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2016 Vol.33(7)

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2016, 10(7): 0-0.
[Abstract](532) [PDF 362KB](335)
Orginal Article
A review on biological soil crusts of grassland
Jie Ma, Xian-jiang Chen, Fu-jiang Hou
2016, 10(7): 1243-1252. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0414
[Abstract](282) [FullText HTML] (8) [PDF 1374KB](546)
Biological soil crusts are a complex covering integrities developing by combining cryptigams with bacteria,fungi and soil particles, and are widely distributed in each grassland type in the world, and play an active role in improving the ecological environment and prevention of grassland degradation. In recently years, many studies throughout the world have been conducted in this field, and these studies focus on the cognition of its function and effect. However, how biological soil crusts develop under global change and how they maintain the stability of the ecosystem are still not well documented. This paper reviewed the research achievements in this filed, and discussed the current shortage and future directions of the research, and these would encourage the biological soil crusts to further advance and helpful understand the soil evolution in grassland ecosystem.
The dynamics for abundance of nitrite reductase genes nirK and nirS in abandoned land
Huhe, Xian-Jiang Chen, Yun-Xiang Cheng
2016, 10(7): 1253-1259. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0751
[Abstract](1674) [FullText HTML] (372) [PDF 1286KB](416)
Determination of nitrite reductase gene (nirK and nirS) specific fragment by real-time quantitative PCR method, we studied the dynamics of denitrification microbial abundance in abandoned land soil with different abandoned years. The results showed that the nirK genotype denitrifier abundance were significantly higher than nirS genotype denitrifier abundance in 3 kinds of abandoned land for 1, 5, and 25 years and light grazing grassland. Both of genotypes denitrifier abundance were significant difference between the light grazing grassland and the three abandoned land soils (P<0.05), but there was no significant change among the 3 kinds of abandoned land soil. Moreover, there were extremely significantly negative linear relationship between the two genes abundance in the investigation soils (P<0.001), indicating that the nirK and nirS show different response to the environmental factors on their growth.
Impact of grazing on soil δ15N of mountainous grassland ecosystems over the northern Tianshan Mountains, China
2016, 10(7): 1260-1266. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0487
[Abstract](911) [FullText HTML] (84) [PDF 1278KB](332)
The total N and δ15N of rhizosphere soil 0-10 and 10-20, 20-30 cm of Stipa capillata, Festuca ovina, Carex turkestanica and Seriphidium borotalense in the mountainous grassland ecosystems over the northern Tianshan Mountains were measured. δ15N of dominant plants' rhizosphere soil in grazing and fencing grassland was compared to reveal the impacts of different usage patterns on δ15N of rhizosphere soil in different plants and different soil layer. The results indicated that the range of soil δ15N of mountainous grassland ecosystems over the northern Tianshan Mountains were from 2.25‰ to 16.03‰. Grazing significantly decreased δ15N in 0-10 cm soil. The δ15N in 0-30 cm soil of grazing grassland (7.14‰±0.67‰) increased by 2.8% than that of fencing grassland (6.95‰±0.34‰) although there was no significant difference between them. The δ15N in soil significantly increased with the increasing of soil depth in both grazing and fencing grassland and it had significantly negative correlation with soil total N. The impacts of grazing on δ15N in rhizosphere soil of different plants were different. The δ15N in the 0-30 cm rhizosphere soils of Stipa capillata and Festuca ovina in the grazing grassland were 17% and 53% higher than that in fenced grassland respectively. However, the δ15N in the 0-30 cm rhizosphere soils of Carex turkestanica and Seriphidium borotalense were lower than that in fenced grassland. The measurement of δ15N supported an aggregative indicator of N cyclic process in a typical area for the ecosystem and showed that grazing changed the N cycle of grassland ecosystem.
