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2017 Vol.34(10)

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Spatiotemporal dynamics of grassland coverage in response to climate change from 1982 to 2012 in the Three Rivers Source Region, China
Ying Zhang, Chao-bin Zhang, Zhao-qi Wang, Yue Yang, Jian-long Li
2017, 11(10): 1977-1990. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0619
[Abstract](1016) [FullText HTML] (129) [PDF 12844KB](702)
Grassland coverage dynamics and its relationship to climatic factors at different spatial and temporal scales in the Three Rivers Source Region (TRSR) from 1982 to 2012 were analyzed based on MODIS-NDVI and GIMMS-NDVI data and climate data. The responses of the grassland coverage to climatic variations at annual and monthly time scales were analyzed. The results showed that grassland coverage distribution had increased from northwest to southeast across the TRSR during the study period. During 1982-2012, the mean grassland coverage of the TRSR was 48.73% and exhibited spatial heterogeneity, being the highest (65.45%) in the source region of Yellow River and the lowest (4.25%) in the source region of Yangtze River. The mean grassland coverages of meadow, alpine and sub-alpine meadow, plain grassland, alpine and sub-alpine grassland, and desert grassland were 59.86%, 57.39%, 39.50%, 33.70%, and 14.13%, respectively. The grassland coverage of the study area increased with a linear tendency of 0.23% per year, of which the source region of Yellow River presented the fastest increasing trend (0.27% per year). The grassland coverages in meadow, alpine and sub-alpine meadow, and plain grassland were mainly affected by temperature, whereas grassland coverages in desert grassland and alpine and sub-alpine grassland were affected more by precipitation. At the monthly time-scale, grassland coverage had a one-month time-lag effect compared to temperature. However, there was less than one month or no time-lag effect for precipitation. After the Three Rivers Nature Reserve was founded, the growth of grassland coverage accelerated to some extent. Meanwhile, the sensitivity effect of temperature on grassland coverage increased throughout the entire district. In addition, the influence of precipitation on grassland coverage decreased in the source region of Yellow River. The ecological engineering and grassland protection measures have gained some achievements in the TRSR, whereas a falling trend of grassland coverage was exacerbated in some areas, especially desert grassland; therefore, greater attention should be paid to this region.
The relations of natural grassland vegetation growth and climate conditions in Xinghai of Qinghai Province
Rang Wu, Bing-hong Han, Tong Han, Bing-rong Zhou, Bo Li, De-cao Niu, Hua Fu
2017, 11(10): 1991-1998. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0252
[Abstract](996) [FullText HTML] (87) [PDF 520KB](262)
To understand the relationship between natural grassland vegetation growth and meteorological conditions in Xinghai, Qinghai Province, the present study was based on 11 meteorological and grass observation materials that analyzed the relationship of turning green, growth height, yield characteristics, and hydrothermal factors systematically. The results showed that the turning green period for grass during the spring rain was 38 d greater than during the spring drought years. The grass turning green period was in advance or delay, which related with the time of ≥0 ℃, the rainfall of March to April of the measured year and rainfall of September to November of the previous year during 2005-2015. In addition, precipitation was the best climate model to obtain a linear regression equation for the period of the grass turning green. Grass height growth amounts were positively correlated to precipitation during all stages; however, were negatively correlated to temperature. Moreover, precipitation increased 610 mm during the forage growth stage, and new herbage yields added 225 kg per hectare. Thus, precipitation was a major meteorological factor that limited the period of grass turning green, and its growth and development.
