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This paper summarized the diversity of forage germplasm resources in China. Species of forage germplasm is plentiful with various ecotype; superior species spread widely, with lots of local breeds, unique and rare species and wild relatives of crops. The implementation of forage germpasm resources conservation project has already conserved 28 000 accessions established 15 nursery of perennial forage in different climatic zone, identified agronomic traits of 14 757 accessions and evaluated resistance of 1 500 accessions. It was suggested that wild forage germplasms conservation, identification and evaluation should be reinforced, and management system of forage germpalsm utilization should be established in the near future.
Based on improved spatial interpolation method, DEM data was used as cofactor. when the correlativity between the cofactor and the spatial data was relatively high, the precision of interpolation could be increased effectively. For the annual accumulated temperature data, the correlation coefficient between DEM elevation and the annual accumulated temperature was 0.769, and the relativity was high, so the precision of interpolation can be increased effectively with DEM elevation. The ME of four interpolation methods in turn are: IDWSplineOKCK, comparing with the Ordinary Kriging method, the interpolation precision of Cokriging method had a significant increasing from 1.861 to 1.169, a 35% raising, hence used the CK method to generate the annual accumulated temperature spatial database. For the annual average precipitation data, the correlation coefficient between DEM elevation and the annual average precipitation was 0.372, relativity was low, and the precision of interpolation can not be increased effectively with DEM elevation. The ME of four interpolation methods in turn are: IDWSplineCKOK, the OK method had highest interpolation precision, accordingly used the OK method to create the annual average rainfall spatial database. Based on the interpolation results and the standards of integrated classification system, with the map overlay analysis function of GIS software, the moisture index (K) spatial database and the distribution map of grassland types of Gansu province were regenerated. From this map, it can be seen that there are totally 18 grassland types in Gansu province, bestriding 5 heat levels from cold to warm and hot, 6 humidity grades levels from extreme arid to humid. Formed several vegetation cover types which are forest, foreststeppe, typical steppe, desertsteppe, semidesert and desert from southeast to northwest of Gansu, and alpine, subalpine, meadow, mountainous forest and meadow steppe from hilltop to foot of mountain. The disciplines of genesis and distribution of native grassland of Gansu province was reflected basically, and useful basic theory was provided for continuous study.
Using evapotranspiration and precipitation as drought index, statistic models of growth season from April to September were founded based on 34 years daily data from 1971 to 2004 from 20 weather stations and other factors related to soil moisture and pasture yield in Inner Mongolia, 30 yearsreturn test and 4 years trial forecast were also conducted. The results showed that daily statistical prediction model was able to better simulate trends of difference between evapotranspiration and precipitation. And by return test and trial forecast, the mean relative errors of April to August model (R20.96) were all less than 10% and the mean accuracy were all above 90%. September daily statistical correlation coefficient was lower, which might be related to lack of consideration of the relationships between abnormal weather events, the atmospheric circulation, the context of future climate, biological and nonbiological factors and grassland drought.
The content of soil organic matter (SOM) of alpine meadow with different degraded degrees in Jinqiang River area of Eastern Qilian Mountains was measured and its relationships with the contents of soil total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (AP) and available nitrogen (AN) were studied. The results indicated that the contents of OM, TN and AP decreased along with the degradation degree within 0 to 20 cm. However, the content of TP showed an increasing and then decreasing trend along with the degradation degree. And the content of AN showed an increasing trend. The change of each nutrient was significant at 0.01 level. Under light degradation, the content of soil OM had no significant correlation with other four nutrients. Same results were obtained with mediate degradation and heavy degradation. But took the three degraded alpine meadow as a whole, OM was significant (P0.01) respectively correlated with TN, AN and AP except TP. Under a relatively large scale, OM could be used as the indicator of soil nutrition status. When studying and estimating soil nutrient condition of alpine meadow, temporal and spatial heterogeneity and scale should be addressed.
