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After analyzing the relationship between meadow grassland plant communities characteristics of growth and development of the north shore around Qinghai Lake and climatic factors, to reveal the key climatic factor that impacted the local grassland plant communities characteristics for providing the local a scientific basis to use grassland reasonably, enhance grassland output of unit area and deal with climatic change. The result showed that: the temperature and rainfall of the north shore around Qinghai Lake region appeared a trend that increased year by year, at the same time, associated with the increase of evaporation and decrease of sunshine hours, in the background of the global climate warming year by year. Some biological characteristics of grass changed too, and manifested that the periods of returning green, heading, flowering and seed maturity of grass brought forward, but brown period delayed, and forage height and aboveground biomass appeared a trend that increased year by year. As forages, annual average evaporation mainly affected the height of grass, annual average rainfall greatly impacted the aboveground biomass of forage, and growing season length of the forage were mainly related to the sunshine hours.
This paper took slopingland with purple soils in Hengyang basin as example, by summarizing the achievements of previous studies and collecting information and experimental data from Ecological Experimental Station of purple soil in Ecological Research Institute of Hunan Agricultural University, and systemically analyzed the main features of degenerative ecosystems of slopingland with purple soils in Hengyang basin. The results included that the drought and water shortage, outstanding contradictory of water and heat, serious loss of water and soil, frequently destroy by human, and the plant communities were easy to be ruined and difficult to be resumed. Based on this, this paper put forwards three typical models to vegetation restoration construction in upslope, midslope and downslope of slopingland with purple soils in Hengyang basin from views of overall situation, urgency, efficiency, hierarchy, duration, innovation and diversity. These three models were shrubgrass mode, arborshrubgrass mode and fruit bushesgreen manure crops mode, it was expected to promote the allround, continually and harmonious development of ecology, economy and society in studied area.
Soil sample with the terf soil in Changli campus of Hebei Normal University of Science Technology was collected, and some physicochemical properties such as soil bulk density, pH, CEC, total salt content, organic matter, hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium were studied, and each soil fertility factor was made a numerical treatment in this paper. Through the way of membership function and the partial correlation analysis, the membership value and its weight of each fertility factor were determined, and the paper comprehensively evaluated soil fertility quality by fuzzy mathematics assessment. The result showed that the turf soil comprehensive fertility was low, which was consistent with the turf quality. This indicated that this assessment method was feasible, and it was helpful to appraise the urban turf soil fertility condition scientifically, reasonably and accurately. Besides, it could enhance the soil fertility conditions and improve the turf quality.
The paper took the hybrid Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylonC.transadlensis Tifdwarf 328) which was commonly used in greening of Hunan as control, and evaluated comprehensively turf characteristics of Zoysia japonica in order to ascertain its application. The results indicated that the wild zoysia turf was better than corresponded Tifgreen turf. However, it was not suitable for water and soil conservation because of some defects including difficulties in seed collection and slow growth. It was recommended to apply in landscape, playground, rest and recreation turfs. Tifgreen was suitable for the lawn of water and soil conservation, playground, rest and recreation turfs. Nevertheless because of low density and short green period, it was not suitable grass species for the landscape lawn.
High temperature was a major limiting factor for the growth of coolseason ornamental grasses in subtropical regions and tropical regions. The heat resistance (LT50) of six coldseason ornamental grasses was measured by determining the inflection point temperature through modified conductance ratio measurement combining with logistic equation, and the leaf was used to study. The result showed that the relationship between cell damage rate of leaf and temperature showed an obvious S curve through constant gradient treatment of high temperature, it was better fitting degree by according with logistic equation. Heat tolerance ability of materials was ranked as follows:Carex siderosticta (LT50=53.5 ℃) C.chungii (LT50=52.5 ℃)C.comans (LT50=51.5 ℃) C. muskingumensis (LT50=48.4 ℃)Dianthus gratianopolitanus (LT50=46.3 ℃)Phalaris arundinacea (LT50=44.8 ℃). Through the field observations of the material situation of oversummering in the Nanjing area, C.siderosticta, C.chungii, C.comans materials grew better than other grasses and had good appearance without any changes. Therefore, this study suggested that C.siderosticta,C.chungii, C.comans had strong heat resistance.