Response of vegetation community structure, soil carbon sequestration, and water-holding capacity in returning farmland to grassland plots, in the agro-pastoral transitional zone in the Three Rivers Source Region
Ling Li, Hui-dan He, Ya-xi Wei, Yong-sheng Yang, Jin Luo, Hong-qin Li, Ying-nian Li, Hua-kun Zhou
2017, 11(10): 1999-2008. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0626
[Abstract](875) [FullText HTML] (110) [PDF 643KB](268)
The present study aimed to explore the response of vegetation community succession, soil carbon sequestration, and water conservation capacity in returning farmland to grassland plots in the agro-pastoral transitional zone in the source region of the Three Rivers. The study region was a returning farmland to grassland demonstration zone in Guomaying town, Qinghai province and the study analyzed the changes in plant community succession, soil carbon sequestration, and water-holding capacity by field monitoring and laboratory experiments. The results demonstrated that: 1) After 11 years, total coverage, average height, number of layers of plants, and aboveground biomass in returning farmland to grassland plots all reached the same levels as the original vegetation, and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Pielou evenness index reached 80.9% and 97.5%, respectively, of the original vegetation. 2) After 11 years, the soil bulk density of the 0-40 cm layer of returning farmland to grassland plots decreased by 5% compared to the original vegetation plots, and the saturation moisture capacity, capillary moisture capacity, and field capacity of returning farmland to grassland plots were 12.6, 9.4, and 11.2 mm greater than that of the original vegetation plots, respectively. 3) After 11 years in the returning farmland to grassland plots, the soil organic carbon density and C/N had significantly increased by 31.85% and 37.63%, respectively, compared to the original vegetation plots (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between the soil total nitrogen density of the returning farmland to grassland plots and the original vegetation plots (P>0.05). The results indicate that the returning farmland to grassland plots have benefited from restoration of the ecological environment in desert pastures in the agro-pastoral transitional zone. This is an effective measure to contain and improve the desertification in the source region of the Three Rivers.
Effect of grazing on chemical characteristics of litter in alpine grassland during the cold season
Jian-wen Zhang, Chang-lin Xu, Hai-lei Yang, Hong Xiao, Jin-long Chai, Yang-yang Zhou, Tao-tao Pan, Xiao-jun Yu
2017, 11(10): 2009-2015. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0516
[Abstract](1002) [FullText HTML] (86) [PDF 498KB](226)
To understand the effects of grazing on litter decomposition characteristics during the cold season in the alpine grassland of Qinghai Tibet Plateau, biomass and C, N, and P chemical measurements of litter in the cold season pasture under three different grazing intensities were studied. The results showed that the amount of litter decreased with an increase in grazing intensity. In light grazing (LG, 22.50 sheep unit·ha-1), moderate grazing (MG, 26.25 sheep unit·ha-1), and heavy grazing (HG, 32.04 sheep unit·ha-1) alpine meadows, the litter biomass ranged from 45.72 to 125.52, 17.32 to 56.6, and 8.64 to 30.96 g·m-2, respectively. The C content of the existing litter under different grazing intensities gradually decreased during the grazing season, and the C content of litter decreased in the order of LG, MG, and HG during the same period. In addition, the C content of litter showed a significant increasing trend in MG and HG during the rest from grazing period. The content of N in litter decreased during the grazing period, whereas the P content of the litter decreased in the order of HG, MG, and LG. During the rest from grazing period, the decreasing order of P content in the existing litter was HG, LG, and MG. The C/N of existing litter was above 90 in LG, and the C/P of existing litter was higher during the early rest from grazing period (July), which was greater than 1 000. The results from the present study demonstrated that litter loss rate increased significantly, N content decreased, C content did not change significantly, and P content appeared enriched with an increase in grazing intensity.
Effects of rest-grazing in the regreen-up period on moderately degraded steppification meadow of Qilian Mountain
Lin-qi Li, Yu-shou Ma, Shi-xiong Li, Xiao-li Wang, Yan-long Wang, Mei-ling Jing, Song-yang Li, Yong Nian, Hai-long Han
2017, 11(10): 2016-2024. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0200
[Abstract](1112) [FullText HTML] (54) [PDF 533KB](258)
To solve the problem seasonal overgrazing in alpine meadows in the Qilian Mountain area, field control experiments of rest-grazing in the regreen-up period on winter-spring pasture were conducted for approximately 60 days from May to July, at Moeller Town, Qilian County, Qinghai Province. The characteristics of vegetation, including the height, coverage, and above-ground biomass of primary species, were investigated in August. The results showed that the measures of the rest-grazing in the regreen-up period significantly increased total coverage, grassland productivity, and grass plant height, coverage, and biomass. No significant influence was found on Cyperaceae plants, and the plant height, coverage, and biomass of the broadleaf weeds showed a downward trend. Compared with the rest-grazing for 1 year, that for 2 years showed that there were increases in the plant height, coverage, and biomass of graminaceous plants, whereas all indices of broadleaf weeds continued to decline. In conclusion, the measure of rest-grazing can effectively promote the substantial recovery of steppe meadow grassland vegetation and markedly improve the productivity of grassland in the Qilian Mountain area.