The NOAA/AVHRR NDVI data, as an important index, is universally used to analyze vegetation dynamic growth and global climate change. In order to explore the interannual variation in various vegetation types, this study analyzes the temporal dynamic of Normalized Difference Index (NDVI) for 10 vegetation types in Xinjiang and investigates the relationships between NDVI and climatic variables over the period of 1982-2003. The results demonstrate that: 1) Average NDVI of the study area increased significantly at rates of 0.58% each year in the growing season (April-October), 0.53% in the spring (March-May), 0.50% in the summer (June-August) and 0.65% in autumn (September-November). The interannual variation of NDVI in growing season, spring, summer, and autumn were increased significantly (P0.01). 2) Then the coefficient of correlation(r) (P0.05 or P0.01) was gained to describe relationship between NDVI and climatic variable. The NDVI of 5 vegetation types were related significantly with precipitation (P0.05), the types were broadleaf forest, desert, grassland, herbosa and meadow. The vegetation types related significantly with temperature were coniferous forest, shrub, alpine swamp and alpine vegetation. The correlation of NDVI value with the precipitation and temperature was not significant in growing season of farmland. 3) The NDVI of most vegetation was correlated significantly to temperature (P0.05) in spring, and to precipitation in summer, the increase of NDVI correlated to interaction of precipitation and temperature in autumn.
In order to study the evaluation method of grassland drought on pasture biomass loss, the article took Bayaertu grassland as an example, used the water deficit as Inner Mongolian grassland drought evaluation index, and established a loss evaluation model for pasture biomass on different growth stages. The result showed that there was significant Logistic curve relationship between biomass loss and the quantity of water deficit in grass turning green stage and vigorous growth stage. Integrated with pasture biomass reduction, ascertained the pasture biomass lose corresponding of different drought grades finally. This was suitable for the need of grassland drought monitor and disaster loss evaluation.
Based on the application of the gray correlative analysis, the gray correlative degree between grassland productivity and climate factors in temperate steppe of Gonghe Basin was studied, using yield at each growth stages as control series, monthly mean temperature, precipitation, sunlight time as parallel series. The results showed that the relationship between forage yield at heading stage and temperature, precipitation in May, and sunlight time in March to May was the greatest. While the greatest relationship was obtained between seed yield at maturity and temperature, sunlight time in June to August. In conclusion, the forage yield at early growth stages depended on the temperature, precipitation May and sunlight from March to May; the forage yield at maturity depended on the temperature and sunlight from June to August, especially the temperature.
Based on the analysis and utilization of current research results, the vegetation ecological service value and its change in north Yuzhong semiarid mountains were estimated according to factor table of China ecological value of ecosystem services. The results showed that the vegetation ecological service value were 15.98107Yuan/a in 2003, and 13.32107Yuan/a in l993, and 7.69107Yuan/a in l983, increased 8.28107Yuan/a from 1983 to 2003, 108 percent. The forest and natural grassland vegetation offered the main ecosystem service function, mostly affected by soil formation and protection and biodiversity maintenance function.
The Heteropappus Altaicus type degraded grassland and its original community were studied through spatialtemporal conversion method in the upstream of Shiyang River. Based on investigation of plant functional groups (PFTs) structures, the characteristics of seasonal dynamics were studied. The results indicated that the seasonal dynamics of niche breadth trends depended on the kind of the PFTs, and independent with successional stages which the PFTs belonged to, the niche quantity characteristics were affected by their succession period. During the observation period, gramineous functional group increased by 120.8% in degradation grassland, and 65.5% in nondegraded grassland. The forbs functional groups were different from gramineous functional goups, the niche breadth indexes decreased by 51.38% in degradation grassland, and 66.34% in nondegraded grassland. The niche overlap indexes also depended on the kind of the PFTs, independed on the successional stages. The niche overlap indexes of the GramineousForbs functional groups increased by 113.3% in degradation grassland, and 119.4% in nondegraded grassland with seasonal process, and niche overlap indexes in degradation grassland were lower than nondegraded grassland. The ForbsGramineous functional groups contrary to the Gramineous Forbs functional groups, the indexes of niche overlap decreased by 53.0% and 54.9% according to degraded grassland and nondegraded grassland, and there was a inflection point in the mid of July, before that period, the indexes of niche overlap in GramineousForbs functional groups were higher than ForbsGramineous functional groups. The causes of the phenomena may be associated with growth characteristics of the plant functional groups and grazing disturbing. The gramineous functional group regenerated early in the spring, it was just in the time that livestock graze, the continuous disturbance had an effect on the growth of gramineous functional groups, this effect could provide more resources and spaces to forbs functional groups, so that former functional groups structure changed in different seasons in different grassland. The Heteropappus Altaicus stage was the turning point in the plant community succession, if using the propriety grassland management measures, the degraded grassland could change to a new succession which have high yield and appropriate structure, while if the grassland kept the grazing form as before, the grassland would degraded aggravatingly, which will improve the unknown risk.
