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2015 Vol.32(6)

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2015, 9(6): 850-.
[Abstract](1209) [PDF 2456KB](633)
Abstract:
Nutrition contents analysis of five kinds of main poisonous plants in Tibet natural grassland
Xiao-xue1 LIU, Du-jian2 YAN, Chen-chen WU, Jian-guo WANG, Bao-yu ZHAO, Dan-dan CAO, Feng MA, Ke FENG
2015, 9(6): 851-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0458
[Abstract](1828) [PDF 511KB](382)
Abstract:
The present study detected the conventional nutrients and mineral elements content of 5 kinds of poisonous plants including Astragalus strictus, Oxytropis kansuensis, Oxytropis sericopetala, Stellera chamaejasme and Ligularia rumicifolia in Tibet natural grassland during their different phenological phases using national standards. The results showed that the average crude protein contents were highest in the A. strictus and second highest in O. kansuensis which were more than 19%. For A. strictus, the contents of crude protein were highest in blooming period and lowest in preblooming period without significant difference between blooming period and fruiting period. For O. kansuensis, the contents of crude protein were highest in preblooming period and lowest in fruiting period without significant difference between preblooming and blooming period and fruiting period. The contents of crude fiber decreased in the following order: O. sericopetala, L. rumicifolia, A. strictus, O. kansuensis and S. chamaejasme and were highest in fruiting period and lowest in preblooming period. The contents of mineral elements, including Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn in all of the 5 tested plants were highest in preblooming period and were lowest in fruiting period, however, the content of Se was relatively higher in fruiting period. In conclusion, A. strictus and O. kansuensis may had rich nutritional and potential value for pasture whereas O. sericopetala, S. chamaejasme and L. rumicifolia had low nutritional value.
Effects of different medium on growth and sporulation of asexual stage of Epichloё endophytes
Li LIU, Xiu-zhang LI, Chang-hui GUO, Chun-jie LI
2015, 9(6): 859-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0299
[Abstract](1602) [PDF 3783KB](710)
Abstract:
In the present study, six fungal strains of asexual stage of Epichloё endophytes were isolated from Poa tibetica (Ep-003, Ep-004), Melica przewalskyi (Em-014, Em-016) and Elymus tangutorum (Ee-001, Ee-003) and were cultured on different medium including potato dextrose agar (PDA), corn meal agar (CMA), wheat straw agar (WSA) and water agar (WA). The results showed that the same strain had different colonial morphologies on different medium which had the largest colonial diameter on PDA and CMA and the smallest colonial diameter on WSA and WA after four weeks growth on medium. For the performance of different strains on the same medium, the strain of Ep-003 was fastest growing with a culture diameter of 46.42 mm on PDA whereas the strain of Em-014 was slowest growing with a culture diameter of 7.07 mm on WA. There were significant difference between sporulation on different medium(P0.05). Ep-003 only sporulated on WA and the other five isolates sporulated more on WSA and WA than on PDA and CMA. There was no significant differences between the spore length or width on different medium except with that Em-014 had the longest spore length of 3.77 m on WSA, and Ee003 had the longest spore length of 8.43 m on PDA. In terms of the length of conidiophore, there was no significant differences between the length of Ep-004, Em-016 and Ee-003 on four different medium. Em-014 had the longest length of 16.74 m on WA and the shortest length of 14.09 m on WSA. However, Ee-001 had the longest length of 18.59 m on CMA and the shortest length of 13.40 m on WSA.