The effects of soil thickness heterogeneity on grassland plant community structure and growth of dominant species in karst area
Zhou Li, Ya-jie Zhao, Hai-yan Song, Jing Zhang, Jian-ping Tao, Jin-chun Liu
2017, 11(10): 2023-2032. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0296
[Abstract](713) [FullText HTML] (29) [PDF 754KB](235)
The karst ecosystem is a special and fragile ecosystem type. In karst areas, crushed and steep terrain and a serious lack of soil resources result in strong spatial heterogeneity in soil distribution. Soil is the main medium for plants to acquire water and nutrients, and uneven soil distribution will directly affect the growth and distribution of vegetation. Therefore, a typical karst grassland community in Chongqing was selected as the research model to study community structure, species distribution, and dominant species growth status of grassland communities in different soil thickness habitats (015 cm, 1525 cm, and > 25 cm). The following results were obtained: 1) The predominant species of grassland communities in the study area were mainly annual, biennial, or herbs and, with an increase in soil thickness, woody plants gradually appeared as the dominant species of the community. The position of the dominant species in the community was more stable with an increase in soil thickness; 2) The species richness index (D1 and D2), species diversity index (SW and SN), and evenness index (R) of the plant community in the karst mountain grassland did not change significantly with soil thickness changes (P>0.05); 3) The species and importance of non-gramineous plants, mainly Compositae and legumes, increased with increasing soil thickness. The number of gramineous species decreased with an increase in soil thickness and the significance value did not change significantly; 4) Plant height, leaf area, and aboveground biomass of dominant species (Arthraxon hispidus) showed a significant upward trend with an increase in soil thickness (P<0.05). Therefore, with an increase in soil thickness, the community structure of karst grassland showed greater maturity and stability, and the growth of dominant species was significantly promoted; however, the dominance of each family and the species diversity of the community did not change significantly.
Effects of grazing intensity on plant functional groups of Stipa krylovii steppe
2017, 11(10): 2033-2041. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0283
[Abstract](905) [FullText HTML] (94) [PDF 610KB](201)
Weed species and their population changing in Nanjing Zhongshan International Golf Course
Guang Xue, Xiu-yun Wang, Chun-yan Li, Qin-miao Ye, Gui-zhou Peng, Jin-rong Du, Yu-wei Wang, Tao Zhang
2017, 11(10): 2042-2051. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0223
[Abstract](1020) [FullText HTML] (163) [PDF 757KB](248)
To formulate the strategics of weed control in bumudagrass(Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis), by analyzing the passable factors of weed damaging the turf in Golf courses. This investigation was conducted at Nanjing Zhongshan International Golf Course between 2000 and 2016 to determine the weed species and population changing by the survey and special designated. The 130 weed species found included 27 grasses, 8 sedges, 94 broadleaved and 1 alga from 36 families. Among them, 63 species from 28 families found in 2000-2016; 13 species from 9 families found in 2006-2016; 54 species from 20 families found before 2009, unfound after 2010. The study indicated that the weed population in the plots was not only abundant and diversified, related gathering to some certain families such as Gramineae, Compositae,Cyperaceae, Crucifereae and so on, but also was changing with growing or declining in the related stable community. By the end of 2016, Digitaria sanguinalis, Poa annua, Lolium perenne and Agrostis stolonifera was still harmful to the bumudagrass(Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis)in some part of the plots. Solidago canadiensis was expanding and Aster stubulatus was found in the out side of rough areas.These two weeds had expanded to the some of the golf plots in east China.