Switchgrass(Panicum virgatum) is a herbaceous plant which is a good potential biomass for bioethanol. The paper conducted the ball mill isolating and purifying method to study the native lignin structure of four different varieties of switchgrasses with 13C NMR spectroscopic technique. In addition, acid insoluble lignin and soluble lignin content were measured. The result showed that the lignin of four varieties contained three elements, such as Hmetahydroxyphenyl, Gguaiacol, and Syringyl lignin. The content of acid insoluble lignin was 20%-23%, and the soluble lignin content was 2%-3%. Their ball milling lignin structure and lignin contents were similar among the 4 varieties, indicating switchgrass lignin structure and content were relatively stable.
This paper established an analytical method to determine the content of oxysophocarpine in Sophora viciifolia by HPLC. ZORBAXC18（150 mm4.6 mm,5 m）Column and 0.04 mol/L H3PO4(pH=1.8)－CH3OH(90∶10) mobile phase were used. The identification wave length was 220 nm and column temperature was 20 ℃.The result showed that the buds were the main accumulation organs of oysophocarpine (2.114%).The contents of oxysophocarpine in other organs such as young fruit, seeds, flowers, leaves, one year growing stem and perennial stem was 1.735%、1.651%、1.615%、0.540%、0.244% and 0.045%, respectively. This result is helpful for S. viciifolia resources development and ecology protection.
To determine the clone reproduction characteristics, the rhizome of 3 years Poa pratensis var. anceps cv. Qinghai was cut to 0(CK),30, 40, 50, 60 and 70cm as row distance treatments. The results indicated that P. pratensis var. anceps cv.Qinghai could produce seeds in the first years of clone production, the row distance treatment had significant effect on its growing characteristic and aboveground and underground biomass and seeds yield（P0.05）. Maturity of plants in 30-70 cm row distances was 2-6 days delayed contrasted to CK. The plant height, tiller number, leaf number and leaf areas in each row distances were lower than that in CK from regenerating to booting stage (P0.05). The rhizome length, number of rhizome tiller buds, the increase of aboveground and underground biomass of row treatments were lower than that of CK (P0.05) from booting stage to maturity, and then increased quickly and seed yield reached the highest (383.6 kg/hm2) at 50 cm row distances, the lowest value (233.0 kg/hm2) was obtained at 30 cm row distances. Thus, 50cm row distance was optimum for the clone planting of P. pratensis var. anceps cv. Qinghai.
Using Alhagi sparsifolia cuttings as explants, the effects of different concentration of 6BA and NAA, LH, GA3 on in vitro propagation and the effects of NAA on seedling rooting were discussed. The results are as follows:1) with 0.1 mg/L NAA, reducing 6BA concentration was benefit to stem growth. On the contrary, it is benefit to differentiation of buds;2) LH is advantaged to seedling growth and differentiation of buds，MS + 0.5 mg/L 6BA + 0.1 mg/L NAA +1.5 g/L LH was the better induction medium. Propagation multiple was 6.8;3）The effect of GA3 on in vitro propagation of A. sparsifolia was not significant;4）1/2MS+ 0.1 mg/L NAA was the best medium for rooting, the rooting rate was 71.7%.
The dynamic changes of soil moisture on natural grassland and the relations between forage biomass and the soil moisture in Qinghai Lake region were analyzed. Results indicated that changes of the soil humidity in the Qinghai Lake region can be divided into four periods, such as the slowly lost period in spring, the slowmoving convalescent period in the end of spring and early summer, the fastly lost period in summer and the fast increment and imbursement period in autumn. The perpendicular variety of the soil moisture differed among different years. 0-30 cm depth of soil moisture levels effected by factors such as weather and pasture growth, and the impact of wet and dry changed significantly, the changes in 30-50 cm depth of soil moisture levels were relatively stable．The forage biomass at the end of each month during the growth season (from May to September) was closely related to the soil humidity in its front period. The influence of the soil humidity in previous year on forage biomass was more obvious in the early period of forage grass growth, and it worn off gradually in late period.
