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2010 Vol.27(5)

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Study on root system of plant community in different kinds of sandy land in Hobq
Kuo-Dong MA, GAO Li, Zhi-Jian YAN, Shi-Ga A, Lan-Ge FU
2010, 4(5): 1-9.
[Abstract](1691) [PDF 828KB](770)
Abstract:
An experiment was conducted in Hobq to study the root system biomass in different kinds of sandy land. Root length density, root weight density, specific root length and root length density in different diameters and their vertical distribution patterns of root system was also analyzed. Result shows that the total root weight an specific root length have significant difference but the total root length has no significant difference, and the root system are all concentrated in the 0 to 30 cm soil depth. The vertical distribution of root system is greatly affected by soil water content and soil bulk density, but the effect has different in different sandy lands. The fine root (d2 mm) takes great proportion in total root system and with significantly vertical distribution characteristics.
Primary estimation of service values of Maqu wetland grassland ecosystems in the upriver area of yellow river conservation district
CHEN Min, Jian-Jun CAO, Gao-Lin WU, Cai-Fang JIN
2010, 4(5): 10-14.
[Abstract](1798) [PDF 572KB](862)
Abstract:
Maqu wetland grassland ecosystem not only is the basic resource for economicsocial sustainable development, but also is the natural barrier in the upriver area of Yellow River Water Conservation District. Its value was 55.7671.54 billion yuan RMB per year by the methods used in worldwide, which is about 1519 times of Maqus GDP. However, its cost was higher than the average levels in both China and the whole world. This is the main factor of grassland degradation. In our opinion, in order control the degradation of grassland in this area, management strategies would be changed into the intensive way for the grassland resource protection and higheffective stockbreeding production from the extensive way for getting fodder.
Change of community structure of altocherbiprata under different utilization ways
Wen-Lin TI, Sha-Zhou AN, Fa-Lan JIN, DAO Meng, Zong-Jiu SUN
2010, 4(5): 15-18.
[Abstract](1842) [PDF 440KB](799)
Abstract:
The community structure was studied under grazing, mowinggrazing or mowing in mountain tall meadow. The results showed that: 1) Biomass and height were grazingmowing>mowing>grazing. 2) Vegetable has different important value in different utilization ways. The proportion of grass was increasing and forbs were reducing on pasture of mowinggrazing. There aren't obviously changed in proportion of grass and forbs between grazing and mowing.
Dynamics of biomass and nutrition of mixedsown pasture atblack soil beach in Yellow River headwater area
2010, 4(5): 19-22.
[Abstract](1582) [PDF 461KB](676)
Abstract:
It is an important way to transfer degraded natural grassland into artificial one, for example the extremely degraded grassland at black soil beach in the Yellow River headwater area. The dynamic of productivity and nutritional value in mixedsown Elymus nutans, Festuca sinensis, Puccinellia distans, Poa crymophilia and Leymus secalinu were studied, and effects of grazing on the forage production were analyzed. The results showed that 34.9% of productivity, 144.3 g/m2, was lost naturally from August to the next year April, in which 187.2 g/m2 was fed by livestock. In fact, utilization rate of the grassland was 45.2% in traditional grazing way. Nutrition value of forage decreased generally in whole cold season, i.e, 69.86% of crude protein and 65.85% of crude fat decreased. So, the grassland belongs to the CN nutritive type in summer and C type in winter. In the case, the grassland would be used by mowing during the growing season in summer and grazing in a moderate intensity in winter.
Changing of EVI for main types of grassland in Qinghai province
2010, 4(5): 23-29.
[Abstract](1550) [PDF 585KB](737)
Abstract:
The EVI are analyzed for the three types of nature grassland including alpine meadow, alpine steppe and temperate steppe in Qinghai, China, based on data from the satellite remote sensing of MODIS collected from 2002 to 2008. The result shows that the EVI varied seasonally as grassland growth, especially can be seen in alpine meadow.