Spectral characteristics of typical plants in Seriphidium transiliense desert grassland under enclosure
Xiao-wei XIA, Gui-li JIN, Sha-zhou AN, Yan-min FAN, Na LIANG
2015, 9(6): 870-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0444
[Abstract](1305) [PDF 1917KB](374)
Abstract:
In order to understand the improvements of enclosure on Seriphidium transiliense desert grassland, the spectrum of 3 half-shrubby species including perennial S. transiliense, annual Petrosimonia sibirica and ephemeral Malcolmia maritime from inside and outside fence after different fencing times were measured by portable spectrometer. The results showed that there were significant difference between these 3 plants in visible spectrum which correlated with the plant ecophysiological characteristics. These 3 plants can be distinguished based on the difference of spectral reflectance between 350 and 680 nm. The red edge slope of S. transiliense inside fence was always greater than that of outside fence no matter how long the enclosure whereas the red edge slope of P. sibirica was contrary. There was no significant correlations between the spectrum at platform or red edge of M. maritimes and its ecophysiological characteristics
The monitoring method of the surface vegetation based on the spatial variation analysis
Xiao-dong LI, Xiang-kun LI, Qi-gang JIANG
2015, 9(6): 877-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0448
[Abstract](1197) [PDF 2187KB](392)
Abstract:
Based on the geostatistics analysis, the spatial variation analysis algorithm was conducted to calculate the range value according to each pixel with R which was outputted with the image data form. The analysis of the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of the surface vegetation in the western of Jilin showed that they had regional characteristics. The range value of the surface vegetation in Zhenlai (north of the studied area) which was 13~14.5 ten days and 195~220 d was significantly lower than that in Tongyu (south of the studied area) which was 15~16 ten days and 225~240 d. The range value of the surface vegetation coverage changed due to the difference of surface vegetation types. The range value of the surface vegetation in Zhenlai was more regular than the other areas, while that in Tongyu had large fluctuation range due to the relatively complex earths surface vegetation. The range value of the surface vegetation in the wetland was special as the special surface vegetation which concentrated within minimum variation value (less than 12 ten days, 180 d ) and had significant different with other areas. The present study analysis the spatial distribution of vegetation after extraction of temporal changes in vegetation using semivariance function which provided a new method for the remote sensing interpretation research.
Effects of shading on growth characteristics of Poa pratensis and Festuca rubra during turf mature stage
DELIGEER, Yuan-yuan LI, Shu-juan ZHANG
2015, 9(6): 886-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0484
[Abstract](1431) [PDF 493KB](380)
Abstract:
The shade tolerance of 3 cultivars of Poa pratensis (Merit、NuGlade and K. B. G) and 2 cultivars of Festuca rubra (Boreal and Rubra)in turf mature stage were compared under different shading treatments including control without shading and shading rates of 22%, 45%, 66% and 83%. The results showed that the plant height firstly increased and then decreased with the increase of shading rates during turf mature stage. The plant height of different cultivars reached the maximum values under different shading rates treatments. However, the plant heights of Poa pratensis with 83% shading rate were significantly lower (P0.05) than that of corresponding cultivar under other shading rates treatments. The root length of Boreal under 22% shading rate treatment was significantly (P0.01) than that of Boreal under control treatment. The root length of the other 4 cultivars decreased with the increase of shading rates. The specific leaf weight (SLW) of all these 5 cultivars decreased under shading treatments and SLW under over 45% shading rate treatments were significantly less (P0.05) than that under control treatment. With the increase of shading rate, the dry weight of Poa pratensis shoot decreased whereas the dry weight of Festuca rubra shoot firstly increased and then decreased.
2015, 9(6): 893-.
[Abstract](1149) [PDF 727KB](380)
Abstract:
Transformation of Puccinellia chinampoensis PuP5CS gene into alfalfa with Agrobacteriummediated method
Bo XU, Wei REN, Ying-zhe WANG, Qi-zhong SUN, Wei GUO, Yu-jie LOU
2015, 9(6): 895-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0556
[Abstract](1362) [PDF 1194KB](405)
Abstract:
In order to cultivate resistance alfalfa (Medicago sativa), the plant expression vector pCAMBIA3300PuP5CS was constructed and transformed into alfalfa from cotyledon via agrobacterium mediated. The transformed plants were selected with 2.0 mgL-1 glufosinate ammonium and the ratio of transformation callus differentiation was 22.4%. Eleven transformed plants were identified as positive in the gene expression by PCR and RTPCR which suggested that the PuP5CS gene had been integrated into the genome of the regenerated plants.