The effects of different levels of N（0, 50, 75 and 100 kg/hm2）and K （0, 75, 105 and 135 kg/hm2）on the production characteristics of Qingyin No.1 oat were studied. The results showed that the different nitrogen and potassium levels could significantly increase the growth indices of oat such as the plant height, leaf area, spikelet number, spike length, spike weight and 1000seedweight, and increase the yield of herbage and seed. The production characteristics indices were reached to higher values at the level of N75K105，and represented as 157.8 cm plant height, 11.5 cm2 in leaf area, 2.5 live tillers per plant, 38.8 kernels per spike, 20.6 cm in spike length, 2.9 g in spike weight, 34.6 g in 1000seedweight, and 6 778 kg/hm2 in seed yield, respectively. The fresh yield was the highest (63 404 kg/hm2) at the level of N100K135. In the practice of oat production, N, P, K fertilizers rates and ratio should be considered to exert the promoting effect of K on N fertilizer.
This paper summarized the discovery, classification, molecular mechanism in the process of coldtolerance and some associated molecular information regulating CBF and regulated by CBF, as well as the latest progress of CBF research. Low temperature is one of the most important environmental factors influencing plant growth and production performance. With the development of molecular biology, the molecular mechanism that plants survive in stress environmental conditions has become a hot field in the study of botany nowadays. Transcription factor is the accessory factor that RNA polymerase needs in transcription initiation. Eukaryotic RNA polymerase can not start its transcription unless the transcription factor (protein) is binding at its recognition sequence on DNA. Transcription factor CBF is an important regulator that exists extensively in the process of cold acclimation of all plants and it recognizes CRT／DRE（Crepeat/dehydrationresponsive element）in COR and starts its transcription.
The photosynthetic pigments contents in the leaves of four fall dormancystandard America alfalfa varieties at growth period after autumn cutting were determined. The results showed that the chlorophyll and carotenoid of the four alfalfa falldormancy varieties showed an increase to the peak then reduced in the fall growth period. The chlorophyll content of FD5 was higher than the others. This suggested that the half falldormancy type was more adapted to the Beijing climate. The chlorophyll a/b contents of the four varieties were not volatile through the whole fall growing period. And the change regulations of chlorophyll a/b were similar to chlorophyll contents. The carotene contents had order as FD5 FD1 FD11 FD8. Four varieties basically had same leaf photosynthetic pigment absorption spectrum, but the optical density values of FD1 and FD5 were lower than FD8 and FD10 in 440 nm.
Adopted the method of continuous extract on determination of grouping protein in alfalfa. The result showed that the alfalfa protein components varied with the type of extract reagents, their contents in order were 40%(v/v)Isopropanol2%(m/v)Sodium3.85%（v/v)Lactic acid0.5 %(m/v)Potassium. Proteins dissolved in alcohol, salt, acid and alkaline accounted for 14.50%, 12.55%, 7.73%, and 3.11% of the total crude protein, respectively. Others accounted for 63.11%. It was concluded that the most suitable extraction reagent for alfalfa leaf protein was dilute salt solution (0.5%).
Water treatments were carried out to the sprouting plants (damaged plants) and its undamaged plants of Caragana korshinskii in growing period in summer. The aim was to investigate photosynthetic parameters and osmotic solutes of sprouting plants and its undamaged plants before and after watering. Before watering, the sprouting plants had higher water potential (LWP), higher photosynthetic rate (A), higher stomatal conductance (G), higher transpiration rate (E), higher photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) (△F/Fm) and the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), whereas undamaged shrubs had lower corresponding indexes, and had higher nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence (NPQ), higher proline (Pro) and higher malondialdehyde (MDA) content. After watering, parameters were different between sprouting and undamaged shrubs. Parameters including LWP, A, G, E, Fv/Fm, △F/Fm of undamaged shrubs were all increased, while the values of NPQ and the contents of Pro as well as MDA were decreased. The content of chlorophyll a and b within sprouting plants was higher than that of it within its undamaged plants before and after watering between treatments, but did not vary significantly with water available. It was concluded that the sprouting plants had less drought stress at growing season and had higher photosynthetic efficiency by use of solar energy in photosynthesis, which resulted in a quick growth. Undamaged shrubs had lower photosynthetic efficiency under stressful conditions, which dissipated much solar energy to space by means of heat, and as a result, the growth decreased.