Research on vegetation species and coverage situation of golf course cluster at Yongding River
2010, 4(5): 30-37.
[Abstract](1810) [PDF 797KB](863)
Abstract:
Yongding River is considered as one of sandstorm resources to Beijing under long term drought in spring or fall. Plant species and vegetation coverage were investigated at 48 plots in 12 sampling sites inside or outside of golf courses from Luzhou Bridge to the beginning line of Raoshang along the Golf Course Cluster. The results showed that plant species varied greatly among the sites, and vegetation coverage inside was higher than that outside of golf (P0.01), in descendent order was greens (95%), fairways (more than 60%), roughs (more than 60%) and the side area (less than 40% in 60% area). The outside of golf area was erosible by wind.
The role of plateau pika and plateall zokor in alpine meadow
2010, 4(5): 38-44.
[Abstract](2330) [PDF 905KB](794)
Abstract:
As the key species, plateau pika and zokor play an important role in energy flow and nutrient circle of alpine meadow ecosystem in QinghaiTibetan Plateau. The negative effectiveness of plateau pika and zokor activities caused by extreme increase in number have been widely accepted by meadow managers but the positive effects of plateau pika and zokor activities on vegetation and soil should not be overlooked. Firstly, the population characteristics of plateau pika and zokor, which usually cause hazard in the QinghaiTibet Plateau, were briefly introduced, and then effects of two populations on vegetation and soil were discussed completely in this paper. This study proposed that plateau pika and zokor activities with the smaller density improved the community composition, plant diversity, biomass and seed dispersal; however, plateau pika and zokor activities with a higher density degraded vegetation and soil by increasing unpalatable plants and reducing plant height, cover and biomass, and accelerating soil erosion and reducing nutrients. The key problem of control plateau pika and zokor activity is to determine the causing hazard density and maintain the balance of alpine meadow ecosystem.
Study on community diversity of soil insect belonging to Coleoptera and Collembola,in Sanjiangyuan nature reservation region
2010, 4(5): 45-49.
[Abstract](1567) [PDF 540KB](704)
Abstract:
Soil animals are one of important parts in the ecological system. The results showed that Coleoptera and Collembola were the main soil animal flora in four ecosystem in Sanjiangyuan nature reservation region. Their diversity in descened orders were wetland ecosystem, forest ecosystem, alpine meadow ecosystem, and desert ecosystem. The number of individuals and species were both decreased gradually with the depth of soil increased. The community diversity of soil animals in Sanjiangyuan is lower than other places in China. The diversity index (H) is closely correlated with the richness of the vegetation communities. The soil nutrition component is the most important ecological factor that effected soil animal community diversity in Sanjiangyuan nature reservation region.
Analysis on the differences of photosynthetic efficiency ofmultifolilate and trifoliolate alfalfa in each cutting
2010, 4(5): 50-56.
[Abstract](1457) [PDF 688KB](756)
Abstract:
In order to determine the factors associated with utilitization of luminous energy and water as well as their effects on hay yield, leaf net photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, and other physiological and ecological factors of multifolilate and trifoliolate alfalfa were measured with a LI6400 portable photosynthesis system at the beginning of flowers of first to third cutting. including leaf temperature (Tl), stomatal conductance (Ls) and internal CO2 concentration (Ci), photosynthetic available radiation (PAR), air temperature (Ta), CO2 concentration in field (Ca), Hay yield of multifolilate alfalfa was significantly higher than trifoliolate alfalfa (P0.01), which was influenced by photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthesis rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), internal CO2 concentration (Ci), stomatal limitation (Ls), light use efficiency (LUE), and water use efficiency (WUE). There were significant differences between the two type of alfalfa in photosynthetic characteristics. The higher photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments and light use efficiency of multifolilate alfalfa resulted into greater hay yield.