Effects of tonoplast Na+/H+ antiporters gene silence on leaf stomata characteristics of Zygophyllum xanthoxylum
2015, 9(6): 902-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0555
[Abstract](1130) [PDF 499KB](392)
Abstract:
The stomata characteristics of different Zygophyllum xanthoxylum lines including wild type(WT)and ZxNHXsilenced lines(L2 and L7)using posttranscriptional gene silencing were analyzed. Under 50 mmolL-1 NaCl treatment, 4 more hours was required for stomatal aperture of ZxNHXsilenced lines reached to peak value compared with WT. Under -0.5 MPa osmotic stress treatment, the peak value of stomatal aperture in L7 lines significantly decreased by 12% compared with that of WT. Under control conditions, the stomatal size of L7 lines significantly reduced and 6 more hours was required for stomatal aperture reached to peak value compared with WT. Leaf tissue water contents in ZxNHXsilenced lines were always significantly lower than that in WT under all the treatments, especially under 50 mmolL-1 NaCl treatment, leaf tissue water content of L7 lines was 40% less than that of WT. These results suggested ZxNHX regulated stomatal activities by controlling leaf water status of Z. xanthoxylum.
Karyotypes analysis of 43 Vicia accessions
Peng LIU, Yan-rong WANG, Zhi-peng LIU
2015, 9(6): 908-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0593
[Abstract](1312) [PDF 4671KB](440)
Abstract:
Most species in Vicia genus are important legume crop that are commonly used as windbreak and sand water conservation. It is suitable for cultivation in alpine and highaltitude areas, which supply protein feed for Tibet plateau in China. Here, we collected 43 Vicia germplasms from 22 countries such as China, America, Germany and Ethiopia. The chromosomal karyotypes of 43 accessions were analyzed by the root tip cells. The results showed that there were five types of chromosome number: 10, 12, 14, 16 and 24. There are six types of karyotypes: 2A, 1B, 2B, 3B, 2C and 3C. In the present study, the chromasome karyotypes of 43 Vicia accessions were comprehensively calculated which provided the important scientific basis for the researches of cytological characteristics and evolutionary.
Protoplast isolation and culture of wild Kentucky Bluegrass in Gansu
Kui-ju NIU, Ling YU, Yu-zhu LI, Hui-ling MA
2015, 9(6): 927-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0575
[Abstract](1335) [PDF 1057KB](400)
Abstract:
In the present study, the conditions of protoplast isolation and culture were explored using embryogenic callus from wild Kentucky Bluegrass variety Longxi (LX) and Dingxi (DX). The results showed that the optimal conditions for protoplast isolation was enzyme composition including 1.5% Cellulase R10+0.5% Pectolase Y23+1.0% Macerozyme R10+0.3% Driselase with 16 h digestion. The optimal mannitol concentration was 0.6 molL-1 for LX protoplast and 0.5 molL-1 for DX protoplast. The highest yield of protoplasts was 6.59106 numberg-1 for LX and 5.95106 numberg-1 for DX. After purification, DX protoplasts were cultured in KM8P liquid medium. With 3.0105 numbermL-1 plating density and 1.0 mgL-1 2,4D, DX protoplasts had highest cell division frequency of 9.56% and plating efficiency of 4.62%.
Diversity of compound leaf phenotypic characteristics of 532 Vicia sativa germplasms
De-ke DONG, Rui DONG, Zhi-peng LIU, Yan-rong WANG
2015, 9(6): 935-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0092
[Abstract](1421) [PDF 803KB](394)
Abstract:
The researches about compound leaf phenotypic diversity of Vetch (Vicia sativa) have great significance to its development and utilization as an important and excellent legume forage. In the present study, 532 V. sativa germplasm were collected from six continents in the world and their compound leaf phenotypic characteristics were analyzed. The results indicated that there were abundant diversity in leaflet shape, leaflet apex shape, leaflet arrangement, leaflets number, rachis length, compound leaf width, common petiolar length, leaflet index, compound leaf area for these tested germplasm resources whose variation coefficient ranged from 16.77% to 36.60% with extremely significant difference. The principal components analysis showed that compound leaf size, leaflet surface shape, leaflet arrangement and common petiolar length were the dominant factors which constituted compound leaf phenotypes diversity. These results laid the foundation for the collection, identification, evaluation, protection and utilization of V. sativa germplasm resources.
