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2015 Vol.32(7)

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2015, 9(7): 0-.
[Abstract](1277) [PDF 2896KB](490)
Soil seed banks of cropland and rangeland on the Loess Plateau
An HU, Hao CHEN, Xian-jiang CHEN, Fu-jiang HOU
2015, 9(7): 1035-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0266
[Abstract](1109) [PDF 531KB](285)
In order to compare the relationship between soil seed banks of cropland and rangeland on the Loess Plateau, and to explore the agricultural production structure of the Loess Plateau, the present article studied the density and composition of soil seed banks in 0 to 10 cm soil layer under different utilization using germination experiment. The results showed that average density of soil seed for cropland, abandoned land and enclosure rangeland was 1 455 seedsm-2, 1 008 seedsm-2 and 5 044 seedsm-2, respectively, with a total of 7 species, 3 species and 12 species, respectively. Due to unreasonable usage of land resource, the density, diversity and richness of soil seed banks for abandoned land were the lowest with serious soil desertification. Enclosure rangeland had the highest soil seed density, diversity and richness which suggested that soil seed banks in a certain extent played an important role on the surface vegetation restoration and update. Therefore, the traditional agriculture structure of the Loess Plateau area with fragile ecological environment should be changed to increase grass nurture and enclosed time, which in turn increase the density, diversity and abundance of surface vegetation, and then improve the ecological environment.
Effects of soil substrate on the survival rate and component characteristics of Zoysia sinica cutting seedlings
jian CAI, Xiao-jing ZHANG, ying LI, Xiao-lin ZENG, Jin-ping LIU
2015, 9(7): 1041-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0499
[Abstract](994) [PDF 452KB](251)
In order to explore the effect of soil substrates on cutting seedling survival rate and component of Zoysia sinica, cutting propagation was carried out using 5 different soil substrates including purple soil, humus soil, coarse sand soil, residual soil after construction, and stony soil. The survival rate, germination index, component characteristics and biomass structure parameters were measured. The results showed that the substrate had significant influence (P<0.05) on the survival rate and germination index of insert spic with the greatest influence on germination number on 9th day and shoot length on 30th day(P<0.01). Substrate also had significant influence on the root and stem characteristics, underground and above ground biomass of seedling with extremely significant effect (P<0.01) on the ratio of root to stem and underground biomass ratio, however, had very little influence on the leaf characteristics. Purple soil was helpful to the tiller formation, and residual soil was beneficial to the growth of stem and biomass allocating to the aboveground whereas the stony soil was beneficial to biomass transport to underground. Based on these results, the appropriate technical measures combined with the substrate type should be employed to improve the quality of lawn when planted and maintained.
The distribution rules of soil water in alfalfa field with subsurface drip irrigation
Shu-zhen ZHANG, Xian-hua ZHANG, Xiao-qing SUI, Yan WANG, Jin-zhong ZHU
2015, 9(7): 1047-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0464
[Abstract](1300) [PDF 784KB](336)
The experiment was conducted in the alfalfa field to study the soil water content distribution after the subsurface drip irrigation, in order to provide some theoretical references for the application of subsurface drip irrigation in alfalfa cultivation. Eleven pressure treatments and three irrigation amounts (600, 750 and 900 m3ha-1 ) were set to evaluate the effect of the different work pressures on the dripper discharge and the effects of the irrigation amounts on the soil water infiltration and redistribution from the horizontal and vertical level. The results showed that dripper discharge increased with work pressure increasing which had logarithmic function relationship. The shape of soil wetting front changed with the time of irrigation which was approximate sphere within 30 minutes of irrigation, and was ellipsoid after 30 minutes, and then was Tanshape after 120 minutes of irrigation. The vertical wetted depth increased with the irrigation amount which had a logarithmic relationship. There were significant differences among soil water content of seven layers (P0.05) after 48 h of irrigation. The 0-30 cm layer had the higher soil water content than the other layers in vertical direction. The soil water content decreased with the distance increase from drip irrigation belt in horizontal direction. The soil water content increased with increase of the irrigation amount at 0-50 cm layer of 10 cm sampling point, other sites had no obvious relationships between soil water content and irrigation amount.