EST-SSR marker based DNA fingerprinting for cultivar identification and genetic diversity analysis of Elymus sibiricus germplasm in China
Jun-chao Zhang, Wen-gang Xie, Xu-hong Zhao, Zong-yu Zhang, Yong-qiang Zhao, Yan-rong Wang
2017, 11(10): 2052-2062. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0580
[Abstract](1026) [FullText HTML] (136) [PDF 898KB](260)
In this study, EST-SSR markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 52 Elymus sibiricus accessions, and to construct DNA fingerprinting profiles of seven E. sibiricus cultivated accessions and cultivars in China. A total of 204 bands were generated from 20 EST-SSR markers with an average of 10.2 bands per marker. Of the total, 176 (86.27%) bands were polymorphic, indicating that the tested materials possessed a high level of polymorphism. The primers Elw404 and Elw195 could distinguish the seven cultivated accessions and cultivarsfrom other wild materials. Analysis of molecular variance showed that genetic variation was greater within geographical regions (73.94%) than between them (26.06%). Structure analysis suggested that the 52 accessions were clustered into five groups; a similar result was obtained using principal coordinate analysis. Compared with cultivars and cultivated accessions,wild accessions[number of polymorphic bands=174, percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB)=85.29%, Shannon’s information index (I)=0.296 6, Nei’s gene diversity (H)=0.179 8, observed number of alleles (Na)=1.852 9] possessed higher genetic diversity, suggesting that wild accessions could be used as important genetic resources for future breeding programs. Furthermore, ex situ and in situ conservation strategies were suggested for E. sibiricus germplasm. The results of the present study showed that EST-SSR markers provided an efficient means of assessing genetic diversity and identifying cultivars in E. sibiricus.
Preparation of guard cell protoplasts from Medicago sativa
Jie An, Zang You, Yu-Man Cao, Peng-hui Ren, Jin-long Liu, Pei-zhi Yang
2017, 11(10): 2063-2069. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0598
[Abstract](904) [FullText HTML] (115) [PDF 1413KB](237)
To obtain protoplasts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) guard cells and lay the foundation for further research into guard cell protoplasts, the utility of a method for extracting guard cells from alfalfa leaves was explored. Epidermal peels were obtained by grinding and using a blender. Two-step enzyme digestion was used to remove mesophyll cells from the epidermal peels and guard cell walls; guard cell protoplasts were obtained through repeated filtration and centrifugation. Finally, the number of protoplasts was counted and their viability was assessed by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) staining. The results showed that this method yielded alfalfa guard cell protoplasts in an efficient manner, with 1 000 protoplasts isolated from samples of five leaves and a rate of viable guard cell protoplasts of more than 90%.
Effects of livestock excreta on herbage seed dispersal and germination
Jing Zhang, Xian-jiang Chen, Fu-jiang Hou
2017, 11(10): 2070-2079. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0475
[Abstract](923) [FullText HTML] (92) [PDF 612KB](247)
Grazing regulation of forage impacts forage consumption, growth, reproduction, seed production, dispersal, and germination. Dispersal of seeds through livestock excrement was one of the important means of seeds transport. While excreta from livestock can promote long-distance dispersal and seed germination, it can also damage the seeds, and affect germination. Therefore, we studied the effects of excreta on plant reproduction, propagation and germination of herbage seed. Our results show that livestock excreta served as a natural and effective means of herbage seed dispersal and regeneration. Livestock excreta increased seed production in herbage, improved likelihood of feeding, increased dispersal distance and also expanded the forage habitat. Through improved understanding of the role of excreta in herbage seed dispersal and germination it is possible to explore new approaches that may provide a theoretical framework to minimize grassland degradation and propose solutions for restoration of grasslands.