he paper puts forward the concept of Watch out the weed transformed from unwanted turf growing in cultivated golf turf, based on a study conducted on 102 golf courses in China during 1999 and 2009. The observation indicated that there were 15 kinds of such 'transformed weed' in cultivated golf turf in China. 1) Weedy turf in bermudagrass, 2) Bermudagrass in seashore paspalum, 3) Bermudagrass in zoysia grass, 4) Tall fescue in bermudagrass, 5) Seashore paspalum in bermudagrass, 6) Ryegrass in seashore paspalum, 7) Ryegrass in bermudagrass, 8) Seashore paspalum in zoysia grass, 9) Kentucky bluegrass in tall fescue, 10) Bentgrass in bermudagrass, 11) Tall fescue in kentucky bluegrass, 12) Bermudagrass in tall fescue, 13) Bentgrass in seashore paspalum, 14) Tall fescue in seashore paspalum and 15) Bentgrass in kentucky bluegrass. The idea that the weed transformed from unwanted turf growing in cultivated golf turf means the following: the weed was a kind of turf originally, but later becomes invasive and outcompetes the cultivated turf and therefore becomes weedy. The weed was growing in cultivated turf in the special plot of golf course. This transformed weed on the cultivated golf turf can affect golfers performance in competition. Through analyzed 5 aspects to which the weed maybe harmful: public health, the appearance of golf course, performance of the golfer, cost of turf maintenance and turf lifespan. The author proposed 5 possible factors which may have caused the occurrence of such weed on golf turf. There were biological invasion, competition between turf, herbicide resistance, improper application of agrichemicals and climate change. Seven strategies were proposed for controlling the weed: maintenance control, quarantine control, ecological control, biological control, substitute control, predicting control and chemical control.
SPAD value, chlorophyll content and crude protein content were determined between two Lolium perenne varieties,Lan Tian Tang and Chang Jiang No.2.At the same time, the difference and relationship in three traits between two varieties were compared and analyzed. The results showed that Chang Jiang No.2 was higher than Lan Tian Tang in SPAD value, chlorophyll and crude protein content. The first leaf was bigger than the second leaf in the three traits of the two L.perenne varieties, but it was not significant difference. Either SPAD value and chlorophyll content or SPAD value and crude protein content between the two L.perenne varieties were significant linear relationship.
Study on germination of M1 generation seeds from Cynodon dactylon was to establish feasible implantation parameters and to understand mutation effect of N+ beams on C. dactylon and its mechanism. Naturally dry seeds were treated through N+ beams from LZD1000 machine, and the change on germination ability of seeds aroused from N+ beams was studied. The results indicated that the appropriate dose of N+ beams was able to stimulate seeds germinating if the implantation time was in 5 seconds, the germination ability would decrease if over 5 seconds. Three values of germination rate, germination energy and vigor index of seeds through six dose treatments with 5 seconds were more than that in control by 10%,9% and 16. But three values of controlled seeds with 10 s treatment time were lower than control by 55%, 15% and 134. There were significantly differences in effect of different doses on germination rate, germination energy and vigor index ( the F values of three indexes were 638.13,109.31,2.16, and higher than F0.05（12, 26）=2.15). It is concluded that 5s implantation time and 801014 ions/cm2 dosage were best mutation parameters under 20 kev energy, and this could induce more variation on seed germination of C.dynodon.
In view of problems such as Tulipa gesneriana seed could not germinate in room temperature, and it had slowly germination process and low germination rate, seeds was liable to moldy and so on in cold storage, so some key control tests such as piercing the seeds and improving the bud beds were utilized to study the germination condition in room temperature on the basis of reported experiment.The results showed that the wild T.gesneriana seed had deep dormancy phenomenon, and the dormancy could be absolved by low temperature, GA3 treatment, puncturing seeds, improving the bud beds et al, but light and room temperature storage had not significant effects to the breaking of seed dormancy. During the germination procession, there was a longer germinating imbibition period for T.gesneriana seed, and it showed a distinct sequence of germination behavior. At room temperature, the current year T.gesneriana seed which by frozen for 15 d after storage 6 months at 4 ℃, it was punctured and put on the medium of 0.5 mg/L GA3 concentrations in continued light, and the germination rate was 25%, 50% and 95% respectively, after 10 d, 30 d, 45 d and 50 d, while under the same conditions, the germination rate of unpunctured seeds was very low. The germination rate was no significant difference at the frozen temperature between 4 ℃ and -10 ℃. Puncturing seeds could improve the germination rate significantly, in an extent, colloidal endosperm restrained the growth of embryo of T.gesneriana. Budbed was an important role in the germination of seeds, it was not only guaranteed the supply of nutrients during the germination of the seeds, but also kept the continuing effect of GA3 on seeds to use the culture medium as budbed, however, paperbed was often contaminated and kept from the seed germination.