Soil phosphorus and influencing factors in the grasslands at different elevations on westslope of Helan Mountain, Inner Mongolia
Xiong-ru SONG, Zhen-yan SHANG, Xu-dong LI, Hua FU
2015, 9(7): 1054-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0133
[Abstract](968) [PDF 720KB](411)
In order to understand the soil phosphorus (P) distribution in different types of grasslands at different elevations and analyze the effects of meteorological factors, soil properties and vegetation on the soil phosphorus, a study was conducted on the westslope of Helan Mountain in Alxa, Inner Mongolia. The results indicated that total soil phosphorus (TP) in both 0-10 and 10-20 cm soil layers declined with decreasing altitude and significantly positively correlated (P<0.05) with the contents of soil organic carbon and soil particle less than 0.05 mm and vegetation coverage. There was no consistent regularity for vertical distribution of TP content along the soil profiles and distribution of soil available phosphorus (AP) along altitude and grassland types. The ratios of AP/TP in both 0-10 and 10-20 cm soil layers significantly positively correlated (P<0.05) with soil pH and annual average air temperature which suggesting that soil pH and temperature could significantly affect the activation of soil phosphorus. In most of the plots, AP content in 0-10 cm soil layers were significantly higher than that in 10-20 cm soil layers maybe as the result of surface accumulation effects of vegetation to soil phosphorus.
Characteristics of climate change, grain yield and climate productivity potential during last 53 years in Qinghai Province
Xiao-dong LI, Ai-jun HU, Dong-lin QI, Feng-xia LI, Li WANG, Ji-hong LIU
2015, 9(7): 1061-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0425
[Abstract](1013) [PDF 2252KB](376)
Based on temperature and precipitation data during 1961-2013 in Qinghai Province, characteristics of climate change were analyzed and climate productivity potential (TSPV) was calculated by Thornthwaite Memorial model to explore the relationship between grain yield and climate productivity potential. The results showed that annual average temperature significantly increased during 1961-2013 with increase rate of 0.40 ℃10a-1 and precipitation slightly increased with increase rate of 6.0 mm10a-1. However, sunshine hours and relative humidity decreased. During last decade since 2002, the total grain yield had correlation with climate productive potential with the correlation coefficient of 0.29 (P 0.05) and TSPV showed an abrupt change from 2002. TSPV varied from 323.39 to 478.48 gm-2a-1 during 1961-2013 with great annual variation and weak increase at rate of 0.914 gm-2a-1.
A study on vegetation coverage change in Korla City based on the TM NDVI
Zhao-zhao CAI, Sha-zhou AN, Zhi PU, Yong-jian HUAI
2015, 9(7): 1069-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0500
[Abstract](909) [PDF 2926KB](327)
The vegetation coverage changes in Korla region have crucial impacts on local and regional climate, agriculture and economy. This study uses the Landsat TM data to investigate the vegetation coverage changes in this region from 1990 to 2011 (four periods in 1990, 1998, 2006, and 2011). The vegetation coverage is calculated using the NDVI data, derived from raw TM images, and a mixed pixel model. We further classify the vegetation coverage into four categories and analyze the main characteristics of its changes using transpose matrices of each vegetation coverage category and land use data. The results show that, overall, the vegetation coverage has improved from 1990 to 2011 in the Korla City region. The area with increased vegetation is 23.8% higher than that with decreased vegetation. The vegetation coverage in southeastern sector oasis plain greatly increased, while vegetation degraded in the north and south region.
The characteristics of Festuca sinensis and its breeding potential
Pei TIAN, Yu KUANG, Zhi-biao NAN
2015, 9(7): 1079-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0438
[Abstract](1193) [PDF 710KB](319)
Festuca sinensis is an important perennial bunchgrass with strong tolerance to drought, cold and salinity in the alpine regions of China. The development and applications of F. sinensis plays an important role in establishment of grassland and restoration of degradation ecosystems. The present paper reviews the biology characters of F. sinensis and analysis the relationship between F. sinensis and endophyte. Key areas for further endophyte application should focus on identification and characterisation of novel F. sinensis endophytes for generation of endophyte safe and stress tolerance forage varieties to establish high value pasture.