Spatial distribution characteristics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere of halophytes Phragmites australis in Xinjiang
Gui-zhen Li, Zhi-chao Chen, Xin-chuan Li, Jian-dong Sheng, Chang-fu Huang, Jun-xiang Jin
2016, 10(7): 1267-1274. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0631
[Abstract](791) [FullText HTML] (64) [PDF 1436KB](349)
In order to elucidate the spatial distribution characteristics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in rhizosphere of halophyte, roots and soil samples in the rhizosphere of Phragmites australis from three typical sites in northern Xinjiang were collected at 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-50 cm depth. The results showed that AM fungi could form symbiotic relationship with P. australis although salinization was main limiting factor for spatial distribution of AM fungi. AM fungi colonization rates and spore density were significantly different in different depth of saline soil. Colonization and arbuscule abundance of AM fungi had significant difference among three sites, and gradually decreased with the increase of soil depth, which reached the maximum in the 0-10 cm layer. Spore density also decreased with the increase of soil depth, which had the highest spore densities in the layer of 0-20 cm. Correlation analysis showed that spore density had very significant negative correlation (P<0.01) with the soil pH, electrical conductivity and available K. Colonization rate, infection intensity, arbuscule and hypha abundance had very significant positive correlation (P<0.01) with soil available P and available K, but had very significant negative correlation (P<0.01) with soil organic matter. The results provided reference for the usage of halophytes AM fungi resources and promote the vegetation repair and ecological restoration in saline land.
Germination characteristics of Cynodon dactylon seed in Xinjiang under PEG stress
Min-min Duan, Zong-jiu Sun, Pei-ying Li
2016, 10(7): 1275-1284. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0561
[Abstract](972) [FullText HTML] (86) [PDF 1545KB](438)
In order to understand drought resistance of 6 Bermuda grass germplasm at germinating stage and select suitable PEG concentrations for drought resistance selection, the seed germination rate, germination energy, germination index, radicle length, plumule length, ration of radicle to plumule and seedling weight were measured under 0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, 30.0% PEG (polyethylene glycol) stress and the drought resistance ability of these germplasm was determined using subordinate function method. The results showed that the seed germination percentage, germination energy, germination index of Bermuda grass significantly decreased (P<0.05) with the increase of drought stress, and the significant reduction of different indices did not appear in the same PEG concentration. Higher PEG concentration stress reduced seed radicle length, plumule length, ration of radicle to plumule and seedling weight. The optimal concentration to evaluate drought tolerance of Bermuda grass was 15% PEG. According to subordinate function analysis, the drought resistance of 6 Bermuda grass from strong to weak was Cd016, Cd043, Cd047, Cd002, Cd034, Cd013.
Potassium improves morphology and charactersistics of Poa pratensis under dronght stress
Jing-jing Li, Wei Li, Ya-jun Chen, Hui Yin, Yan-xia Li
2016, 10(7): 1285-1290. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0623
[Abstract](754) [FullText HTML] (66) [PDF 1257KB](439)
Morphological characteristics and growth indices of Kentucky bluegrass with different potassium supply levels and water conditions were tested to provide a theoretical basis and guidance for improving bluegrass drought resistance in turf production. The results showed that the appropriate potassium supply can improve the leaf morphological changes caused by drought stress, so as to improve the drought resistant ability of Kentucky bluegrass. The leaf morphological, green color index and biomass of plants under drought stress were improved with 0.15-0.30 g·kg-1 potassium supply, especially with 0.30 g·kg-1 potassium nutrition which had the best improvement of drought resistance of Kentucky bluegrass.
Screening of green substrate suitable for spraying and sowing in uncovering slope of arid and semi-arid zone
Tie-jun Liu, Jian-nan Lu, Zhe-qian Zhang, Li Ma, Dan-ni Wang, Qiong Zhang, Jin-rong Liu
2016, 10(7): 1291-1296. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0351
[Abstract](742) [FullText HTML] (46) [PDF 1294KB](349)
Arid and semi-arid region of uncovering slope in Loess Plateau had less annual precipitation with dry climate and intense evaporation in Gansu Province which leads to many problems of uncovering slope greening plants including germination difficult and lower survival rates. The present study compared the physicochemical properties of 6 different spraying and sowing substrate including biological fertilizer, super absorbent polymer, peatmoss, soil, straw and fast released fertilizer with different dosage and proportion and their effects on slope water evaporation, vegetation coverage and biomass in uncovering slope of loess plateau to screening green substrate suitable for these areas. The results showed that the substrate with peatmoss, soil and straw in a ratio of 40:45:15 and addition with 500 g·m-2 saline microbial fertilizer, 1 g·m-2 absorbent polymer and 25 g·m-2 fast released fertilizer can effectively reduce water evaporation, increase the vegetation coverage and aboveground biomass which was the most benifical for the growth of plants of Loess Plateau uncovering slope.
