertilizer can also increase the accumulation of organic matter in rhizosphere soil. However, the accumulation of Na+ in H. ammodendron’s rhizosphere soil was not significantly increased. The desert plant-specific organic fertilizer had positive effects on seedling growth, seedling strength, seedling protection, and soil improvement.
Effect of different sowing dates on growth and yield of Medicago polymorpha
Xiao-shan Wang, Zhen-wu Wei, De-ming Cao, Hai-long Ren, Jian-feng Liang, Xiang Chen, Xiao-yue Wu
2017, 11(2): 347-351. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0257
[Abstract](1270) [FullText HTML] (124) [PDF 458KB](187)
Medicago polymorpha can be used as green manure, fodder, and vegetable. To improve the production of M. polymorpha in Yangzhong region, experiments were carried out using Huaiyang and Wenling cultivars to study the effect of different sowing dates on the germination and survival rates, number of branches, and production of plants. The results showed that the most suitable temperature for germination of M. polymorpha seeds was 25 ℃. The Huaiyang and Wenling cultivars planted in mid or late September showed, seedling emergence, survival rates, the number of branches, and yield that were all higher than those of cultivars planted in August and early October. The Huaiyang and Wenling cultivars showed the highest yields of 3 164.7 and 1 969.20 kg·ha-1 with sowing dates of September 29th and 19th, respectively. Furthermore, the Huaiyang cultivar showed a higher yield than that of the Wenling cultivar. Therefore, in the Yangzhong area, sowing the Huaiyang cultivar in mid to late September would enable farmers to obtain a high yield.
Effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia on growth of Medicago sativa in acidic soil
Cheng Meng, Ni Lu, Qi Chai
2017, 11(2): 352-360. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0075
[Abstract](906) [FullText HTML] (78) [PDF 713KB](356)
Experiments were performed to test the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and rhizobia on the growth of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) with a variety of soil pH in a greenhouse. Plants were inoculated with Glomus intraradices (AMF), Sinorhizobium medicae (rhizobium), both, or neither, under four different soil pH treatments (4.43, 5.06, 6.43, and 7.16). Acid stress inhibited alfalfa growth, such that plant height was decreased 1.27%~10.13% and biomass decreased 33.33%~55.56%. AMF alleviated acid stress and promoted alfalfa plant height by 244.26%~294.17%, shoot biomass by 727.78%~1 737.50%, root biomass by 1 120%~2 220%, root length by 39.85%~102.63%, root: shoot ratio by 5.71%~90.32%. Inoculation with rhizobia alone did not significantly affect alfalfa growth(P>0.05), but the co-inoculation of AMF and rhizobia significantly increased alfalfa growth(P<0.05).
Feeding value evaluation of Xinjiang five chenopod halophytes
Mei-mei Li, Guo-hua Wu, Zhen-yong Zhao, Jin-na Tu, Chang-yan Tian
2017, 11(2): 361-368. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0245
[Abstract](1110) [FullText HTML] (112) [PDF 677KB](215)
This study aimed to determine the suitable harvest time and evaluate the feeding value of five cultivated chenopod annual halophytic forage grasses (Chenopodium rubrum, Atriplex aucheri, Suaeda salsa, Salicornia europaea, and Suaeda altissima) that sampled from Xinjiang saline-alkali soil. Plants samples were analysed for nutritional component contents during three different growth periods: nutrient absorption, blooming, and fruiting periods. The results showed that the nutritive value of the five halophytic plants were highest in the blooming period. Furthermore, their above-ground biomass in dry matter was adequate and supported significant livestock production and, therefore, we determined that the suitable time to use the halophytic grass as fine forage feed was in the blooming period. Compared with alfalfa in the blooming period, the feeding value of C. rubrum was the highest, followed by A. aucheri, S. salsa, and S. altissima in that order while S. europaea had the lowest value. Considering the secondary metabolic compounds with positive or negative effects on the fodder feeding value, C. rubrum, A. aucheri, and S. altissima were rich in betaines, at approximately 7%. The oxalate content of S. europaea, C. rubrum, and A. aucheri exceeded the safe concentration. In summary, all the five halophytes showed the potential to be the sources of livestock fodders, but their use as the sole feed for extended periods should be avoided.