The influence of roots cutting technology on alfalfa production
Fu-qin HOU, Zhuan-ping LV, Xu-hui MENG
2015, 9(7): 1088-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0285
[Abstract](1101) [PDF 545KB](303)
In the present study, the production, profits and factors increasing yields of alfalfa treated with roots cutting technology for extending the remaining period were analysis to reduce production cost and improve the economic benefit in Mosso Bay agricultural areas, Shihhotze based on local climatic conditions and drip irrigation technology. The results showed that regreening stage of alfalfa with root cutting advanced 4 days than that of alfalfa without root cutting. For the first four crop, the branch density and height of alfalfa with root cutting were always higher than those of alfalfa without root cutting. The yields of alfalfa both with root cutting and without root cutting were highest in the 3rd and 4th year. The yields of alfalfa in 4th, 5th and 6th with root cutting in 3rd year significantly increased (P0.05) by 14.4%, 29.5% and 26.7%, respectively, compared with that of alfalfa without root cutting. The water use efficiency of alfalfa both with root cutting and without root cutting were highest in the 4th year which was 0.032 and 0.037 kgg-1, respectively, and that of alfalfa decreased rapidly, the same trend for yield. Compared with alfalfa without root cutting, the profits of alfalfa production with root cutting increased by 15.29% from the fourth year to the sixth year. All of these results suggested that the roots cutting technology was very useful to improve alfalfa production in the studied area.
Effects of silicon on Agropyron cristatum seed germination under alkaline stress
Yi-gong ZHANG, Yu WANG, Meng LIU, Shu-jun YANG, Hui-hui ZHANG
2015, 9(7): 1093-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0525
[Abstract](847) [PDF 945KB](453)
In order to study the effects of silion on seeds germination of Agropyron cristatum cv. Tawukumu under alkaline stress, the seeds performance under alkaline +silicon treatments including five alkaline (NaHCO3) stress levels (10,30,60,90 and 120 mmolL-1) with 1.0 mmolL-1 Na2SiO3 solution were evaluated. The results showed that Na2SiO3 treatment significantly increased (P0.05) germination energy, germination percentage, seed germination index, vigor index, biomass of shoot and root and significantly reduced (P0.05) germination time. The results preliminary explained that silicon involved in the germination under alkaline stress,reduced osmotic stress and ion toxicity and enhanced seed resistance.
The methods to breaking seed dormancy of Stipa glareosa
Ke-biao LIU, Fa-ming LI, Yuan-kai ZHANG
2015, 9(7): 1099-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0435
[Abstract](1189) [PDF 1282KB](284)
In order to effectively break the Stipa glareosa seed dormancy, different seed treatment methods were employed and their effects on seed germination were measured. The results showed that the seed water absorption percentage, germination percentage, and germination potential were 26.32%, 38%, and 32%, respectively, if soaking seed in 60 ℃ distilled water for 24 h to break the seed coat dormancy. Seed germination percentage was 34% if mechanical pierced the seed coat. Germination percentage and germination potential were 48% and 46%, respectively, if seed kept in -20 and -20 ℃ cryogenic alterating temperature for 96 h to break the embryo physiological dormancy. Seed germination percentage and germination potential were 58% and 54%, respectively, if removing threequarters of endosperm. And seed germination percentage and germination potential were 54% and 48%, respectively, if soaking seed in 80 mgL-1 GA3 solution for 24 h. The germination percentage and germination potential were 78% and 76%, respectively, if combined the above treatments with alternating temperature + soaking + GA3. The effects of germination inhibitors in seeds on germination percentage of S. glareosa were greater than that of impermeable coat of seed. The germination peaked time was in first 2~5 d, as well as in first 2~8 d by removal of the endosperm and GA3 solution soaking seeds.