Symptoms and pathogen detection of alfalfa virus disease
Qi-yu Zhou, Qiao-lan Liang, Liang Han
2016, 10(7): 1297-1305. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0652
[Abstract](981) [FullText HTML] (93) [PDF 1485KB](342)
In order to investigate the symptoms, pathogen and host range of alfalfa virus diseases in Lanzhou City, Gansu Province, alfalfa virus diseases were investigated in field and pathogens were tested by DAS-ELISA. The results showed that the viral disease of alfalfa widely spread in Anning District and Gaolan County of Lanzhou and Jingtai County of Baiyin City and the highest incidence and disease index were 43.33% and 26.08, respectively, which were in Jingtai. A total of 90 sample were collected and 30 of them were detected which brought the detection ratio of 30%. Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), white clover mosaic virus(WCMV), bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) and cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) were main viral pathogen which had detection rates of 100.00%, 50.00%, 75.00%, 75.00%, respectively, and their mixed infection rate of 50.00%. There were 6 families, 17 genera and 18 species for host range testing. AMV can infect 6 families, 15 species, WCMV can infect 4 families, 8 species, BYMV and CPMV could infect 3 families, 7 species, and four kinds of virus could co-infect 6 families, 14 species of plants.
Effects of thiophanate methyl on seed borne Epichloë fungal endophyte of Achnatherum inebrians
Na-na Li, Yu-feng Zhao, Chao Xia, Rui Zhong, Xing-xu Zhang
2016, 10(7): 1306-1314. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0680
[Abstract](754) [FullText HTML] (81) [PDF 1531KB](381)
Achnatherum inebrians, a common toxic perennial bunchgrass in natural grassland of northwest China, was studied to explore the effect of systemic fungicide, thiophanate methyl(Tm), on fungal endophyte of A. inebrians at different concentrations and soak times. Tm had five concentrations and five distinct soak times respectively. The results of fungicide experiment indicated that the Tm diluted 100 times (100 Tm) was the most effective, but it significantly (P<0.05) decreased the germination index of seeds. Except the 100 Tm, the 200 times dilution Tm combined with 8 h treatment was considered to be the most effective which reduced the seeds infection rate of fungal endophyte from 100% to 38.8%, and did not significantly (P>0.05) affect the growth of seedlings. In conclusion, without regard to the seed germination index, the most effective way to kill the seed borne fungal endophyte was 100 times dilution Tm combined with 2 h treatment.
Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from liquorice plants
Chong Zhao, Ping Liao, Han-neng Zhang, Ya-lin Yang, Qin Zhang, Yan-bin Li, Li-li Zhang, Ke Zhao, Xiao-ping Zhang
2016, 10(7): 1315-1323. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0637
[Abstract](784) [FullText HTML] (99) [PDF 1345KB](393)
In the present study, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was employed to analyze the community structure and diversity of endophytic fungi of Glycyrrhiza inflate and G. glabra plants in Tarim basin, Xinjiang.The results showed that diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi of Liquorice were different either in different species or in different tissue of the same species. The diversity of endophytic fungi was richest in root (B1) of G. inflate and lowest in the fruit of G. glabra. Twenty five gel bands were purified and sequenced which belonged to eleven genera, including Acremonium, Metarhizium, Metacordyceps, Fusarium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Leotiomycetes, Sarocladium, Pseudogymnoascus, Aspergillus. Alternaria was dominant genera accounting for 32% of all sequences. All of the results revealed there was high diversity of endophytic fungi in the plant tissues of Liquorice and there was abundant endophytic fungi resource in Liquorice of Tarim basin, Xinjiang.