Agropyron cristatum belongs to crosspollination plants. The Characters of this kind of plants are big variation between strains in populations and rich genetic diversity. Research showed that A.cristatum form had many variation types; the three types of subterranean stem were axial root type，axialrhizome type and rhizome type; the types of leaves epidermis covers were upper and lower epidermis of leaves with dense bristle，upper epidermis of leaves with much fuzz lower epidermis of leaves with a little fuzz，upper epidermis of leaves with little fuzz and lower epidermis of leaves with no fuzz;the types of seeds lemma were dense villus, spacing pubescence and hairless and glabrous etc.types.Research on chromosome showed that the chromosomes of A.cristatum had two ploidy levels of diploid and triploid types.The number of diploid chromosome of A.cristatum was fourteen.The karyotype formula was 2n=14=10m（1sat）+4sm （2sat）The karyotype type was 1A；the number of tetraploid chromosome was twentyeight；the karyotype formula was 2n=28=22m+6sm and the karyotype type was 1A.
The mature seed of the Festuca ovina taken as the explants to study the effects of different hormone compositions on callus induction，regeneration and rooting. In modified MS medium (MSM) with different concentrations of 2,4D, KT, 6BA and NAA to establish fescue clones and efficient regeneration system. The results showed that the medium MSM+6.0 mg/L 2,4D+0.02 mg/L KT was better for callus induction, the regeneration rate in medium of MSM+2.0 mg/L 6BA+0.6 mg/L NAA was the highest, about 82%. The rooting rate reached 100% in 1/2MSM +0.6 mg/L NAA. The best regeneration made a sound foundation for the subsequent transgenic research.
Conducted with eight male sterile lines of Medicago sp. and four excellent Medicago sp. varieties as parents in way of incomplete diallel cross design (NCII), the combining ability and heritability for F1 hay production characters were studied. The results showed that 1) both general combining ability and specific combining ability of hay production character was very significant difference, it was explained that the additive and nonadditive variation were principal. The general combining abilities of sterile line number as 1，10 and 12 were better than other Medicago sp. materials, they could serve as better parents;2) there was no obvious correlation between general combining ability and specific combining ability on Medicago sp. hay yield traits. Both wide and narrow heritability were medium and the characters could be selected in the early or medium generations.
An experiment was carried out using three Medicago sativa varieties by controlling light intensity with shading net to study the growth in different shading treatments (the control, shaded 50% and shaded 80％), and to analyze indices of growth and yield. The results showed that the content of chlorophyll a and b was not affected significantly by shading treatments, but chlorophyll a/b decreased with the increased shading intensity. The plant height, stem/leaves ratio, yield of alfalfa decreased with the increased shading intensity. The yields of whole year in the control were three times and eight times in shaded 50% and 80% respectively. The percent of first cutting yield in total yield increased with the higher shading intensity. The shading intensity should be not more than 50% if planting M.sativa in shading environment, at the same time the yield was priority to first cutting yield and should reduce cutting times.
Botanical characters such as plant height, blade tip, pistil color, leaf shape, leaf color, serrated leaf margin, stipule of 120 forage ramie were evaluated in ramie germplasm repository of Hunan Agricultural University, and the nutritional composition of 20 ramie varieties with higher biological production were determined. The results showed that various ramie resources botany characters were different. According to the different characters, the classifications were that height was divided into four categories, leaf tip was divided into four categories, pistil color was divided into six categories, leaf shape was divided into three categories, leaf color was divided into four categories, serrated leaf margin was divided into four categories, stipules was divided into four categories. Crude protein content of leaf was generally high in ramie, the majority of varieties were over 19%, the highest crude protein content was 23.69%, and the cellulose content in majority of varieties was about 20%, they were suitable for the forage grass.