Effect of SO2 wet deposition on morphology and light energy utilization in mulberry leaves
Yue Wang, Xue-peng Li, Hong-xun Peng, Yi-yong Zhu, Xiu-li Zhang, Guang-yu Sun
2017, 11(10): 2080-2089. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0609
[Abstract](890) [FullText HTML] (84) [PDF 1757KB](209)
In order to explore the effects of SO2 wet deposition on the photosynthetic characteristics of leaves of mulberry seedlings, we exposed leaves to simulated SO2 wet deposition treatments. Two SO2 concentrations (100 and 50 mmol·L-1) were applied. The results showed that compared to 0 mmol·L-1 SO2 wet deposition (CK), the 100 mmol·L-1 treatment clearly damaged mulberry leaves. A wide range of effects were present in treated leaves: chlorosis; leaf blade edges withering; cell shrinkage; indistinct cell edges; decreased stomatal numbers; decreased leaf water content; reduced maximum net photosynthetic rate; significantly reduced light compensation point and light saturation point; and significantly high rates of dark respiration, photorespiration, and transpiration. Overall, light use efficiency by the mulberry leaves was reduced by the 100 mmol·L-1 SO2 treatment. In mulberry leaves treated with 50 mmol·L-1 SO2, the following effects were seen: leaf blade margins were slightly withered; cell volumes were less than those in leaves treated with 100 mmol·L-1 SO2; leaves were dark green; leaf water content decreased slightly; cell volume decreased, but cell density increased; stomatal numbers increased; light compensation point, light saturation point, dark respiration, CO2 compensation point, and water use efficiency decreased; the maximum net photosynthetic rate decreased; however, photorespiration and transpiration rates increased. We conclude that the mulberry could adjust to the treatment by reducing respiration consumption and increasing photorespiration and transpiration rates to adapt to the 50 mmol·L-1 SO2 stress. The curve parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence in response to light were similar between the two SO2 concentrations stress. The actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and electron transfer rate decreased with the increase in light intensity; these values were significantly lower than those of CK in photon flux density conditions over 400 μmol·mol-1. Meanwhile, photochemical quenching coefficient and photochemical quenching were significantly higher than those of CK. Mulberry, therefore, has some resistance to SO2 stress through adapting leaf structures and modifying heat dispersion.
Effects of salt and alkali interaction stress on chlorophyll fluorescence in leaves of Sorghum bicolor×S. sudanense
Wei-wei Jin, Hui-hui Zhang, Zhi-yuan Teng, Xiang-xin-yue Meng, Shu-bo Zhang, Xiu-li Zhang, Nan Xu, Guang-yu Sun
2017, 11(10): 2090-2098. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0065
[Abstract](936) [FullText HTML] (96) [PDF 637KB](239)
In order to identify the physiological responses and tolerance characteristics of Sorghum bicolor ×S. sudanense under salt and alkali interaction stresses, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were measured in the leaves. Four salt stresses, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mmol·L-1, were prepared by mixing the neutral salts NaCl and Na2SO4 and the alkaline salts Na2CO3 and NaHCO3. In addition, 4 pH levels, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, and 10.0, were used for each salt stress treatment. The analyses showed that physiological parameters in S. bicolor×S. sudanense leaves were significantly affected by high salt and ion concentrations in the solution and by the concentration of CO32- and total salt concentration. At a low salt concentration, the effects of different pH values on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were relatively small. When the salt concentration was <100 mmol·L-1, the photochemical activity of the PSⅡ reaction center showed no obvious effect indicating a certain resistance to salt and alkali. But under high salt concentration and high pH conditions, the PSⅡ photochemical efficiency decreased. In addition, the decrease in activity of the PSⅡ reaction center in S. bicolor×S. sudanense leaves increased with increasing pH values. S. bicolor×S. sudanense can dissipate excess light energy in a restricted range of salt concentrations by improving non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). However, under high salt concentrations, the protective ability of excess light energy dissipation by NPQ decreased and was further decreased by high pH values. The effects of salt and pH values on physiological parameters in S. bicolor×S. sudanense leaves showed clear interactions. These interactions increased with the increase in salt concentration, indicating that the influence of pH value was relatively less at low salt concentrations, but the pH effect was greater with the increase in salt concentration. The photosynthetic ability of the S. bicolor×S. sudanense leaves showed some tolerance to saline and alkali, but the degree of alkalization needs to be taken into consideration when considering growing these plants in high salt concentration areas.