Control effect of herbicide “Langdujing” on Stellera chanaejasme control
Mei-ling Jing, Yu-shou Ma, Hong-sheng Wang, Shi-xiong Li, Miao Li, Yan-long Wang, Jin-xu Zhang
2016, 10(7): 1324-1334. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0460
[Abstract](832) [FullText HTML] (69) [PDF 1296KB](253)
Grassland degeneration leads to extensive spread of Stellera chamaejasme which has endangered domestic animals and becoming more and more seriously in recent years. In order to prevent the spreading of S. chamaejasme, the control effects of Herbicide “Langdujing” on S. chamaejasme were evaluated with three concentrations (750, 900, 1050 mL·hm-2) in Black River headwater area in July 2013. The results showed that Langdujing spraying with all three concentrations made S. chamaejasme lost its dominant position and inhibited the height, coverage and above-ground biomass of S. chamaejasme. The yields of monocotyledon forage grass slightly increased although there was no significant difference (P>0.05). The yields of dicotyledon significantly decreased (P<0.05). The concentrations of 1 050 mL·hm-2 had the best controlling efficiency on S. chamaejasme which was 94.92% .
A study on callus induction and plant regeneration in giant reed (Arundo donax)
Yan-qing Yang, Yong Wang, Mei-lan Zhu, Yun-hai Lu
2016, 10(7): 1332-1341. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0720
[Abstract](811) [FullText HTML] (106) [PDF 1719KB](345)
In this study, the aseptic seedlings of giant reed (Arundo donax) were firstly obtained from lateral shoot tips and young stem segments with axillary buds by root and bud induction on the MS medium with 0.2 mg·L-1 NAA+1.0 mg·L-1 KT. Then, five types of explants, including root segments, leaf segments, leaf segments of aseptic seedlings, stem segments of aseptic seedlings, stem segments with axillary buds, were examined for their callus inducing capacity on the MS medium with 1.0 mg mg·L-12,4-D+0.1 mg·L-1 KT. The results indicated that, no callus was induced from leaf segments as well as leaf segments of aseptic seedlings, only a small quantity of calli were induced from root segments but in rare cases, a low quantity of calli were induced from stem segments of aseptic seedlings in majority cases, and a large quantity of calli were induced in the base of axillary buds of stem segments. After 1~2 rounds of re-culture on the same medium, the calli (with an improved quality as well as an increased quantity) were transferred on the MS medium with 0.5 mg·L-1 KT+1.0 mg·L-1 6-BA, on which both shoots and roots were simultaneously induced with a large quantity, indicating a high capacity of callus differentiation and high propagation coefficient by plant regeneration in giant reed. This study provides a technical support for the application of biotechnology in giant reed breeding and propagation.
Research on the physiological characteristics of Miscanthus sinensis seedlings under the treatments of complex saline-alkaloid stress
Miao He, Huan Wang, Peng-fei Xu, Chang-le Liu, Yun-wei Zhou
2016, 10(7): 1342-1352. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0632
[Abstract](1375) [FullText HTML] (28) [PDF 1422KB](329)
Soil salinization is prevalent in the world. The increasingly salinization seriously threatens the growth and development of plants, which leads to the reduction of plant species. Miscanthus sinensis, which possesses good economic efficiency and ecological benefits, was a sort of emerging energy plant. In this study, M. sinensis introduced from A Jialing of Benxi City in Liaoning Province were used as materials. Through simulating the saline-alkali soil environment of Daqing in northeast of China which include low(4.147 5, 8.295 0 g·L-1), middle(12.442 5 g·L-1) and high concentration(16.590 0, 20.737 5 g·L-1), we studied each physiological index of the seedlings when they were in the complex saline-alkaloid stress treatment. The study found:When M. sinensis seedlings were in complex saline-alkaloid stress treatment, each index of CK group had a little change over time; the chlorophyll content in low concentration treatment showed a trend of rising first then falling; while in middle and high concentration treatment, the chlorophyll content dropped; the relative electrical conductivity and MDA content increasedover time; and the SOD, POD, CAT, APX, GR activity, ASA, GSH content and root activity were increased in low concentration, but in the treatment of high concentration, these indexes showed a trend of rising first then falling. This study basically defined the range of the saline-alkaloid tolerance of M. sinensis which can provide a theoretical basis for the salt-tolerant screening and applications in landscape of energy plants like M. sinensis in the future.