Based on everyday meteorological records in reproductive period and annual grass yield of Stipa sareptana var. krylovii in alpine steppe from 1999 to 2009 in Xinghai county, Qinghai province. We used quintic polynomial to fit the trend of S.sareptana var. krylovii yield in 11 years, calculated their meteorological yield and relative meteorological yield, and also analyzed the correlationship between meteorological factors of different time in grass growth period and relative meteorological yield with DPS statistical software. The main findings were as following：Mean and accumulated atmospheric temperature in late August contributed the most to S.sareptana var. krylovii yield (P0.05), and other factors contributed less, including precipitation in late April, temperature of ground not deeper than 10 cm in early May, mean and accumulated atmospheric temperature in early June, temperature of ground not deeper than 5 cm and 10 cm in early June, temperature of ground not deeper than 10 cm in late August (P0.10).Through analysis of multiple linear stepwise regression, we found that the factors, such as mean temperature in early June and late August, accumulated temperature in middle April and early June, and precipitation in late May, were correlated negatively with relative meteorological yield of S.sareptana var. krylovii. As they increased by one unit, relative meteorological yeild would decrease by 8.15, 11.65, 0.43, 0.55 and 0.33 kg/hm2 respectively. The factors, accumulated temperature in early July, and light hours in middle and late April, and late June, were correlated positively with relative yield of S.sareptana var. krylovii. As each factor increased by one unit, relative meteorological yield would increase by 1.3, 0.074 5, 0.785 0, and 0.137 0 kg/hm2 respectively.
Biomass and carbon stock of grassland vegetation are important components of terrestrial carbon sequestration, to reinforce the research of biomass of grassland vegetation can increase the precision of estimating regional vegetation carbon stock. Based on time and labor consumed, this paper studied selection of optimum size and number of the sampled quadrats in estimating Eupatorium adenophorum biomass under the standard error of mean needed to control, furthermore, an optimum independent variable was chosen to simulate prediction equation of estimating biomass of E.adenophorum. And the results indicated that, 1) the suggested optimum size of E.adenophorum biomass sampling was 2.00 m2, and the suggested sampling number was 15; 2)During the three selected combination variables [D2H (the square of the plants basal diameter multiplied by the hight); CH (the width of the plant's crown multiplied by the hight);PH (the cover of the plant multiplied by the hight)] for establishing biomass estimation models, CH was better than the other two variables for its correlation with biomass and simulation of linear regression equation.
To effectively control poisonous plants in the grassland,protect ecological balance and sustainable development of animal husbandry,chemical herbicides such as 2,4D butylate EC and Galium net (active ingredient was 20% fluroxypyr EC) were used to control some poisonous plants in Hongyuan natural grassland.The results showed that:(1) all poisonous plants appeared varying degrees of leaf distortion by spraying about 4 days;15 days later, aerial parts of some poisonous plants was found to have different degrees of death.(2) the control effects of both herbicides on Cerastium furcatum, Halenia corniculata and Thlaspi arvense were significant (100%),but it was not obviously on Potentilla bifurca; the control effects of Galium net on Taraxacum mongolicum,Geranium wilfordii and Polygonum sibiricum were higher significantly than 2,4D butylate EC.(3) The control effects of poisonous plants showed that highdose levels was significantly higher than lowdose levels,namely as 2,4D butylate EC (1 350 g/hm2),Galium net (1 012.5 mL/hm2)＞2,4D butylate EC (900 g/hm2), Galium net (675 mL/hm2).
The characteristics of degradation succession of Elymus nutans community and its correlation to soil properties were studied. The results showed that with the degradation succession of E. nutans community, the dominance of E. nutans decreased significantly, species richness and species diversities index increased significantly; grass functional group gradually declined, sedges and forbs functional group gradually increased. In late succession stage, the community tended to stable. The main features of the soil properties showed that all indicators gradually showed an increasing trend in addition to soil moisture and total phosphate, and particularly in the late succession stage, the contents of soil organic matter, total N, NH4+N，NO3-N, moisture bulky density significantly increased. The dominance persistence of E. nutans depended on the minimization of interspecific competition and sustained soil fertility level, and N played a leading role. The best time to supply N was in peak period or prepeak period of E. nutans dominance.