The effects of the little of Stipa bungeana, Lespedeza davurica and Artemisia capillaries on the growth characteristics of wheat, including of the rate of seeding emergence, seedling height, and the dry matter (DM) weight in shoot sand roots in native grassland of farmingpastoral ecotone were studied in this paper. The results showed that, the little of S. bungeana had no significant effect on the rate of seeding emergence, root weight and the weight ratio of aboveground to underground of wheat (P0.05), whereas it had a significant effect on seeding height in the 2rd, 8 th, 12 th and 16 th after the little deposition (P0.05). Similarly, L. davurica and A. capillaries little had no significant effects on the rate of seeding emergence, seeding height and root weight of wheat (P0.05), whereas they had significant effect on the root growth of wheat (P0.05), which would increase the root weight of wheat and decrease its weight ratio of aboveground to underground. Thus, the seeding growth of wheat was different among the different species little, and was more sensitive to the response of the little of L. davurica and A. capillaries than S. bungeana.
Eastern Gansu in the loess plateau is a representative traditional agricultural region which has potential superiority in land, climate and biological resources. Generally speaking, due to the restriction of water resources, economic resources and technical conditions, the level of agricultural development is low and the ability of sustainable development is weak. Under such condition, speeding up the adjustment of agricultural structure, and transforming the resource consuming agricultural economy to value increasing and science innovation one is the inevitable. In order to realize the strategic task of sustainable development, grass and animal husbandry development should be reinforced by ecological engineering construction of forest, shrub and grass. Three leading industry of grasslivestock, fruit and vegetable should be increased. The industry base need to be strengthened and standardization production need to be implemented.
Using wheat bran and straw as raw materials, optimum technology conditions of cellulase activity produced by solidstate fermentation of Trichoderma viride was optimized by orthogonal and single factor test; the effect of T. viride on cellulose degradation of wheat straw was studied. The optimum conditions were provided to the degradation of wheat straw cellulose by T. viride, and further improve the utilization rate of wheat straw. The result showed that there was significant difference in cellulase activity produced by T. viride under different conditions (P0.05). The optimal medium contained 8 g wheat straw and 2 g wheat bran, its nitrogen source was (NH4)2SO4, water content was 200%, pH value was 5.5. The optimum fermentation conditions were as follows: 96 h cultivation time, 35 ℃, pH value 6.0, 0.4% nitrogen content, 15% inoculum and semienclosed cultivation. The NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicellulose content of wheat straw after fermentation declined by 5.22%，6.88%，4.73% and 4.16%, respectively, and there was no significant change in lignin.
An experiment was conducted using 1 200 carps to study the effects of alfalfa meal on the activity of digestive enzymes. Carps were randomly divided into five treatments according to a random factorial arrangement, each treatment represented by three replicates of 80 carps each .Carps were fed with diet containing 0(control), 40, 80, 120 and 160 g/kg (group 1,2,3,4, respectively )alfalfa meal during the period of 50 days，and activity of protease and amylase in carp's foregut, midgut, hindgut and hepatopancreas were investigated. The results showed that: 1) Protease activity in foregut of carps fed with 80 g/kg alfalfa meal was significantly enhanced compared to the control and group 4 (P0.05), but there was no significant difference between group 1 and group 3 (P0.05). Protease activity in midgut, hindgut and hepatopancreas of carps had no significant difference compared to the control (P0.05), but they had the same trend: the activity of protease of group 1, 2 and 3 were higher than the control group. 2)Activity of protease in carp's foregut, midgut and hindgut were gradually lowered, And activity of protease in hepatopancreas were far lower than that in guts. 3) Activity of amylase in foregut and midgut of carps fed with 80 g/kg alfalfa meal were significantly enhanced (P0.05). There were no significant difference between the other groups and the control (P0.05). Amylase activity in hindgut had no significant difference compared to the control (P0.05). But alfalfa meal enhanced the activity of amylase in hepatopancreas, group 2 was significantly higher than control (P0.05). The other groups had no significant difference compared to the control (P0.05). 4) There was great difference between activity of amylase in foregut, midgut, hindgut and hepatopancreas. Among the four parts, the activity of amylase ranged from high to low: hepatopancrac hindgut midgut foregut. In summary, appropriate alfalfa meal significantly improved the activities of protease and amylase of common carps, and the activities of protease and amylase were different in different parts of carps.