Effects of nitrogen and nhosphate fertilizer application on production performance and forage quality for Sorghum bicolor×S. sudanense in Haihe lowland plain
Yuan Li, Hai-ming Zhao, Yong-liang You, Gui-bo Liu, Lan-ju Zhai, Rui-xin Wu
2017, 11(2): 369-377. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0503
[Abstract](855) [FullText HTML] (29) [PDF 678KB](203)
This study analyzed the effects of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer application on production performance and forage quality for Sorghum bicolor×S. sudanense in Haihe lowland plain. In this study, we conducted a small-plot field experiment in which ‘Jicao 2’ was used as experimental material, and analyzed grass yield, forage quality, and soil fertility under N and P fertilizer treatment(N:0, 90, 180, 270, 360, 450 kg·ha-1; P: 0, 45, 90, 135, 180, 225 kg·ha-1). Our results showed that the total dry yield at the N270P180(270 kg·ha-1 N fertiler, 180 kg·ha-1 P fertiler) level was significantly higher than the yield of a control group. However, there was no significant difference in total dry yield from different phosphate fertilizer levels and the control. There were also no significant differences in content of crude protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, brix, or relative feed value under the nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer treatment, whereas the average of content of nitrate-N was increased 62.6% under nitrogen fertilizer treatment when compared with the control. There were no significant differences in the contents of total N or available N at different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and the control, and the content of available P was higher or significantly higher than CK under phosphate fertilizer treatment. We posit that the optimal fertilizer levels for planting Sorghum bicolor×S. sudanense in Haihe lowland plain are N at 180~270 kg·hm-2 and P2O5 at 90~135 kg·hm-2.
Germplasm resources of buckwheat in China and their forage value
Xue-ni Dong, Yu Tang, Meng-qi Ding, Li Wei, Jin-bo Li, Yan-min Wu, Ji-rong Shao, Mei-liang Zhou
2017, 11(2): 378-388. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0153
[Abstract](1225) [FullText HTML] (127) [PDF 943KB](251)
Buckwheat is a traditional edible and medical plant, with substantial forage value. A variety of types of cultivated buckwheat has formed through cultivation and evolution. Currently, the germplasm resources of buckwheat are considerably rich in south-western China, and have attracted worldwide attention. In this paper, the types of buckwheat germplasm resources, and their distribution, the species and the scopes of cultivated buckwheat, and utilization value of them were summarized, with emphatically analyzed the advantages of buckwheat as a forage grass, especially the Fagopyrum cymosum, innutrition, yield, palatability and environmental friendliness, revealing the application value and the development potential of buckwheatas a forage grass. We also comprehensively discussed the problems facing the buckwheat research field in China, pointing out that the focus of the buckwheat research work should be on the excavation of wild buckwheat resources and the exploitation of buckwheat as a forage grass.
The butterfly community in Gansu Gahai-Zecha National Nature Reserve
Xiong Ma, Huai-yi Ma, Zheng-xue Ma, Pin Du
2017, 11(2): 389-395. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0129
[Abstract](817) [FullText HTML] (50) [PDF 525KB](195)
By using transect and opportunistic collecting methods, 681 specimens of butterflies were collected during May to September of 2012-2015 in Gansu Gahai-Zecha National Nature Reserve. Among these, 136 species, from 8 families and 74 genera, were identified: Papilionidae (1 genus, 3 species), Parnassiidae (1 genus, 13 species), Pieridae (8 genera, 32 species), Satyridae (14 genera, 19 species), Nymphalidae (21 genera, 32 species), Riodinidae (2 genera, 3 species), Lycaenidae (20 genera, 25 species), and Hesperiidae (7 genera, 9 species). Pieridae and Nymphalidae form the dominant populations; Lycaenidae and Satyridae have sub-dominant populations; Parnassiidae and Hesperiidae have common populations; and Papilionidae and Riodinidae have rare populations. Of the 136 species, 95 (69.85%) belong to the Palaearctic region, 5 (3.68%) to the Oriental region, and 36 (26.47%) were widely distributed. Species of the Palaearctic have an absolute advantage. This study provides basic information for butterfly research in Gansu and China.