Effects of ABA on the content of mineral element and proline of two alfalfa varieties under NaCl stress condition
2010, 4(5): 57-61.
[Abstract](1609) [PDF 502KB](967)
Abstract:
In the hydroponics conditions, we studied the mineral elements and proline contents of two alfalfa varieties under different exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations and 150 mmol/LNaCl. The results showed that the dry matters weight of different plant organs decreased significantly in NaCl tolerance. However, proline content accumulated seriously, which appeared differently in organs: leaf >shoot>root. Moreover, accumulations of proline were more significant under the treatment of NaCl+ ABA.And the contents of Victoria were higher than Zhongmu No.1.Compared with the NaCl treatment, the added ABA significantly decreased Na contents and Mg contents, but notably increased K contents and Mg contents.But when the concentration of abscisic acid was 10 mol/L, the effect was more better.
Comparative study on extraction methods of total RNA from creeepingrooted alfalfa
2010, 4(5): 62-66.
[Abstract](1573) [PDF 512KB](720)
Abstract:
Total RNA from root, stem and leaf of Creeepingrooted alfalfa were extracted with four methods, including a modified CTAB method, TRNzol method and other two methods, and its quality and quantity were compared. The results indicated that the modified CTAB method was better than the original method since the value of OD260 nm/OD230 nm and OD260 nm/OD280 nm were 2.0 and 1.8, the purities were great higher, the bands of 28S and 18S rRNA on Gel eletro pH oresis were very clear and did not degradated. Comparably, TRNzol method was not very good as the first method because RNA was easy degraded and dispersed although the value is higher, and other two methods were not fit the requirement of RNA extraction.
Comparative study on extraction methods of total RNA from creeepingrooted alfalfa
2010, 4(5): 67-71.
[Abstract](1602) [PDF 553KB](898)
Abstract:
Total RNA from root, stem and leaf of Creeepingrooted alfalfa were extracted with four methods, including a modified CTAB method, TRNzol method and other two methods, and its quality and quantity were compared. The results indicated that the modified CTAB method was better than the original method since the value of OD260 nm/OD230 nm and OD260 nm/OD280 nm were 2.0 and 1.8, the purities were great higher, the bands of 28S and 18S rRNA on Gel eletro pH oresis were very clear and did not degradated. Comparably, TRNzol method was not very good as the first method because RNA was easy degraded and dispersed although the value is higher, and other two methods were not fit the requirement of RNA extraction.
Comparative study on extraction methods of total RNA from creeepingrooted alfalfa
Zi-He ZHANG
2010, 4(5): 72-75.
[Abstract](1279) [PDF 445KB](726)
Abstract:
Total RNA from root, stem and leaf of Creeepingrooted alfalfa were extracted with four methods, including a modified CTAB method, TRNzol method and other two methods, and its quality and quantity were compared. The results indicated that the modified CTAB method was better than the original method since the value of OD260 nm/OD230 nm and OD260 nm/OD280 nm were 2.0 and 1.8, the purities were great higher, the bands of 28S and 18S rRNA on Gel eletro pH oresis were very clear and did not degradated. Comparably, TRNzol method was not very good as the first method because RNA was easy degraded and dispersed although the value is higher, and other two methods were not fit the requirement of RNA extraction.
Current situation and analysis method of Expressed Sequence Tags(EST)
2010, 4(5): 76-84.
[Abstract](1394) [PDF 886KB](650)
Abstract:
Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) is obtained from largescale sequencing of cDNA clones randomly, representing a gene expressed of organism or cell at a time. It is becoming an important resources in exploring molecular marks as the number of EST increased rapidly. The principles, methods and procedures are summarized in this article.
Study on organogenesis of stem segments in vitro of F1 generation of Trifolium ambiguumT. repens
2010, 4(5): 85-90.