Response of growth and chlorophyll fluorecence characteristics of Cynodon dactylon seedlings to water treatment and plant densities
Cheng-cheng ZENG, Jin-ping CHEN, Zhen-xia WANG, Zhong-min JIA, Hong WEI
2015, 9(7): 1107-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0079
[Abstract](1002) [PDF 1359KB](358)
In order to explore the effects of different water treatments and plant densities on growth, photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence of Cynodon dactylon, 4 water treatments and 4 planting densities including 16 treatments were applied. The water treatments included normal water supply (CK), light floodinglight drought alternating (FD), light flooding (LF) and flooding (FL) and planting densities included 1 plant per pot (CK), 2 plants per pot (low density), 4 plants per pot (medium density), and 12 plants per pot (high density). The results showed that water treatments, plant densities and their interaction significantly affected (P0.05) the total leaf area, total biomass per plant, main stem length, the total chlorophyll, carotenoid content, the ratios of chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll/carotenoid in C. Dactylon although the ratios of the chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll/carotenoid of each treatment can stay a normal level. Water treatment significantly affected (P0.05) the values of Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo and qP and the interaction of water treatments and plant densities significantly affected (P0.05) the values of qP although plant densities had little effect on fluorescence properties. These results suggested C. dactylon may be suitable for ecological restoration in the riparian zone with medium density.
Responses of photosynthesis, growth and water use efficiency of Avena sativa to drought under different CO2 concentrations
Jin-chun LIU, Johannes H.C. Cornelissen
2015, 9(7): 1116-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0501
[Abstract](1076) [PDF 637KB](355)
The interaction of CO2 concentration and soil moisture on photosynthesis, growth and water use efficiency in oat (Avena sativa) was observed in the walkin CO2 chamber. The results showed that low CO2 concentration inhibited photosynthesis and biomass production of oat greatly while elevated CO2 promoted them slightly. With soil moisture content declined, net photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency didnt change, whereas biomass and leaf N contents slightly decreased, and the ratio of root to shoot increased at low CO2 concentration. Net photosynthetic rate, the ratio of root to shoot and water use efficiency increased, whereas biomass significantly decreased, and leaf N content did not change at high CO2 concentration. These results suggested that low CO2 concentration did not intensify the negative effects of drought, and high CO2 concentration failed to relieve the negative effects of drought stress on oat. The adaptation of oat to low CO2 concentration may limit its responses to future high CO2 concentration.
The resistance of Stylosanthes guianesis to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides induced by methyl jasmonate and K2HPO4
Kang-rong WU, Feng-min LIU, Wei-li ZHANG, Zi-jian CHEN, Dai-qi XU, Zhi-hui Li, Xi-mei LUO, Guo-sen LIN
2015, 9(7): 1124-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0410
[Abstract](1010) [PDF 593KB](297)
The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and K2HPO4 on induced resistance of Stylosanthes guianesis cv CIAT184 to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were studied. The results indicated that the disease indexes of S. guianesis decreased significantly (P0.05) by treatments of MeJA with concentration ranged from 0.001 to 0.1 mgmL-1 and K2HPO4 with concentration ranged from 10~50 mmolL-1. The optimal concentration of MeJA and K2HPO4 treatment was 0.001 mgmL-1 and 30 mmolL-1, respectively, which had induced effects of 64.84% and 54.40%, respective. The activities of POD and PPO in plants treated with 0.001 mgmL-1 MeJA increased and reached maximum at 48 hour after inoculation, which were significantly (P0.05) higher than those in control plant without MeJA. The activities of POD and PPO in plants treated with 30 mmolL-1 K2HPO4 increased and reached maximum at 48 hour and 24 hour after inoculation, respectively, which were significantly (P0.05) higher than those in control plants without K2HPO4. These results suggested that MeJA and K2HPO4 increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes like POD and PPO in the early stage after inoculation to improve the resistance of S. guianesis to anthracnose after inoculation. The activities of CAT in plants treated with 30 mmolL-1 K2HPO4 increased from 48 hour to 72 hour after inoculation, which were significantly (P0.05) higher than those in control plants without K2HPO4. However, the activities of CAT in plants treated with 0.001 mgmL-1 MeJA were similar with those in control plants without MeJA excepted with the former one was significantly (P0.05) lower than later one at 72 hour after inoculation. These results indicated that the induced effects of these two chemicals on the disease resistance of S. guianesis to C. gloeosporioides were related with the activities and induced time of POD, PPO and CAT.