Effects of different temperatures on growth and ergot alkaloids concentrations of Achnatherum inebrians seedling-Epichloё sp. seedling
Zhi-wen Wan, Ying Cao, Zhen-jiang Chen, Chun-jie Li
2016, 10(7): 1353-1360. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0516
[Abstract](710) [FullText HTML] (55) [PDF 1294KB](327)
study was conducted to investigate the effects of different alternate temperatures (8 ℃/5 ℃, 15 ℃/12 ℃, 22 ℃/15 ℃, 28 ℃/25 ℃, 35 ℃/28 ℃) on variations of growth and ergot alkaloids concentrations of Achnatherum inebrians associated with Epichloё sp seedling. The results showed that the plant height, root length and biomass of A. inebrians had peak value under 22 ℃/15 ℃, and the plant height had significant differences (P<0.05) with the other four treatments; the root length with treatment of 22 ℃/15 ℃ was significant higher (P<0.05) than that with treatments of 28 ℃/28 ℃, 25 ℃ and 35 ℃/28 ℃; biomass with treatment of 22 ℃/15 ℃ was significant (P<0.05) higher than that with treatments of 8 ℃/ 5 ℃,28 ℃/25 ℃ and 35 ℃/ 28 ℃. The tiller number of A. inebrians had peak value under 15 ℃/12 ℃,and was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that with treatment of 8 ℃/5 ℃,28 ℃/25 ℃and 35 ℃/28 ℃. Chlorophyll was maximum under treatment of 15 ℃/22 ℃, and was significant higher (P<0.05) than that with treatments of 8 ℃/5 ℃,15 ℃/12 ℃and 35 ℃/28 ℃. Soluble sugar had no significant difference between these five temperature treatments. The contents of ergine and ergonovine had a peak value under 22 ℃ / 15 ℃ after 15 d,which had significant difference (P<0.05) with other treatments. In conclusion, the optimal temperature for seedling growth and the accumulation of ergine and ergonovine treatment was 22 ℃/15 ℃.
Effect analysis on the combining ability of main agronomic traits for new breeding restorer lines derived from forage sorghum
Xin Lyu, Jun-ai Ping, Fu-yao Zhang, Zhi-hong Du, Hui-ming Li, Ting-ting Yang, Hao Niu, Lin Yao
2016, 10(7): 1361-1366. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0265
[Abstract](655) [FullText HTML] (40) [PDF 1247KB](365)
30 hybridized combinations from 5 sterile lines and 6 restoring lines (IS722 by CK) were used to analyze the heritability and combining ability of 5 agronomic characters with a p×q incomplete diallel cross (NCⅡ) design. The results were as follows:among all the restorer lines tested,only 053423-2 showed positive effect on the 5 traits,especially for the general combing ability (GCA) in biological yields.The 9 combinations derived from TX623A/053423-2,SX14A/053423-2 and SX14A/(MamaMama/BMR)-1 etc.exhibited significant specific combing ability (SCA)and exceeded to IS722.General combing ability of (MamaMama /BMR)-1 in plant height and dry weight were significant and the highest.The combinations V4A/Jianbao-8-2,HC356A/An hui cao No.3,SX14A/Wan xi 3SM3-1,SX7A/An hui cao No.3 and V4A/(MamaMama /BMR)-1showed high biological yield.The results indicated that the 5 agronomic traits were controlled by both additive and non-additive effects,and the additive effects were the principal one. Comprehensive,(MamaMama/BMR)-1 and 053423-2 showed good general combining ability,An hui cao No.3 showed good special combining ability,they are the ideal restoring lines. The heredity of the five traits was in fluenced by the dual influence of both additive effect and non-additive effects, but the additive effect is dominant.The study by means of combining ability and heritability estimates of forage sorghum restoring lines,to understand the combining ability of forage sorghum restorer main characters,and cross breeding of choosing excellent parents and provides the basis for the optimal hybrid combinations.