[Abstract](1596) [PDF 611KB](763)
Abstract:
Stems of the hybrid F1 generation of Trifolium ambiguumT. repens from immature embryos in vitro was used as the explants to culture the adventitious buds through the way of direct organogenesis. The suitable induction, differentiation and rooting medium were selected and the effect on organogenesis with different concentrations of hormone combinations was studied in order to prepare for the establishment of propagations system and subsequent backcross experiment. The results showed that the MS+2,4D 0.1 mg/L+6BA 2 mg/L was the appropriate induction media, the MS+NAA 0.5 mg/L+6BA 1 mg/L+KT 1 mg/L was the appropriate differentiation medium, and the 1/2MS medium which had no any hormones was the suitable rooting medium.
Effect of four different treatments on hard seed and germination oflegume species of Desmodium triflorum
2010, 4(5): 91-96.
[Abstract](1591) [PDF 666KB](696)
Abstract:
Desmodium triflorum seeds collected in different maturing stage were treated with four chemical or physical methods, including NaOH soaking, H2SO4 soaking, physical scarification with fine sandpaper, and water soaking as control. The combination of meathod and timing for optimal germination were 0.5% NaOH for 10 minutes (58% seeds germinated), 0.5% H2SO4 for 3 minutes or 5% H2SO4 for 1 minutes (48%), and Physical scarification for 5 minutes (58%), all of which were higher than the control (38%). Germination rate in full ripe stage (55%) was higher than that in cribbing maturing (47%) and over matury stage (42%).
application on isoflavonoides content of Minshan red clover
2010, 4(5): 97-100.
[Abstract](1428) [PDF 450KB](715)
Abstract:
The influence of rhizobia dose, inoculation methods and nitrogen fertilizer dose on the content of isoflavonoides in Trifolium pretense cv. Mingshan was study in an orthogonal experiment with three factors (34). The results showed that inoculation rhizobia affected the total content and output of per unit area of isoflavonoides significantly (P<0.05), in which 16g rhizobia per kilogram seeds had the best effect. Seed treatment and nonitrogen fertilizer treatment were better than others, thought no significant differences were found between inoculation methods and nitrogen fertilizer tests. In this study, inoculating rhizobia in 2 cm soil depth without fertilizer N seems to be helpful for increasing the production of isoflavonoides from the red clover.
Effect of volatile components from Eupatorium adenophorum against spore germination and mycelium growth of two fungal pathogen
2010, 4(5): 101-105.
[Abstract](1730) [PDF 575KB](676)
Abstract:
The volatile components extracted from Eupatorium adenophorum fresh leaves and leaves intimidated by toxins from Lecanosticta acicola by steam distillation. Results showed that 1)volatile components producing by fresh leaf before stress and detached leaf after stress could both accelerate spore germination of Pestalotiopsis sp. and Alternaria alternate, promoting effect of the latter was better than that of the former; 2) Both of them could inhibit mycelium growth of Pestalotiopsis sp. but induce mycelium growth of Alternaria alternate. In summary, inducing volatile substances were beneficial for invasion and extension of pathogen, accelerate disease occurrence and development. So it should be paid more attention to the toxins exploitation as a biocontrol agent for toxinspathogen cooperative control the weed.
Effect of alfalfa on the reproduction of sows
2010, 4(5): 106-111.
[Abstract](1395) [PDF 703KB](717)
Abstract:
Alfalfa is a ideal forage fodder for sow, as it contained high content of crude protein, balanced amino acid, rich in vitamins and minerals, easy can be utilized crude fiber, especially, carotene, vitamin E, vitamin B2, folic acid and selenium can reduce the embryo mortality, increase offspring number, and increase effective reproduction age. The advantage of adding the appropriate amount of alfalfa into sow feed in fresh or dry powder can reduces product cost. This article mainly summarized the effect of alfalfa crude fiber and several important vitamins on the sow production.
Adaptation of animal production to environment
2010, 4(5): 112-116.