The dynamics comparisons of nutritional quality of different Bothriochloa ischaemum populations in Shanxi
Qi-wu JI, Ru-dan HAN, Kuan-hu DONG
2015, 9(7): 1130-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0529
[Abstract](1020) [PDF 442KB](246)
In the present study, the nutritional values of nine Bothriochloa ischaemum populations from Shanxi were evaluated by conventional methods to explore the dynamics changes of nutritional quality during growth stage. The results showed that the contents of crude protein(CP), EE declined with plants growth and development, whereas the contents of NDF, ADF and ADL increased. In the same growth stage, there were significant differences (P0.05) in the contents of CP, EE, NDF, ADF and ADL among the different populations. In the jointing stage, plants of Xiangfen population had the highest contents of CP, EE and the lowest contents of NDF, ADF and ADL indicating its highest nutritional value at this stage. In the booting stage, plants of Qinyuan population had the highest contents of CP, EE suggesting its the highest nutritional value at this stage. In the heading, flowering and mature stage, the comprehensive performance of nutritional contents of plants from Taigu population was best, followed by the Qinyuan and Yuanping populations.
Effects of fertilizing on the forage production and quality of alpine grassland
Pei-bin FU, You-min GAN, Hong-xuan ZHANG, Ping-gui YANG, Li-juan GUO, Hua ZENG, Li-kun CHEN, Xue-lian ZHANG, Jing-yue XUE, Tao LIU, jian SU, Wei GAO, Jia-ping HONG
2015, 9(7): 1137-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0490
[Abstract](1142) [PDF 950KB](344)
Soil fertility declined and weeds invasion was the primary reason which led to grassland production and forage quality decreased in alpine. In order to study the effects of fertilizing in different seasons with different levels on the grassland production and forage quality, a fertilizing experiment with completely randomized blocks design was conducted on the alpine grassland with Elymus sibiricus as dominant species. The results showed that fertilizing in Spring and Spring+Autumn contributed to increase dry matter production of grassland community and Poaceae, and further restrained weeds growth, especially, fertilizing with 225 kgha-1 in Spring had most significant effect(P0.05). However, fertilizing in Autumn had no significant effects. Meanwhile, fertilizing in Spring+Autumn and Autumn could maintain higher forage quality on the alpine grassland. Hence, in order to maintain higher production and forage quality, fertilizing with 75 kgha-1 in Spring+Autumn was optimal.
Studies on the optimal cutting period of forage triticale in Dingxi area
Ya-jiao ZHAO, Xin-hui TIAN, Wen-hua DU
2015, 9(7): 1143-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0340
[Abstract](956) [PDF 791KB](241)
The forage triticale new variety P2 was cut at the booting, heading, flowering and milking stage and the indices including the fresh weight, hay yield, fresh dry radio, crude protein content, height, aciddetergent fiber content and neutral detergent fiber were determined. And then, the grey correlation analysis was employed to comprehensive evaluated these indices to select the optimal cutting period for this forage triticale variety. The results showed that the hay yield peaked at the milking stage with 21.58 tha-1 whereas the crude protein yield peaked at the heading stage with 2.24 tha-1 and highest comprehensive evaluation. Based on these results, the plants should be cut at milking stage for higher economic efficiency and cut at heading stage for best utilization efficiency.