Studies on production performance of new triticale lines in alpine pastoral areas of Gansu
Qian Song, Xin-hui Tian, Wen-hua Du
2016, 10(7): 1367-1374. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0701
[Abstract](796) [FullText HTML] (60) [PDF 1311KB](296)
In order to screen the suitable area for new triticale lines(P2, P4), the hay yield and nutrition were studied in the alpine pastoral areas(Sunan, Hezuo and Maqu) of Gansu province, with Shida No.1 and Zhongsi 1048 as control. The results showed that significant differences existedin triticale materials, experimental sites and the interaction between triticale materials and experimental sites (P<0.05). The averaged hay yield: P2(14.42 t·ha-1)>P4(11.72 t·ha-1)>Zhongsi 1048(10.03 t·ha-1)>Shida No.1(9.70 t·ha-1),CP content: P2(13.31%)>P4(12.17%)>Zhongsi 1048(8.37%)>Shida No.1(7.40%),NDF content:P2(61.65%)<Zhongsi 1048(63.82%)<P4(64.89%)<Shida No.1(68.14 %),ADF content: P2(41.97%)<Zhongsi 1048(42.15%)<P4(43.35%)<Shida No.1(45.06%). By comprehensive evaluation, the triticale new line P2 was the best with high yield and good quality and was suitable to be planted in alpine pastoral areas of Gansu Province.
Responses of oat seedlings to chilling stress
Xiao-ling Bai, Qing-ping Zhou, You-jun Chen, Li-hua Tian, Shi-yong Chen, Xue-jun Xiao
2016, 10(7): 1375-1382. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0510
[Abstract](705) [FullText HTML] (65) [PDF 1534KB](388)
In the present research, seven oat cultivars, including Qingyin No.1, Qingyin No.2, Qingyin No.3, Qinghai sweet oat, Qinghai 444, Qingyan No.1, and Linna, were treated with continuous chilling stress (5 ℃) with 0 h, 12 h, 36 h, and 60 h to compare their cold resistance. The results revealed that the activities of SOD (Superoxide dismutase), and POD (Peroxidase) and the contents of MDA (Malonaldehyde) and Pro (Proline) of all seven oat cultivars significantly increased under the chilling stress with 12, 36, and 60 h when compared with those of 0 h treatment. The activities of SOD, and POD and the contents of MDA and Pro of all seven oat cultivars reached the maximum with 12 h of chilling stress time (P<0.05), and then decreased with the extention of chilling stress time. The cold resistance of seven oat cultivars decreased in the following order Qingyin No.3 > Qinghai sweet oat > Qingyin No.2 > Linna > Qingyan No.1 > Qinghai 444 > Qingyin No.1.
Response of Leymus chinensis functional traits and aboveground biomass to nitrogen addition in Songnen grassland in northeast China
Yan-tao Song, Qiang Li, Ping Wang, Dao-wei Zhou, Wuyunna
2016, 10(7): 1383-1390. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0017
[Abstract](1032) [FullText HTML] (121) [PDF 1310KB](363)
The adaptive strategy of plant functional traits to resources change is one of the basic problems in ecology. In the present study, 11 plant functional traits and aboveground biomass of Leymus chinensis with different amount of nitrogen addition were determined. The results showed that nitrogen addition had significant effects on leaf chlorophyll a (Cha), chlorophyll b (Chb) and carotenoid (Cad) content, leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), and specific root length (SRL), however, had no effects on leaf phosphorus concentration (LPC), specific leaf area (SLA), leaf thickness (LT), stem specific density (SSD), and plant height (PH). There were significant correlation between Cha, Chb, Cd, LNC, LDMC, SSD and SRL. SLA, LT and PH had no significant correlation with other functional traits. The aboveground biomass of L. chinensis was the highest at 20 g·m-2 nitrogen addition. The aboveground biomass significantly increased with Cha, Chb, Cad, LNC, LPC, and PH increasing, but significantly decreased with LDMC and SSD increasing.