[Abstract](1294) [PDF 654KB](849)
Abstract:
Animal production should be consistent with the principle of ground habitat adaptation. Specific animals are always distributed in a certain climatic regions. The metabolism creates different production levels with environment varying. Large spatial scale, medium scale and small spatial scale of space reflect the fact that the topography plays an important role in the distribution of animals and vegetation. In system, sites in scale levels of different areas formed by the geographical location and the role of human activities tend to be the key factor in the system development. Climate, land and sites in ground habitat factor interact, but have focuses. It is should be considered while programming the spatial layout of the livestock farm.
Comparison of feeding effect on Gansu alpine fine wool sheep between grazing and greenhouse feeding during withered season
2010, 4(5): 117-121.
[Abstract](1761) [PDF 537KB](767)
Abstract:
One hundred and eighty Gansu Alpine fine wool sheep ewes,38 replacement ewes and 40 lambs were selected from the farmers in Sunan Yugur autonomous County,divided into two groups randomly and the sheep of experimental group were pen fed in greenhouse, the control group were grazing as traditional from December 30 th 2008 to May 26 th 2009. The results indicated the body weight gain of adult ewes,replacement ewes and lambs of experimental group are 5.1,9.8 kg and 6.9 kg; the body weight lose of adult ewes,replacement ewes and lambs of control group are 7.3,5.0 and 1.0 kg,the average adult ewes and replacement ewes body weight gain of experimental group were significantly higher (P0.01)than the control group at the end of experiment,lambs of experimental group was higher (P0.05) than control group. The average fleece length increase of experimental group and control group was not different (P0.05). The wool productivity of adult ewes,replacement ewes and lambs of experimental group were 5.24 kg, 4.56 kg and 3.79 kg, which were more (P<0.01) than the control group by 60.24%、73.38% and 49.80%. The net income of adult ewes,replacement ewes and lambs of experimental group are 5.35 RMB,45.65 RMB and 59.57 RMB, and the lamb of control group was 29.3 RMB. The adult ewes and replacement ewes of control group were lost 28.32 RMB and 13.05 RMB. The net income of experimental group was more (P<0.01) than control group.
Study on landuse planning based on GIS and CLUES models
2010, 4(5): 122-129.
[Abstract](1426) [PDF 732KB](743)
Abstract:
CLUES model is considered as a good model in researching on regional landuse in large and small scales based on the analysis of the theory and method used in current land use planning spatially. It is established on the basis of deeply understanding of landuse system, the characteristics of association to land use, competition, stability and localizition, and political restrictiveness. A case of Bole City in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was studied, and the results illustrate that CLUES model is a better model for simulating of landuse change, and the CLUES model has good efficiency in enhancing assistant decisionmaking of land use planning.
The transfer of the right to grassland contractual management in pastoral areas and its impact on pastoralistslivelihoodsTake the pastoral areas in Inner Mongolia for example
2010, 4(5): 130-135.
[Abstract](1134) [PDF 838KB](740)
Abstract:
The transfer of the right of prairie contractual management in pastoral areas is accompanying with the new three forms of grazing policy, seasonal grazing, prohibition of grazing and rotational grazing. the transformation of production mode of animal husbandry, the adjustment of industry structure, and the transfer of surplus labor in pastoral areas. Its a new important subject for pastoralists' livelihoods and building a harmonious pastoral area. This study clarified the status and characteristics of the transfer of the right to prairie contractual management in Inner Mongolia, pointed the problems such as short term rental, the restrictions of balance between livestock and natural resource on transfer, the different reason to the transfer of the right to prairie contractual management in pastoral areas and varying transfering degrees to different types of grassland management rights. Livestock products are the main source of livelihood, so the transfer price is very important to the income and the transfer of surplus labor in pastoral areas. Based on the Pastoral research, it proposed the policy recommendations about establishing and improving the transfer of the right to prairie contractual management in pastoral areas.
Analysis of nutrition of Oxytropis glabra in Southern Xinjiang
2010, 4(5): 136-139.