Correlation analysis between SNPs of A-FABP gene and characteristics of carcass and meat quality in Zaosheng Cattle
Sheng-guo ZHAO, Hong-jie TANG, Ting JIAO, Li-shan LIU, Rui ZHOU, Zhen-fei XU
2015, 9(7): 1150-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0316
[Abstract](1056) [PDF 674KB](339)
In order to study the polymorphism of A-FABP gene and its correlation with the characteristics of carcass and meat quality in Zaosheng cattle (Bos taurus), the SNPs of A-FABP gene in five groups of Zaosheng cattle (Qingyang, Pingliang, Hybrid of Qingyang with South Devon, Hybrid of Simmental with Pingliang and Hybrid of Qinchuan with Pingliang) were detected using PCR-SSCP and their characteristics of carcass and meat quality were analyzed. The results showed that there was a base mutation at c.280 AG of A-FABP gene in exon 2 which lead to three genotypes AA, AG and GG. The statistical correlation analysis indicated that dressing percentage of AG genotype was extremely significantly higher (P0.01) than that of AA genotype. Percentage of net meat in GG genotype was extremely significantly higher (P0.01) than that of AA genotype. The WBSF of AA genotype was significantly higher (P0.05) than that of AG genotype. These results suggested that the site mutation of A-FABP gene could be considered as maker to carcass and meat quality. Key words: Zaosheng cattle; A-FABP gene; SNPs; carcass quality; meat quality traits
Diversity and community structure of beetles in Yunwu Mountain grassland, NingXia
Zhang-xun WANG, Yun-hui ZHANG, Xin-pu WANG
2015, 9(7): 1156-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0528
[Abstract](863) [PDF 646KB](302)
In order to investigate the community structure and species diversity of beetles in five sampling areas including core grassland region, core forest region, caragana land, buffer grassland region, experimental grassland region in Yunwu Mountain National Nature Reserve of Ningxia, the survey combined pitfall trap and sweep net was conducted from June to September in 2013. A total of 8 841 beetles, belonging to 95 species from 23 families, were collected. Carabidae, Cetoniidae, Tenebrionidae, Scarabaeidae and Silphidae were dominant groups in Yunwu Mountain National Nature Reserve because Carabidae had 4 762 individuals which was maximum, accounted for 53.86%, and Cetoniidae was second maximum, accounted for 19.32%, and Tenebrionidae, Scarabaeidae and Silphidae had more individuals than other families. Both Shannon diversity index and species richness index of beetles were the highest in the core forest region which was 2.25 and 7.55, respectively. Both dominance index and species richness index were the lowest in core grassland region. Both Shannon diversity index and evenness index were the lowest in the caragana land. There were no significant difference(P>0.05) for evenness index between these five sampling sites. The similarity analysis showed that the similarity coefficient buffer area and experimental area was 0.514 7 which was moderately similar, the similarity coefficient between the others ranged from 0.25 to 0.5 which was moderately dissimilar.
Effects of Pulsatilla chinensis and its active ingredientsaponin on immunity and antioxidation of weaned piglets
Jing CHEN, Tong WANG, Qi CHENG, Xian-jun LIU
2015, 9(7): 1164-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0496
[Abstract](1023) [PDF 470KB](294)
The present study investigated the effect of Pulsatilla chinensis and its active ingredientsaponin on immunity and antioxidation of weaned piglets. One hundred and twenty crossbred pigs with the same age (282 d) were randomly divided into 6 groups with different diet including basal diet as control, basal diet with 150 mgkg-1 P. chinensis as treatment 2, basal diet with 300 mgkg-1 P. chinensis as treatment 3, basal diet with 12.5 mgkg-1 saponin of P. chinensis as treatment 4, basal diet with 25 mgkg-1 saponin of P. chinensis as treatment 5, basal diet with antibiotics as treatment 6. The results showed pigs fed diets supplemented with P. chinensis and saponin had significant greater amount (P0.05) of IFN, IL1, IgG and IgM in 14 d and C4 in 28 d, but had no significant effect(P0.05) on serum IgA and C3 content compared to pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed diets supplemented with P. chinensis and saponin had significant greater (P0.05) serrum TAOC in 14 d and significant lower (P0.05) serum MDA in 14 d and 28 d compared to pigs fed the control diet. The experiment indicated that P. chinensis and its active ingredientsaponin improved immunity and antioxidation of pigs which were superior to antibiotics. Dietary supplement of 300 mgkg-1 P. chinensis or 12.5 mgkg-1 saponin was optimal.