Based on the observed data of herbage growing and meteorological factors such as contemporaneous precipitation, atmospheric temperature and sunshine hours of Hezuo and Maqu, the effects of meteorological factors on the herbage withered date were studied in this paper. The results showed that the withered date of gramineous herbage at the HezuoMaqu meadow had an earlier trend with the tendency ratio of 5.5 d/10 a, 2.0 d/10 a; especially after the end of 1990s, the withered date of gramineous herbage at Hezuo showed an obvious earlier trend than before. Heat condition had an important impaction to the withered date of gramineous herbage at the Gannan plateau, the most important factor was the end date of 5 ℃, there was an advancing trend in the end date of 5 ℃ of Hezuo. In addition, the decrease precipitation of summer was another main factor to affect the earlier trend of gramineous herbage withering in Hezuo meadow. The another main factors to affect the earlier trend of the Maqu meadows gramineous herbage withering were increase of the temperature and sunshine hour, the decrease precipitation in September.
The photosynthetic diurnal change characteristics of orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata cv. Amba) and white clover (Trifolium epens cv. Haifa) intercroping in the apple orchard were studied using LI6400 portable photosynthesis system．The results indicated that the net photosynthesis rate (Pn)，transpiration rate (Tr), stomata conductance (Gs) and water use efficiency (WUE) of Haifa and Amba showed a singleapex curve, the respective apex occurred at 11:00 or 13:00. The intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) of Haifa and Amba showed the U shape with the lowest values occurred respectively at 11:00 and 13:00. The leaf daily average WUE of Amba showed no significant difference (P0.05) compared with that of Haifa, but the leaf daily average LUE showed significant difference (P0.01). The comprehensive results certificated furtherly Amba has stronger shade tolerance and greater photosynthetic capacity than that of Haifa.
The relationship between group distribution and agronomic traits in Clycine max was studied to provide a theoretical basis for constructing a reasonable group distribution. The field experiment was carried out with C.max cultivar Hefeng45, Hongfeng11 by setting 6 different group distributions in 2009, LSD method was used to compare and analyze change of agronomic traits in the different group distribution, compensation effect of stem numbers in unit area was calculated, the change trend of yield and its relationships with agronomic traits and group distribution were studied, and agronomic traits were analyzed by principal component. The results showed that，1) Significant effect of group distribution was acquired for agronomic traits, effect of plant spacing significantly higher than that of row spacing, there were not difference of genotype.2) Change with compensation effect value of stem numbers in unit area by decreasing of plant spacing showed the quadratic parabola curve with increasing row spacing; the two group compensation effect by increasing row spacing were not consistent with increasing plant spacing; there was difference of genotype on the compensation effect.3) Group distribution had significant effect on yield, the group distribution which was found for the highest yield showed difference of varieties; there were significant positive correlation between plot yield with stem thickness and row spacing.4) Two principal components were obtained as growth traits factor and yield traits factor, growth traits factor had higher specificity in varieties, and effects of group distribution were different on the two factors.
The objectives of this study were to determine effects of intercropping configuration and sowing rate of sudangrass （Sorghum sudanense） on sudangrasswild soybean （Glysine soja） intercropping performance. The results were as follows: The effects of intercropping configuration on dry matter yields of sudangrass, wild soybean and intercrop components were significant, and showed as single row intercropping＞double rows intercopping＞four rows intercopping. The land equivalent ratio (LER) of intercrops components ranged from 1.02 to 1.19 on a dry matter yield basis and from 1.05 to 1.32 on a protein yield basis under different intercropping configuration, indicating a production advantage of intercropping. The LER of sudangrass in intercropping ranged from 0.54 to 0.66 on a dry matter yield basis and from 0.55 to 0.82 on a protein yield basis, the LER of wild soybean in intercropping ranged from 0.48 to 0.53 on a dry matter yield basis and from 0.36 to 0.49 on a protein yield basis, indicating a growth advantage of sudangrass over wild soybean in intercropping. The dry matter yields and LER on a dry matter yield of sudangrass and intercropping combined forage yields were increased with sowing rate of sudangrass increased, but the dry matter yields and LER on a dry matter yield of wild soybean were decreased. At the same time, with increasing the sudangrass sowing rate, CP concentration and LER on a protein yield of sudangrass, wild soybean and combined forage were all increased.