Endophytic bacteria can mitigate salinity stress on seed germination and physiology in hybrid Pennisetum
Lei Fu, Xia Li, Lu Gao, Jian-xiong Jiang, Jian-zhong Sun
2017, 11(10): 2099-2108. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0634
[Abstract](1028) [FullText HTML] (131) [PDF 1123KB](193)
Endophytic bacteria have a broad spectrum of applications such as in plant disease prevention, pest insect suppression, plant growth promotion, and plant salt and drought tolerance; they, therefore, provide a valuable natural resource. This investigation was conducted to determine the influence of the endophytic bacterium Pantoea sp. PP04 on seed germination and seedling growth of hybrid Pennisetum under low (100 mmol·L-1), medium (200 mmol·L-1), and high (300 mmol·L-1) salinity stress. The analysis showed that the endophyte PP04 had a significant positive impact on seed germination rate, germination index, and lengths of embryos under low and medium salinity stress, which would enhance their germination rate at 10.75%, 28.57%, and 300%, respectively. We also found that under different levels of salinity stress, this endophytic bacterium reduced lipid peroxidation of cell membranes in hybrid Pennisetum by inducing different antioxidant protective enzyme activities. As a consequence, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased. Under low and medium salinity stress, the endophytic bacterium significantly increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in hybrid Pennisetum. The greatest increases in SOD (64.17%) and POD (73.14%) activities occurred under low salinity stress. The largest increases in CAT (160.57%) and APX (73.38%) occurred under high salinity stress. Our results indicated that the endophyte PP04 significantly mitigated the damage caused by oxidative stress from salinity and improved the tolerance of plants to a salt stress environment. These results suggest that the endophyte PP04 has promising characteristics for future applications.
Regrowth and biomass allocation of dual-purpose winter wheat under two clipping heights
Xi Wang, Li-qun Yang, Jia-yun Lei, Jing-ning Yang, Yu-ping Wang, Dan-dan Wang, Qian Yang, Yu-ying Shen
2017, 11(10): 2109-2116. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0569
[Abstract](905) [FullText HTML] (56) [PDF 739KB](226)
A greenhouse experiment was conducted to reveal the response on regrowth and grain yield of winter wheat plants to clipping treatment. Two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars, Longyu 4 (LY) and Yunhan 2 (YH), were used, and clipping was done at the tillering stage, with cutting treatments to 6 cm in height (R6), to 3 cm in height (R3), and no-cut as control (CK). The results showed that the leaf area index and net photosynthesis rate of the two cultivars at the anthesis stage after clipping recovered to control levels, the aboveground biomass and root biomass of LY under R6 and R3 decreased by 23% and 3% (P>0.05), and 12% and 13% (P>0.05) in comparison with CK, respectively. The aboveground biomass of YH decreased by 22% and 15% (P>0.05) compared with its control under R6 and R3, however, root biomass under R3 was equal to its control. Clipping caused the proportion of aboveground biomass in the whole plant to decline, and ratios of stem to leaf in aboveground parts decreased and increased, respectively. There was no difference in biomass allocation patterns aboveground or below ground between R6 and CK; However, a higher proportion of dry matter transferred to aboveground under R3 than that under CK, implying that suitable cutting disturbance may release growth redundancy through the source-sink coordination to maintain grain yield formation.
Effect of sulphur-based γ-poly glutamic acid fertiliser on field performance of sweet sorghum and Italian ryegrass
Hai-yang Tang, Tao Feng, Lin-jing Tong, Li-na Shi, Xin-yi Niu, Yi-xin Shen
2017, 11(10): 2117-2123. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0627
[Abstract](975) [FullText HTML] (116) [PDF 0KB](26)
To evaluate the effect of sulphur-based γ-poly glutamic acid fertiliser (S-based γ-PGA fertiliser) on sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), we studied their growth performance and N uptake efficiency under different N application levels in pot tests with urea and S-based fertiliser as control. The results showed that under treatment by S-based γ-PGA fertilizer, sorghum yield, crude protein content, and N uptake efficiency were better than that in the control group at N application levels of 150 and 225 kg N·ha-1. There was no difference in the growth performance of Italian ryegrass compared to that in the control, whereas the N uptake efficiency was higher than that in the control at 75 and 150 kg N·ha-1. The results suggested that S-based γ-PGA fertiliser has a better effect than that of urea and S-based fertiliser, the yield and quality of sweet sorghum and Italian ryegrass can be improved, and that the N uptake efficiency is high.