The growth and development of Oula-type Tibetan sheep in an alpine meadow area at the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
Xiao-jian Pu, Wen-hua Du, Jian-ping Wu, Hong-xia Mao
2017, 11(2): 396-406. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0383
[Abstract](1002) [FullText HTML] (104) [PDF 622KB](161)
This study shows measurements from 30 ewes and 30 rams of Oula-type Tibetan sheep that were born within 72 hours of each other at two representative grasslands in Maqu County, Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Gannan, Gansu. We measured their weight, height at withers, body length, chest girth, chest width, chest depth, and hip width, and analysed their growth and development from birth to 18 months old (March 2013 to September 2014). The stage from birth to 6 months old is the most important time for significant weight increase (P<0.05). Weight gain increase is fastest when sheep are 2 months to 4 months old, while weight gain from 8 months to 12 months old significantly slower (P<0.05). The stage from birth to 6 months old is the main growing time, so it appropriate to slaughter lambs at this time. The body indices of this type of sheep increase mainly from birth to 6 months old, then increase more slowly from 6 months to 14 months old. Although there is a continuing growing trend from 14 months to 18 months old, it is smaller than that from birth to 6 months old. This type of sheep basically completes its development by 6 months old. Therefore, the lambs can be slaughtered when they are 6 months old. There are no significant differences in early growth and development between the ewes and rams, but differences appear with continued growth.
DEA-Tobit analysis of alfalfa productive efficiency in Minqin, Gansu
Li-jia Wang
2017, 11(2): 407-414. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0034
[Abstract](847) [FullText HTML] (102) [PDF 564KB](185)
We applied the DEA-Tobit method to estimate the productivity efficiency of alfalfa growers and analyzed the factors affecting technical efficiency, using the field survey data obtained from Minqin County in China. DEA results showed that the cost efficiency was only 0.532, implying room for improvement, with a scale efficiency of 0.872, implying limited potential for development. Tobit results indicated that temperature, educational background of household head, experience of using machinery, and the use of new technology had significantly beneficial impacts on alfalfa growers’ technical efficiency.
Roughage nutritional value evaluation indices and research methods
Cun-hui Jia, Wen-xi Qian, Tursunay·, Samat, Wei-ping Ao, Gulpiya·, Abdukirem
2017, 11(2): 415-427. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0217
[Abstract](2273) [FullText HTML] (277) [PDF 692KB](300)
Roughage is the main source of nutrition for rumen microbes and their hosts. It is essential to effectively and scientifically evaluate roughage nutrition and feed value, to develop feed resources, to understand reasonable use of roughage, and to improve its utilization efficiency. This review of a large number of domestic and foreign studies details the evaluation indices and methods of evaluating the nutritional value of crude feed. It also discusses the development of evaluation methods and the advantages and disadvantages of each method. We can select the best evaluation index and method according to research needs, but this selection can play a role in the evaluation and rational utilization of the nutritional values of crude feed.
Current state of agricultural environmental pollution and herbaceous plants used in controlling pollution in China
Zhen-mei Zhong, Yi-bin Huang, Yan-chun Li, Xiu-Sheng Huang, Zhong-dian Chen, De-qing Feng
2017, 11(2): 428-435. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0345
[Abstract](812) [FullText HTML] (76) [PDF 593KB](337)
The development of modern agriculture with characteristically high input, output, and emissions in China has created considerable economic benefits since the Reform and Opening; however, it has also created numerous environmental problems. In this study, we analyzed the status of environmental pollution caused by fertilizers, pesticides, and farming waste. The results indicated there was an annual increase in the use of fertilizers and pesticides in China. Specifically, the quantity of chemical fertilizer being used increased by 578.3% in 2014 compared with that in 1978. In addition, the use of fertilizers on units of arable land also increased by 391.78% in 2013 compared with that in 1980. Moreover, the amount of pesticides used in 2012 increased 1.5 times compared with the amounts used in 1978. At the same time, farming waste discharged has increased annually with the rapid development of aquaculture. This present study was focused on herbaceous plant species that have the potential to be used to control agricultural pollution. We analyzed their grass ecological mode including ecological ditches, grass buffer strips, and artificial wetlands to control agricultural non-point pollution. We proposed that the selection of the principle of grasses in pollution control would be a good strategy, and suggested that building a cycle agricultural mode for controlling non-point pollution would be expedient. The main aim of this study was to provide a scientific basis for agricultural non-point pollution.