Some species of Lespedeza genus belong to selffertilizing, and the others are crosspollination. The Lespedeza seeds are very hard. It is need to some treatments to break the hard seeds when seedling, so there are good seedling emergence rate. Most researches about Lespedeza focus on resistance of seed germination and seedlings. It is very few to study the resistance in later growth period. There are fewer study on species, and just focus on a few species. Most Lespedeza plants have important medical value. They can prevent soil erosion and increase income of the local peoples when planting in western arid mountain and soil erosion areas. Based on few research institutions in Lespedeza plants, there is no systemic research and there are fewer studied species, even the technology is relatively backward in China. So it is very important to extend and enhance the cooperation of institutions, strive for more funds input. And further make comprehensive study on Lespedeza plants in order to make great effect on constructing ecological environment, improving degraded grasslands and developing urban economy.
16 crossbred cattle of Simmental cattleYanan cattle were used to investigate the effects of mixtures of Medicago sativa hay and Arachis hypogaea hay and cottonseed hull with different alfalfa hay biomass (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kg/d M.sativa hay) on production performance and cholesterol metabolism, and these cattle with the accordant years, quality, gender and health were randomly divided into four groups with four duplicates. This study showed that the mixtures of M.sativa hay and A.hypogaea hay and cottonseed hull significantly increased the daily gain of cattle by 20,80 and 30 g (P0.05), and serum alkaline phosphatase in the cattle fed with mixtures was significantly higher than that in the cattle fed with A.hypogaea hay and cottonseed hull (P0.05). The results of this study also indicated that the mixtures of M.sativa hay and A.hypogaea hay and cottonseed hull significantly increased the crude protein and ash content (P0.05) and decreased the crude fat in muscle of cattle. The serum, total cholesterol and glyceric acid in the meat of cattle fed with 5 and 7.5 g/d M.sativa hay extremely and significantly decreased (P0.01) when compared to that fed with A.hypogaea hay and cottonseed hull. The lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol in the meat of cattle fed with 5.0 and 7.5 g/d M.sativa hay was significantly lower than that fed with 2.5,7.5 g/d M.sativa hay(P0.05), however, The highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol in the meat of cattle was not different between cattle fed with mixtures and cattle fed with A.hypogaea hay and cottonseed hull.
Sophora flavescent is Chinese traditional herb medicine as well as the main plants that are used in the production of biopesticides. However, very rare studies on its diseases and insects are available. This study researched the major species and dynamics occurrence of diseases and insects on potted S.flavescens and field cultivation plants in experimental stations of Lanzhou area, in order to cope with the risk of diseases and insects in the process of culturing the plant. The results found that two fungal diseases and one defoliating insect, in which disease incidence of powdery mildew (Oidium sp.) in field experiment on S. flavescens from Hebei was 6%30%, and less than 2% from Henan, Min county and Cheng county of Gansu. While, 94.4% potted plants from Min county were infected. The disease appeared in July, and peaked in middle September. Leaf spot (Phyllosticcta sophoricola) only found in field experiment, 5%34% plants infected. The disease mainly occurred in July. A moth, Uresiphita sp. attacked 92% plants with an average of 4.5 larvas on each plant. This harmful insect mainly consumed leaves during late August to early September. Fortunately, 30% of their larvas were parasitized by Ichneumon generosus.
Eight strains of heterofermentative lactobacillus were identified from Bromus inermis，Elymus dahuricus，E.sibiricus，Agropyron cristatum，Leymus chinensis, including L. buchneri (4 strains), L. brevis (2 strains), L. fructosus (2 strains). Two strains of L. buchneri were identified and considered as a kind of ensile additives, with high growth speed and great ability of acidproduction.
The experimental site was located in Dahe Experiment Station of Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences. There were four kinds of treatments, using second crop Medicago sativa as experimental material and Siloguard as additives in silage silo. The experiment was done to study the effect of additives (Siloguard) on the fermentation quality of M.sativa in silage silo, and to confirm the optimum concentration of additives and feasibility of M.sativa storage in silage silo, as well as provided scientific basis for largescale practice. The conclusion showed that: there were effects of additives on sense of silage, lowering pH, increasing lactic acid content, increasing protein content, and reducing the contents of various fibre. However, different additive concentrations could also lead to different results of the storage. While, the optimum result was saw when the concentration of Siloguard was 0.1%. The WSC content of silage increased notablely after adding additives, and the quality of the silage was improved remarkably. The comprehensive analysis suggested that stored in silage silo and Siloguard additives were able to improve the quality of the silage, and 0.1% was recommended to the production.