Variations of reproductive organs morphology of Stipa purpurea and relationship with climate on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
Wen-sheng LIU, Dan-hui QI
2015, 9(6): 942-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0426
[Abstract](1335) [PDF 557KB](411)
Abstract:
As constructive species of alpine meadow and steppe, Stipa purpurea adapt to different climate conditions and is one of the most widely distributed plants on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Trypanophorous diaspora (including seeds and accessory organs) owned by S. purpurea is one of the most important factors for the plant to adapt to harsh environment. To illustrate the adaptive characteristics of this plant to the plateau environments, trypanophorous diasporas of 20 S. purpurea populations along a latitudinal gradient on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were collected. Morphology characteristics of these diasporas from different populations were measured and their relationship with environmental conditions were also analysis in the present paper. The results showed that seed length, seed width, awn length and seed mass ranged from 0.692~1.255 cm, 0.392~0.713 mm, 2.394~8.736 cm and 0.678~1.560 mg, respectively. There were high values of coefficient of variability (CV) among populations in awn length and seed mass. Seed mass positively correlated with seed length and awn length. Seed length, seed width and awn length were positively correlated with each other. Seed length and seed mass increased significantly with equivalent latitude, but decreased with annual precipitation. Seed length displayed humpedshape relationships with mean annual air temperature. These 20 S. purpurea populations clustered into 3 groups according to these tested characteristics of trypanophorous diaspora, which consistent with geographic distributions of these populations.
Heat tolerance evaluation of different ochardgrass cultivars
Deng LUO, Fu-yuan ZUO, Jian-dong QIU, Shao-qing WANG, Jian LI, Yang YUAN, Lei-xin ZHANG, Bing ZENG
2015, 9(6): 952-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0367
[Abstract](1250) [PDF 699KB](351)
Abstract:
In order to study the physiological response and heat tolerance of ochardgrass under high temperature stress, relative water content, chlorophyll content, relative electric conductivity (REC), proline (Pro), malondialdehyde (MDA), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of 6 cultivars of ochardgrass were analyzed with the artificial simulation of high temperature. The heat tolerance of 6 cultivars were comprehensively evaluated using fuzzy subordinate function. The results showed that chlorophyll content and relative water content decreased, REC, Pro and MDA increased and the activities of POD and SOD increased firstly and then decreased with the increase of the stress period. The fuzzy subordinate function analysis suggested that the heat tolerance of 6 cultivars decreased in the order of Athos Aldebaran 01472 Baoxing 02116 Amba.
Response of Halocnermum strobilaceum to light, temperature, salt and drought stresses during seed germination
Long CHENG, Zhi-jun LI, Zhan-jiang HAN, Xin-jian SHI
2015, 9(6): 961-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0376
[Abstract](1381) [PDF 513KB](345)
Abstract:
The effects of light, temperature, NaCl and PEG-6000 on seeds germination of Halocnermum strobilaceum were estimated. The optimal conditions of temperature and light for seeds germination of H. strobilaceum was 30 ℃, dark for 12 h/35 ℃, light for 12 h which had germination rate of 99%. Low concentrations of NaCl (0~300 mmolL-1) did not inhibit seed germination, while medium or high concentrations of NaCl (400~700 mmolL-1) significantly inhibited (P0.05) seed germination whose effects increased with the increase of NaCl concentrations. The threshold and limit values of NaCl tolerance in H. strobilaceum seed were 470.47 and 829.30 mmolL-1, respectively. High osmotic potentials of PEG (-0.4~0.0 MPa) did not inhibit seed germination, while medium or low osmotic potentials of PEG (-1.4~0.6 MPa) significantly inhibited (P0.05) seed germination whose effects increased with the decrease of osmotic potentials. The threshold and limit values of PEG tolerance in H. strobilaceum seed were -0.75 and -1.46 MPa, respectively. All of these results suggested that H. strobilaceum seed had higher salt and tolerance at germination stage.