As a demonstration of converting cropland to pasture in the plateau region, oat (Avena sativa) and slender wheatgrass (Efymus trachycaulum) was sown as mixed pasture. The result showed that the method not only solve the problem of weeds, but also obtain better economic benefits. Oat fresh grass yield at the flowering stage was 2.49 kg/m2 in the first year. Slender wheatgrass grew better in the second year, the fresh yield was 1.48 kg/m2, and reached to 1.76 kg/m2 at later growth stage.
The effect of different seeding rates and cutting time on forage yield and quality of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass mixed pasture was studied. The results showed that the forage yield of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass mixed at 50%(7.5 kg/hm2) and 50%(15 kg/hm2) achieved the highest (21.3 t/hm2). T2 treatment（cutting at alfalfa initial flowering stage）obtained the highest yield. Cutting time had significant influence on the quality of alfalfa. Crude protein content in T1 treatment (cutting at alfalfa bud period) was the highest, with the lowest NDF and ADF (P0.05). Cutting time had significant influence on the quality of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass, and the quality was perfect in the mixture treatment A1 (alfala∶smooth bromegrass=5∶5).
Based on historical and survey data of snow disaster in winter of the headwaters area, the environment which caused snow disaster, the hazard factors and the objects were analyzed in the risk identification. The risks during winter in alpine region are mainly made up of the mutual superposition factors such as natural factors, biological factors, social and management factors. Warning indicator system was built up from the risk analysis of the snow disaster, and was quantized and ranked with qualitative and quantitative methods. On this basis, combining the content of animal management activities, the risk management in winter was divided into livestock management, grassland management, forage supply, grassland resource assessment and winter risk assessment. important value of various livestock production activities in risk management was analyzed.
155 strains of Rhizoctonia were isolated from diseased plant and soil in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) fields in Xinjiang, China. 126 strains of them were identified as R.solani. The research reported the composition and pathogenicity in anastomosis groups of R.solani in alfalfa. According to the discriminative results of anastomosis groups(AGs), these strains of R. solani were categorized as the following four anastomosis groups(AGs): AG1, AG2, AG4, AG5. Their occurrence frequency in order was 11.2%、46.6%、6.1% and 36.1%. AG2 and AG5 which have higher frequency of separation are the edge of anastomosis groups. The testing results showed that pathogenicity of each anastomosis groups were significantly different, and AG2 had the strongest pathogenicity.
The dry seeds of Zoysia japonica were irradiated by 60Coray at dosage of 25～500 Gy. The germination of seeds and growth of seedlings were investigated both in laboratory and field. The results indicated that irradiation of low dosage could promote seed germination and increase germination rate.But the germination rate decreased with the increasing of irradiation dosage, the critical dosage (dosage rate was 1.0 Gy/min) is 450 Gy; the critical dosage for field germination rate was 250 Gy, when the dosage below the critical was applied, the field germination rate increased with the increasing of the irradiation dosage, and decreased when the dose was over the critical; significant difference(P＜0.05) observed in taproot and seedling growth when the dry seeds were irradiated at different dosage; the length of taproot, height and fresh weight of seedling were all promoted firstly and declined later, their critical dosage was 400 Gy, 300 Gy and 250 Gy, respectively. The half lethal dosage of Z. japonica dry seeds was 480 Gy based on correlated broken line graph between irradiation dosage and relative germination rate.