Effect of nitrogen application on biomass yield and quality of forage rape after clipping
Min Hu, Quan-quan Wei, Tao Ren, Guang-sheng Zhou, Ling-feng Yu, Jian-wei Lu
2017, 11(10): 2124-2129. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0038
[Abstract](790) [FullText HTML] (69) [PDF 503KB](248)
Using 1315 plants as testing material, a field trial was conducted to study the effect of nitrogen fertiliser application on biomass yield and quality of forage rapeseed after clipping, with the ultimate aim of providing a theoretical reference for its cultivation in fallow fields of Hubei Province during winter. The results showed that after the first clipping, nitrogen fertiliser could significantly increase the biomass yield. Compared with that of the nitrogen-free control (N0), the dry weight of rape increased by 50.0% and 75.0% under N1(17.25 kg·ha-1) and N2(34.5 kg·ha-1) treatments, respectively, than that in N0. Simultaneously, the crude ash yield increased by 45.7% and 53.2%, the cellulose yield by 50.7% and 90.4%, the protein yield by 84.5% and 159.3%, the crude fat yield by 53.9% and 83.8%, and the soluble sugar yield by 64.7% and 68.5%, in the N1 and N2 treatments, respectively, than in N0. These indicated that rapeseed feed production was increased by nitrogen fertiliser application. After the first clipping, topdressing 30 kg·ha-1 is recommended for improving the yield and quality of rapeseed in the forage rapeseed test planting area.
Morphological and physiological plasticity of Thymus mongolicus under different light conditions
Jin-ping Li, Rui-fen Ren, Da-fang Yin, Fang Guo, Xiu-yun Yang
2017, 11(10): 2130-2140. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0189
[Abstract](1225) [FullText HTML] (176) [PDF 823KB](193)
One-year-old Thymus mongolicus seedlings were used as the test material. They were grown under either natural light (control, CK), or 25, 50 and 75% shading; physiological and morphological indexes of leaves and roots were measured at 0, 7, 14, 24, and 44 d. The study aimed to identify tissue plasticity in T. mongolicus under different illumination conditions so as to provide a theoretical basis for the selection and promotion of aromatic ground cover plants. The results showed that 1) changes in the distribution of dry matter content at 14 d was due to an increase in leaf weight ratio and a reduction in root weight ratio under different light conditions. 2) The 50% light treatment significantly promoted the activity of leaf SOD, increased the content of soluble protein in the root osmotic adjustment substances, inhibited the accumulation of malondialdehyde, and showed strong physiological plasticity. 3) T. mongolicus showed greater morphological and physiological plasticity under 50% light, and significantly different physiological plasticity in leaves and roots in response to environmental changes.
Effects of oregano essential oil on growth and hematogenic immunity ofnewborn calves
Hao Chen, Ting Liu, Jian-ping Wu, Ning Wu, Bing He, Li-shan Liu
2017, 11(10): 2141-2148. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0559
[Abstract](976) [FullText HTML] (111) [PDF 532KB](225)
The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of oregano essential oil, which is a natural additive, on the growth and hematogenic immunity of newborn calves. Fortynewborn calves were selected, and divided into experimental and control groups, in this study, on the basis of their dates of birth,with 20 calves in each group. Oregano essential oil was added to the concentrate for calves in the experimental group ata proportion of 40 g·t-1. Indices of growth performance and hematogenic immunity were tracked, and analyzed in the calves from their birth to 70 days. The results showed that with increase inthe time of the growth and development of thecalves, weight, height, body length, chest circumference, abdominal circumference, pasterncircumference, total serum protein levels, levels of immunoglobulins G, A, and M, and average feed intake were significantly higher in the calves of the experimental group than those in the control group (P<0.01); the incidence of diarrhea in the calves in the experimental group reduced markedly(P<0.01). Overall, the study showed that the concentrate with added oregano essential oil could boost the growth, immunity, and feed intake of calves, and reducediarrhea morbidity, which was suggested in the results.