Niche characteristics of dominant plant populations in grassland of loess hilly region of China with different management styles
Wei Zhang, Jun-hao He, Wen-fang Hao
2016, 10(7): 1391-1402. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0647
[Abstract](964) [FullText HTML] (59) [PDF 1353KB](375)
In order to understand the response of niche characteristics of different plant communities to different management methods, five different managed grasslands including enclosure(E), lightly grazing(G), fertilization(F), clipping(C) and deratization(D) were investigated at YangQingChuang valley in Loess Hilly Region, China. Niche breadth and overlap indices were used to measure the niche characteristic of dominant plant populations, based on the field survey data got by “quadrat method”. The results showed that: The niche breadths of Lespedeza davurica, Artemisia sacrorum, Leymus secalinus, Artemisia scoparia and Poa sphondylodes which appeared in five treatments of the grasslands were larger than other species. The rank ordering between niche breadth in every population and total population were different in different management methods. Species which had the biggest niche breadth value in E, G, F, C and D were Lespedeza davurica, Leymus secalinus, Viola philippica, Lespedeza davurica, Artemisia scoparia respectively. And the number of species which had the niche breadth value greater than four in E, G, F, C and D were seven, six, three, three and three respectively. The order of niche overlap was as follows: E>G>F>C>D. In addition, the results demonstrated that there had no linear relationship between the niche overlap and niche breadth of tested species in the grasslands at four management styles except F. Niche analysis indicated that the E and G management styles resulted in the demand for resources tended to be the same between different populations. And different populations can coexist between each other by competition to facilitate the community succession. On the other hand, F, C and D management styles resulted in few individual plant species with strong competitiveness which destroyed the competition mechanism of grassland ecosystem and had negative effects of vegetation restoration. From the perspective of forages development, E, F and C management styles, are advantageous to superior forage grass progress.
Species diversity and functional groups responses to different seasonal grazing in alpine grassland
Yu Liu, Zhen-heng Liu, Lei Deng, Gao-lin Wu
2016, 10(7): 1403-1409. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0210
[Abstract](2292) [FullText HTML] (283) [PDF 1289KB](500)
To determine the effects of grazing on alpine grassland ecosystem, the response of the diversity and the functional group to different seasonal grazing which was divided warm-season grazing (June to October) and cold-season grazing (the other months) in alpine grassland was analyzed. The results showed that the diversity and evenness index in warm-season grassland was significantly greater than that in cold-season grassland, however, the richness index was reverse. showed a contrary trend. Above-ground biomass, the proportion of sedge and legume function group in warm-season grazing grassland was significantly greater than that in cold-season grazing grassland. Our results suggest that under a suitable grazing intensity, warm-season grazing would be beneficial to maintain the higher species diversity and evenness sustainability, and cold-season grazing would be beneficial to accumulate above-ground biomass in alpine grassland.
Influences of temperature and humidity conditions on flight capacity and main utilization of energy substances in Oedaleus asiaticus
Shu-jing Gao, Hai-bin Han, Ning Wang, Lin-bo Xu, Ai-ping Liu, Temuer
2016, 10(7): 1410-1417. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0461
[Abstract](800) [FullText HTML] (61) [PDF 1302KB](322)
This study aimed to determine the impact of temperature and humidity conditions on the flight capacity and main utilization of energy substances to adults of Oedaleus asiaticus B. Bienko. The flight capability differences between female and male adults of O. asiaticus at 10 day ages as well as the impact of temperature and humidity on utilization of energy substances were studied by a flight-mill method. The results showed that 10 day ages O. asiaticus exhibited the strongest flight capacity under 28 ℃ and 60% relative humidity (RH), the maximum flight duration, distance and speed of single adult reached to 1.62 h、9.87 km and 2.03 km·h-1, respectively. The flight capacity for O. asiaticus was dramatically decreased under 16 ℃ or above 28 ℃. In the range of 40%~80% RH, the flight speed was normal. The relation between humidity and flight distance was similar to flight time. When the temperature increased, the flight time prolonged and the flight speed increased. The results indicated that flight temperature and humidity had significant effects on the consumption and utilization of flight energy substances. The grasshopper consumed less energy materials (triglyceride) when they flew in the suitable temperature and humidity, while consumed more when the ambient temperature and humidity beyond the suitable scopes. The different utilization efficiency of flight energy substances was one of the main reasons leading to different flight capacity in different temperature and humidity.