A simulated annular structure of nest type stadium was built to study its effects on the growth of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) in summer. Thermometric difference inside and outside of stadium, morphological and physiological parameters were measured in the year 2006 and 2007 respectively. The results showed that temperature in the stadium was significantly higher than the outside control. On the hottest day, the increase of air temperature was 4.5 ℃ and 5.2 ℃, canopy temperature increase was 6.2 ℃ and 5.8 ℃, and the increase of rootzone temperature at 10 cm depth was 2.7 ℃ and 2.6 ℃ respectively compared to the outside control. The increase of the temperatures in the stadium dramatically affected the growth of tall fescue. Turf growth and turf quality had been significantly lower than the outside control since July 20/21 and 23/24, respectively. Turf quality had decreased to the level which below the acceptable quality (6.0) since August 8/9. Leaf chlorophyll content had also decreased significantly compared to the control since July 28/29. However, leaf electrolyte leakage had been significantly higher than the control since August 6. MDA content in leaves had also increased significantly compared to the control for about half of the experiment period. The results indicated that nest type annular structure of the simulated stadium had great impact on the heat accumulation effects in the stadium, which significantly inhibited the growth of lawn.
The effects of uniconazole (S3307) on the drought resistance of Perennial ryegrass were investigated by pot experiment under different concentration treatments of SS3307（0-80 mg/L）. Perennial ryegrass was subjected to soil drought stress by withholding watering at the fifteen days after spraying SS3307. The results showed that S3307 increased the relative water content of Perennial ryegrass and therefore increased the drought resistance. When the soil water content decreased to 14%, the leaves of nonspraying control withered greatly, however, the leaves in uniconazole treatment had normal leaf color, the contents of chlorophyll, the leaf water content and freeproline, and also the ratio of the root to crown of Perennial ryegrass were significantly increased, the treatment with 40 mg/L concentration were better than others. When the concentration increased to 80 mg/L, it restrained the growth of underground part, and decreased the range and depth of imbibing ability, then reduced the resistance of the Perennial ryegrass. This suggested that spraying 40 mg/L uniconazole could effectively increase the drought resistance of the Perennial ryegrass.
The ecological adaptability of seven bermudagrass germplasm was analyzed in Rongchang by scoring and observation of morphological indexes such as leaf length and leaf width. The seven accessions at growth period showed different ecological adaptability in the west of Chongqing. The result indicated that TIFWAY and SAU9936 were significantly surpass other five accessions, SAU02014, SAU02011, and SAU9928 had no remarkable difference, but they obviously surpass Nanjing and SAU9926. The synthesis evaluation score was: TIFWAY SAU9936 SAU02014 SAU02011 SAU9928 Nanjing SAU9926. Seven accessions could complete the entire life history under the natural ecological environment in west Chongqing. TIFWAY and SAU9936 had the strongest adaptability, followed by SAU02014, SAU02011，SAU9928 and Nanjing; SAU9926 were the poorest.
Summer patch, also called summer blight patch or summer ring patch, caused by Magnaporthe poae, is a fungi discovered recently with great destructibility, which affected the turf grass root especially the Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis).The summary introduced the symptoms, the disease development and the epidemiology of summer patch systematically, also summarized the identification of causative agents and the host range and distribution. The integrating strategies for the management of summer patch including fertilization, irrigation, pruning and the chemical and biological technologies were emphasised on this paper. Slow released fertilizer, deep water irrigation and maintaining a higher mowing height are all effective ways or slow down the symptom. The chemical control is the main prevention measure, and biological control of summer patch is still at a research stage.
Tall fescue was treated at low temperature (-6 ℃, 5 ℃ and 0 ℃) for eight hours. The room temperature was used as control, physiological indexes such as catalase activity, leakage rate of electrolyte, the content of soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll were measured. The results showed that the activity of CAT reached the peak after 4 hours stress at 5 ℃, the enzyme activity and the content of chlorophyll decreased sharply with increasing stress time under 0 ℃ and -6 ℃. Enzyme activity under -6 ℃ decreased faster than that under 0 ℃. The content of proline increased significantly with the increasing stress time under 5 ℃ and 0 ℃. leakage rate of electrolyte increased significantly at -6 ℃. Soluble sugar content increased with the increasing stress time, it increased markedly at -6 ℃. Low temperature can effectively enhance the cold resistance of tall fescue.