Optimized design and application of meat goat sheds in arid-hot valley of Yuanmou
Guang-xiong HE, Liang-tao SHI, Zhi-xian PAN, Jian-cheng FAN, Xing-yang CAI, Qing-yong SHAO
2015, 9(7): 1170-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0403
[Abstract](978) [PDF 1489KB](367)
Sheds design is an important technology to large-scale and intensive farming in goat breeding. More and more attentions were paid to establishment and optimization of shed craft modes to meet the dual demands of regional development and ecological construction. The present study analyzed the climate characteristics in past decade and discussed and evaluated the optimal design of goat sheds in these aridhot valley climate conditions in Yuanmou County, Yunnan. The climate characteristics in Yuanmou aridhot valley were long hours of sunshine, distinct wet and dry season, perennial hot and dry, more southeast wind, hydrothermal contradiction and great differ temperature in days with an annual average temperature of 21.9 ℃, annual precipitation 680.7 mm and annual average evaporation 3 640.5 mm. Based on these climate characteristics, the optimal sheds design was proposed with prevention of heatstroke and drought hazard and balance temperature and humidity locating in geological stable and easily managed sites sitting south to north direction in the valley. Meanwhile, optimization design based on climate characteristics with half-opened and high bed sheds for dry and hot valley mutton goat shed effectively decreased pens temperature and balanced temperature and humidity which meet the standard requirements for mutton goat breeding and production.
The project instruction research of 《Cultivation Techniques of Forage Crop》
Hai-cong1 LIU, Cangmula2
2015, 9(7): 1179-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0498
[Abstract](970) [PDF 461KB](269)
Project instruction can stimulate enthusiasm and initiative of students and improve the quality and efficiency of teaching. The present paper described the background of teaching reform, discussed the design and implementation of the course project teaching and estimated the effect of projectized teaching for achieving the favorable teaching effect.
Application of bioactive substance in alfalfa on animals
Xiao-xin ZUO, dan-dan YAO, Jin-shun ZHAN, guo-qi ZHAO
2015, 9(7): 1185-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0504
[Abstract](907) [PDF 487KB](312)
Alfalfa is good source for bioactive substance such as polysaccharides saponins and flavonoids which can significantly affect the growth, reproductive performance and immune function of animals. In the present paper, we discussed the biological functions and the latest achievements of bioactive substance around the world. The bioactive substances can be used as feed additives in animal because the appropriate amount of alfalfa active substances may increase immunity by promoting the level of lymphocyte, and have antioxidant functions by improving the activities of glutathione peroxidase, inhibiting malondialdehyde, can also improve production and reproductive performance.
The composition and distribution characteristics of Lycium ruthenicum shrub and root system in Yanqi basin, Xinjiang
Wen-ge HE, Nasongcaoketu, Wuqier, Chun-huan WU, Yu-xia LI
2015, 9(7): 1192-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0536
[Abstract](1063) [PDF 499KB](248)
The composition and distribution characteristics of Lycium ruthenicum brush and root system were studied in the desert grassland in Yanqi basin. The results showed that the shrub of L. ruthenicum consists of old and new clump with parallel of multiline distribution. The roots of L. ruthenicum were root sucker typeunderground vertical stem mainly formed by the horizontal roots and root turion. Adventitious roots, as a special part, had obvious seasonal and specific characteristics which involved in the formation root system of lignified horizontal roots and underground vertical stems after July. Horizontal roots distributed in the soil about 50 cm deep and continued to produce other horizontal roots and underground vertical stems. Underground vertical stems with a multilevel underground meristem and other characteristics. The percentage of underground biomass in total fresh biomass was 33.2%, where the soil moisture in the root system was between 13.7 to 19.1%.