Response of the functional of Hippodamia variegate preying on pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum to sublethal doses of 3 insecticides
Qiao-yan Yang, Wei Chen, Xiao-ling Sun, Chang-zhong Liu
2016, 10(7): 1418-1425. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0559
[Abstract](1159) [FullText HTML] (39) [PDF 1337KB](287)
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on functional response of Hippodamia variegate preying on Acyrthosiphon pisum, and thus provide some useful theoretical references for the effective coordination of chemical and biological control. We utilized sublethal doses of 3 insecticides, imidacloprid, abamectin and alphacypermethrin, and studied the changes of predatory capacities, functional response predator-prey model, predatory rates and searching efficiency on H. variegate by the two models of stomach poisoning and contacting toxicity. The results showed that among sublethal doses of 3 insecticides, the effect of beta-cypermethrin on H. variegate was the maximum, while imidacloprid was the minimum. In sublethal doses of pesticides, the functional response models of H. variegate preying on A. pisum were still conformed to Holling’s type Ⅱ curve in spite of pretreated with sublethal doses of insecticide; while the parameters of models had some changes. The discovery rates decreased by 6.01%~25.81%; the handling time prolonged by 17.32%~71.82%; and the maximal predatory capacities reduced by 14.75%~41.80%. Besides, the predatory capacities, predatory rates and searching efficiency decreased by 6.71%~37.36%, 9.81%~29.45% and 29.58%~7.85%, respectively. These findings suggested that 3 insecticides at sublethal level had some inhibition influence on the predation of H. variegate.
Effect of different moisture contents on fermentation quality of baling silage of monoculture oat and oat and common vetch mixture
Ze-liang Ju, Gui-qin Zhao, Fang-cuo Qin, Ting Jiao
2016, 10(7): 1426-1433. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0498
[Abstract](906) [FullText HTML] (62) [PDF 1310KB](370)
In order to study the effects of different moisture contents and single silage and mixed silage on the quality of baling silage, oat (Avena sativa) silage alone, oat and common vetch (Vicia sativa) mixed silage (6:4) were wilted to target moisture contents (45%~50% (A1) and 65%~70% (A2) for baling silage. These bales were sampled on 40, 80 and 120 days after ensiling, with 3 replicates for each treatment. The results showed that moisture contents, silage alone and mixed silage had significant effects on silage quality. Treatments at 65%~70% moisture content had more stable contents of crude protein (CP)、lactic acid (LA) and water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), lower pH value and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) counts, showing a better ensiling effectiveness. Treatment A1 had much larger decreasing amount than A2 on CP content. A2H significantly reduced pH value, and its LA content remained the highest at 40, 80 and 120 d, still up to 0.82% on 120 d, 64.00% higher than the lowest A1CK (0.50%). Treatments at mixed seeded oat and vetch can significantly improve the quality of silage fermentation. After 40 d of ensiling, A2H had the highest calcium and phosphorus contents (1.34% and 0.24%), and A1H was in the second (1.16% and 0.23%), which were significantly (P<0.01) higher than control. In addition, the CP content of A1 and A2H was 31.94% and 14.70% higher than that of control after 80 d of ensiling, respectively. In conclusion, in alpine pastoral area of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, mixed seeding oat and vetch harvested at grain filling and flowering stage respectively, with 65%~70% moisture content could significantly improve the quality of baling silage.
Impact of the new Seed Law on Chinese herbage variety approval and registration system
Xiao Qi, Man-li Li, Qi-zhong Sun
2016, 10(7): 1434-1439. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0171
[Abstract](900) [FullText HTML] (89) [PDF 1241KB](259)
Variety approval and registration is the core of variety management. The variety approval system has been largely changed due to the promulgation of the new Seed Law. On the basis of deeply interpretation of the rules associating with herbage variety approval and registration in the new Seed Law, the purpose of the paper is to answer questions for herbage varieties breeders, and prove the rule by which a new herbage variety should be approved and registered before widely promotion being valid. The authors promote suggestions on perfecting the herbage variety approval and registration system with the reference of the reform ideas of crop seed variety approval and registrationsystem.
Discussion on the regulatory legislation of banning grazing and delay grazing
Zheng Wang
2016, 10(7): 1440-1446. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0565
[Abstract](773) [FullText HTML] (77) [PDF 1226KB](418)
Banning grazing and delaying grazing have become major ways to protect and nurture the ecological vegetation, andaneffective meanto curb grassland desertification. Compared to the institutionaldemand, there are severalissuesto be perfected with respect to the regulatory legislation of banning and delaying grazing. The paper investigates the existing regulatory problems in the process of banning and delaying grazingfrom the perspective of legislation level, regulatory system, and legal responsibility. Furthermore, this studyfocuses on the effective ways to improve the regulatory legislation, and promotes relevantseveral legislative proposals.