[Abstract](1275) [PDF 483KB](705)
Abstract:
The content of nutritional composition, mineral matter and amino acids of Oxytropis glabra in southern Xinjiang was determined. The results showed that dry matter in the plant was 94.49%, in which, crude protein content was 14.97%, 3.11% crude fat, 9.32% crude ash, 36.70% neutral detergent fiber, 28.07% acidum detergent fiber, 3.98% lignin, 24.06%, 0.98% cellulose calcium, and 0.15% phosphonium. There was 17 kinds of amino acids, in which 9 kinds was essential. those amino acids accounts for 13.42% of dry weight, in which essential kinds was 12.68%. Trace element content was close to that in Medicago sativa. General energy was 14 234 J/g. Therefore, this plant has the potential to be used as a forage.
Evaluation of nutrition of main legumes forage and crop straws in Tibet
2010, 4(5): 140-147.
[Abstract](1445) [PDF 801KB](641)
Abstract:
Six nutrition compositions of four legumes and six crop straws were assayed. Nutrition value was estimated synthetically by the grading index (GI) from dry matter intake(DMI)and net energy (NE). The results showed that the nutrition value of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), sickle alfalfa (M. falcata) in Longzi and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in Jiangzi were the highest among the legumes, and the straws of potato (Solanum tuberosum), maize (Zea mays) and oat (Avena sativa) were the higher than other crop straws. Medicago sativa and M. falcata in Longzi in legumes and the three species as above in crop also were the most nutritional species using the method of GI and grey degree analysis method. The result from GI was consistent with that from grey correlation degree.
Effect of potassium acetate of different concentrations on drying speed and nutrient quality of alfalfa
2010, 4(5): 148-151.
[Abstract](1148) [PDF 448KB](670)
Abstract:
Content of water, crude protein(CP), neutral detergent fiber(NDF), acid detergent fiber(ADF), general energy (GE) of alfalfa were measured after drying, A various concentration of potassium acetate (CK:0, C1:0.5%, C2:1%, C3:1.5%, C4:2%, C5:2.5%, C6:3%) was sprayed on these plants in early flowering. The results showed potassium acetate increased the drying rate and improve the nutritional quality, as decreasing ADF (P<0.05) and increasing GE (P<0.05) except C6. C2 was considered as the best treatment since it increased CP to highest, and decreased NDF to lowest (P<0.05).
Development of machinery used for pasture harvesting in China
2010, 4(5): 152-156.
[Abstract](1167) [PDF 666KB](644)
Abstract:
With the implementation of national strategy on the agricultural restructuring and the ecological environment construction, the livestock production has playing an important role on the national economy, which enhances the design and production of machinery used in pasture harvesting. This paper summarized the development of pasture industry, and the current situation and the main achievements in research on pasture harvesting machinery, put forward some strategies how to deal with the problems after analyzing the relationship between pasture industry, livestock production and machinery in both of them, and the developing opportunities.
Analysis on development of Xanthoceras sorbifolia industry in Gansu Province
De-Feng SHEN
2010, 4(5): 157-160.
[Abstract](1142) [PDF 564KB](708)
Abstract:
The central, east and southeast region of Gansu province are mostly the gully region of Loess Plateau, in which forest vegetation is sparse and the ecological environment is very fragile. The rainfall in these regions is mainly concentrated between July and September, and 30%~50% of the precipitation is in the form of rainstorm. Thus, there is serious side by side contradictions between drought and soil erosion in these regions. According to analyze systematically on the adaptability Xanthoceras sorbifolia, the central, east and southeast region of Gansu province are confirmed to be suitable area for its cultivation. Investigation showed that the area of barren hills suitable for growing Xanthoceras sorbifolia in large scale is 390 000 hm2. The factors restraining development of Xanthoceras sorbifolia,as well as the corresponded solutions, had been discussed in the end of this paper.