7 kinds trace elements of 43 species in 3 families of pastures from Tibet, including iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and cobalt (Co), were determined to study the distribution characteristic of trace elements in pastures among different families and genus. The results showed that the distribution of trace elements in pastures from Tibet presented certain regularity. Overall, the content of Fe was the highest, the content of Zn was the second, and the content of Se was the lowest. Among 3 families, Gramineae pastures had low Fe content, but high Zn and Cu content, whereas Chenopodiaceae pastures had low content of Zn and Cu, but high content of Fe and Mn. The contents of most of trace elements in Leguminosae pastures were at mediate levels. In cultivated pastures from Tibet, the contents of Fe, Zn and Cu were all high levels; Co content was middle level; but the levels of Mn, Se and Mo contents were not the same among different families.
Our country has paid great attention to grain security for a long time. The high attention of the agricultural land could aggravate the burden of cultivated land, the continuous expansion of cultivated lands could result in ecological destruction and the lack of systemic utilization in overall agricultural resource. In recent years, there were rapid development in economics and a continuously improvement of the living quality of urban and rural residents in China, which presumed some changes in their nutritional structure and consumption preference for diet. According to the fact on the structural upgrade of diet in China, it was proposed, in this study, that the agrograssland system should be implemented and the pasturing grass should be considered and applied as a significant component in the cultivation and production of plant and the importance of herbivorous livestock should be emphasized, which lead to the implementation of system coupling of cropping and pastoral area, and would trigger a series of 'revolutionary' changes in food security.
The reducing sugar, Vc, protein content of 12 different varieties of Allium spp. in Hexi region were measured in this paper. The results indicated that: there were obvious differences in the reducing sugar, Vc, protein content of different types (varieties) leeks. The highest Vc content in leek (A.ramosum) achieved 460 g/g,the least Vc content in Jinchang local leek varieties was 60 g/g. The highest content of the reducing sugar in leek (A.mongolicum) achieved 12.7 mg/g, the least content of the reducing sugar in leek (A.ramosum) was 4.8 g/g. The highest protein content of Zhangye local leek varieties achieved 61.9 g/g, the least protein content in A.ramosum and A.mongolicum both were 46.9 g/g. So there were some differences in reducing sugars, Vc, protein content of 12 different types (species) leeks in Hexi region, but there were not obvious variation of differences between cultivars and wild species.
Desmodium genus are adaptable, fastgrowing and high productive plants, they have high content of crude proteins and amino acids, suitable ratio of calcium and phosphorus, and rich in several kinds of microelements. In Desmodium, tannin is a main antinutrition factor, because it can produce complex compound through binding with protein, which results in the reduction of utility of protein and animal intake, and effects digestibility of many nutrients, like dry matter, fiber, etc. On the other hand, appropriate amount of tannin can also reduce the degradation of protein in rumen, release the tympanites of animal and improve the productive performance and disease resistance. Therefore, Desmodium varieties can promote the nutritional value of crude forage and cut down the cost of production when they are used as supplementary of crude forage to feed animal, they are excellent protein resource of feed plant which are of great potential in subtropical and tropical areas of China.
The condition about the application of corn stalk silage in Qingyang city was reviewed. Meanwhile, the problems coming with this process were studied. It is found that because the musty ideas in vast peasantry were draggled, they did not understand the common silage sense, and the silage technology was immature, business way was traditional, the effectiveness was not high, corn stalk silage market should make a further development. So its necessary to strengthen awareness and attention on corn stalk silage, strengthen publicity and guidance, increase funding support, explore more effective ways of silage and cultivate leading enterprises, strengthen construction of technology and market service system, construct the industry chain and actively promote various forms of corn stalk silage.
The grassland resources are important land resources. Here in Gannan plateau, the natural grassland is about 2 722 700 hm2, which is 70.28% of the total area of land. The essay introduced situations such as environmental conditions, water resources, livestock resources and the status of grassland resources in Gannan plateau, and then discussed the current problems in Gannan plateau grasslands which due to impacts of global climate change and unreasonable manmade management and utilization, so the grassland vegetation could not be restored and updated in longterm, and the natural grassland vegetation deteriorated gradually. In order to raise protection awareness in grassland ecological environment and utilization of grassland resources, the corresponding protection measures were proposed.