The research progress of plants express antigen protein and immunogenicity
Yi-ran ZHANG, Zhan-lu ZHANG, Yi-xiong TANG, Yan-min WU
2015, 9(6): 967-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0557
[Abstract](1168) [PDF 598KB](825)
Abstract:
The research about plant as bioreactor for the production of vaccine antigen protein is the hotspots in the field of biotechnology because of its unique advantages, such as safety, cheap and easy popularization. The present paper reviewed the progress of plant express antigen protein research and some problems like low protein yield, digestion degradation and immune tolerance and proposed some potential solutions for those questions.
Progress in chloroplast genome analysis of herbage
Xiao-li TAO, Yan-rong WANG, Zhi-peng LIU
2015, 9(6): 978-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0105
[Abstract](1269) [PDF 554KB](583)
Abstract:
Chloroplasts of plant is an important organelle of photosynthesis and energy conversion and its also an important carrier of female genetic information. Chloroplast genome information is valuable in revealing the evolution of species, hybrids, evolution, species identification and other aspects. With the rapid development of plant chloroplast genome research, researches in herbage chloroplast genome are also executed by leaps and bounds whereas some herbage have not been studied indepth and only limited in the chloroplast genome sequences. As the importance of chloroplast genome research, the recent relevant information was collected and the latest research progress was summarized in this field from several aspects including isolation of chloroplast DNA, purification, sequencing to understand more about chloroplast DNA purification and the research of status, future trends and prospects of forage chloroplast genome.
Identification and separation of Pratylenchus from root of Festuca elata
Yan CHEN, Li-yuan GAO, Teng MA, Wen-na GAO, Jia HE, Xing-liang LIU, Wei GUO, Yong BIAN
2015, 9(6): 988-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0447
[Abstract](1261) [PDF 1286KB](280)
Abstract:
Festuca elata is one of turfgrass species with longer green period and is very important in the construction of ecological environment. However, some diseases frequently occur and bring heavy economical loss to the lawn with the extended of tall fescue growing regions. In the present paper, an investigation about the reasons of dead patches in tall fescue lawn in Beijing's Gaoliying Town suggested that the predominant parasitic nematodes of tall fescue's rhizosphere were the primary cause of mortality. The parasitic nematodes isolated from tall fescue using the Behrman funnel method were short body nematodes with over 100 per 100 mL soil samples of population density. The parasitic nematodes were further identified as Pratylenchus scribneri based on morphology characteristics including esophagus, lip annulus, spermatheca, stylet length and V value. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA was amplified from genomic DNA and sequenced. The sequence had 93% similarity with the species of P. agilis and P. scribneri in Genebank which confirmed the nematode was P. scribneri. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report that P. scribneri cause tall fescue patchy disease in China.
The establishment of meteorological forecasting models for black cutworm on Batan area grassland in Qinghai
Lian-yun GUO, Sheng-xiang DING, Rang WU
2015, 9(6): 994-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0452
[Abstract](1302) [PDF 501KB](360)
Abstract:
In order to prevent black cutworm damage, the influences of meteorological factors on the population of grassland black cutworm were analyzed by correlation analysis and regression analysis based on the population density of grassland black cutworm on Batan meadows in Tongde County and the ground meteorological observation data of Tongde County Meteorological Bureau in Qinghai Province during 2000-2013. During these studied 14 years, black cutworm increased with 6.81 headm-2 per year with the average absolute rate of population density of 66.07 headm-2 and the highest population density was 93.95% more than the lowest population density. There were good correlation between black cutworm population density and air temperature, precipitation, ground temperature, illumination and average wind speed. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the dominant climatic factors that affected population density of grassland black cutworm were the September precipitation last year, December average temperature, annual illumination duration and 10 cm average temperature in December, which had determined 95.02% of population density. Model test indicated that the model predictive accuracy was 96.3% which had good simulation.