Effect of mowing period and additives on fermentation quality and CNCPS protein components of alfalfa silage
Yunying, Miao-miao Zhao, Shuanghuer, Zhe Wu, Yuzhu
2017, 11(10): 2149-2156. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0033
[Abstract](862) [FullText HTML] (88) [PDF 802KB](219)
The study was designed to evaluate the effects of mowing period and additives on the fermentation quality ofalfalfa. Alfalfa was mowed at two harvesting time points, in three periods(budding, early flowering, and full flowering), with no additives (CK), and withthe addition of sodium propionate (0.5%) and lactic acid bacteria (106 cfu·g-1). After 45 days of storage, fermentation quality and nutritive value were analyzed. pH decreased with delay in harvest. The addition of sodium propionate and lactic acid bacteria had significant effects on the fermentation quality of alfalfa silage. CP content of alfalfa silage was significantly decreased with the growth period extension of the same cropping period. The pH of alfalfa silage decreased significantly,and lactic acid content increased (P<0.05) significantly; the effects of acetic acid and propionic acid were not significant (P<0.05), and the interaction effect was significant (P<0.05). The quality of the budding stage alfalfa silage inoculated with lactic acid bacteria was the best. The content of non-protein nitrogen (PA) in the first crop at full-bloom stage was higher. and PB2 content in alfalfa silage was the highest relative to PB content.
Effect of additives on the quality of ryegrass silage with different dry matter content
Hao Guan, Ming-jun Zhang, Shan Song, Xu-sheng Guo, You-min Gan
2017, 11(10): 2157-2163. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0115
[Abstract](811) [FullText HTML] (92) [PDF 687KB](262)
The effects of different types of inocula on the quality of Italian ryegrass with different dry matter content were investigated. Three additives [formic acid (FA), Lactobacillus plantmentum (LP), Lactobacillus buchneri (LB)] were used to ensile Italian ryegrass with different dry matter content (20%, 30%, and 40%). The results showed that the pH in the FA-treatment of Italian ryegrass with three levels of dry matter content was below 4.3, and NH3-N/TN was significantly lower than that in the other treatments (P<0.05). However, the content of water soluble carbohydrate was significantly higher than that in the other treatments (P<0.05). Two types of lactic acid bacteria treatments (LP and LB) of Italian ryegrass with dry matter content of 30% and 40% led to better ferment quality. The lactic acid content in the LP treatment was significantly higher than that in the other treatments (P<0.05), whereas the acetic acid content of the LB treatment was significantly higher than that in the other treatments (P<0.05). The ferment quality of Italian ryegrass with 30% and 40% dry matter content was better than that of 20% dry matter content in treatments with the same additive. Particularly, when the dry matter content was 40%, the pH of the control group was less than 4.2, which suggested that at this level of dry matter content, high quality silage can be prepared even without adding any additives. Evidently, wilting Italian ryegrass with a dry matter content of 30%40% treated with lactic acid bacteria can ensure high quality silage production. In unwilted Italian ryegrass, adding formic acid (4 mL·kg-1 FM) can preserve silage quality.
Analysis of biopesticide patents based on IncoPat
Ji-dong Bao, Jing-li Dang, Long Zhang
2017, 11(10): 2164-2170. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0549
[Abstract](809) [FullText HTML] (78) [PDF 1752KB](210)
We analysed patent data from 1997-2016 using the CNIPR patent database, evaluating the number of applicants, disclosing year, IPC classification and effective distribution by searching classification codes, key words and a combination of both by adopting tools like incoPat. The results showed that the number of biopesticidepatents in China steadily increased since the 1990s. The number of disclosed biopesticide patents grew by about 30% every year, reaching 14 022 in 2016. Invention was the main class of patents, accounting for 96.03%; enterprise was the main applicant, accounting for 36.11%. China’s development trend was consistent with the global trend. However, there are still gaps between China and the developed countries in research and development of new technologies in the field, therefore the strategic deployment of new technology development in the field should be enhanced. Additionally,intellectual property protection and patent documentation should be further strengthened.