Production performance evaluation of oat-common vetch mixed pasture based on nutrient needs of horses
Jun MA, Wei ZHENG, Bo ZHANG, Jiaziyila·haleke
2015, 9(6): 1002-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0348
[Abstract](1578) [PDF 493KB](271)
Abstract:
In order to improve the forage suppliment and quality in horse farm, the forage yield, nutrient quality and digestible energy (DE) for horses of the mixed pasture with oats and common vetch in different ratios in Zhaosu horse farm were measured to evaluate the production performance in 2013. The results showed that forage yield, leafstem ratios, crude protein content (CP), calcium(Ca) content and DE increased with the increase of common vetch ratios. However, the contents of either extract (EE), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber decreased and phosphorus (P) content did not change. The EE content, forage yield of the mixed pasture were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the common vetch monocultures. The contents of CP and Ca of the mixed pasture were significantly higher than those of the oats monocultures. The land equivalent ratios of the mixtures were higher than 1. The nutrient yield and DE output have similar variations. The production performance evaluation based on nutrient needs of horses was different with that based on forage yield. The production performance evaluation system based on digestible energy and the gaps between the forage yield and daily nutrient needs of horses was suitable for evaluating their relationship and providing scientific and efficient feeding of horses.
A review about reproductive characteristics of zokors
Yan-shan ZHOU, Li-min HUA, Wei-hong JI, Bin CHU, Li LIU
2015, 9(6): 1010-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0281
[Abstract](1260) [PDF 538KB](388)
Abstract:
Reproduction is the biological process of organism producing offspring which is an important factor affecting the population dynamics. There are lots of researches about reproduction of subterranean rodents as a key parameter. Zokors, typical subterranean rodents, inhabit in cropland, grassland and forest which occupy a very important position in ecosystem. However, there are only few researches about zokors reproduction as their unique habitat. The present paper reviews the research process of zokors in term of sex ratio, mating, reproduction capacity, fetal number, etc. and also summarizes the studied animals and research methods which will provide reference for future zokors control and biodiversity conservation on rangeland.
Hay modulation in Bijie, Guizhou
Liu-xing XU, Kang-ning XIONG, Jin-hua ZHANG, Cheng-ming LIU, Yong-kuan CHI
2015, 9(6): 1017-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0455
[Abstract](1333) [PDF 601KB](220)
Abstract:
Hay modulation is subject to many natural factors in South China Karst area which objectively impeded the development of herbivorous animal husbandry. In order to obtain some basic data for hay modulation and provide support for the development of animal husbandry in karst area, the present paper analyzes the feasibility of hay modulation by studying the drying process of 8 main cultivated forage and the moisture loss rule combining with the precipitation and temperature over several years. Eight species of grass were natural drying in field in Salaxi Demonstration, Bijie. The weight species of grass, temperature and humidity of air were recorded during drying and climate over the years in the region especially the minimum and maximum temperature variation in April, May, June, July of recent 3 years were also analyzed. The results showed that the hay rates of 4 species of gramineae herbage were higher than those of 3 species of legume forages and Cichorium intybus. Trifolium repens, T. pratense and C. intybus were not suitable for forage drying from the perspective of appearance evaluation. The effects on hay decreased in the following order: drying time > air humidity > air temperature. July was the most suitable time for hay modulation after comprehensively analyzing the climatic factors.
The problems and strategy analysis of grassland ecological compensation system A case of Gansu Province
Jing LI
2015, 9(6): 1027-. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0223
[Abstract](1171) [PDF 475KB](362)
Abstract:
The ecological environment of grassland is the basis of social and economic development. The compensation should applied to imbalance grassland ecological system as the unreasonable utilization of grassland resource. Currently, laws and regulations on grassland ecological compensation in China are scattered, simple with poor operability which focus on policy without sustainability. Thus, the current compensation need much more improvement based on the establishment of the system, compensation subject, standard and mode and the supervision mechanism. The present analysis the the laws and regulations, policy documents and the corresponding mechanism of grassland ecological compensation in Gansu Province, points out their problems and deficiencies and proposed suggestions for the improvement of grassland ecological compensation