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2021 Vol.38(8)

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2021, 38(8): 0-0.
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2021, 38(8): 1-1.
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2021, 38(8): 1-2.
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2021, (8): 1-4.
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2021, 38(8): 1419-1419. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.
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Spatiotemporal variability in the water conservation amount in Gansu Qilian Mountain National Nature Reserve
LIU Yue, LI Yushan, SHAN Shuyao, YANG Lei, XU Haojie
2021, 38(8): 1420-1431. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0723
[Abstract](947) [FullText HTML] (571) [PDF 0KB](51)
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Based on calculations of water balance and water conservation depth, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal variation of water conservation depth and its main driving forces in Gansu Qilian Mountain National Nature Reserve during 2000 − 2018. The results showed that the annual average water conservation depth was 34.23 mm, with the total water conservation amount reaching 8.56 × 108 m3·a−1. The water conservation depth of woodlands, grasslands, and wetlands was significantly higher than that of cultivated and unused land (P < 0.05). The water conservation depth was higher in the middle and eastern parts but lower in the northwestern part. Areas with higher values of water conservation depth showed greater inter-annual variability. The overall trend in water conservation depth was not significant for the entire study period. Areas with significant increases in water conservation depth grouped at middle-high altitudes, whereas areas with significant decreases in water conservation depth were distributed mainly at low altitudes (P < 0.05). The spatiotemporal variation of water conservation depth was driven by changes in precipitation and land cover types, followed by leaf area index and temperature. A significant positive correlation between water conservation depth and precipitation was observed (P < 0.05), together with a negative correlation of water conservation depth with leaf area index and temperature. The middle and eastern Gansu Qilian Mountain National Nature Reserve is the priority area for water conservation, and the protection of woodlands, grasslands, and wetlands should be strengthened. Under the background of a warm-humid climate, water conservation depth is projected to remain stable in the future.
Estimation of vegetation coverage of desert grassland based on images from an unmanned aerial vehicle
YU Hui, WU Yufeng, NIU Liting
2021, 38(8): 1432-1438. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0712
[Abstract](2258) [FullText HTML] (630) [PDF 0KB](56)
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Effective and accurate monitoring of grassland vegetation coverage is important for sustainable utilization of grassland resources and for restoration and reconstruction of ecosystems. In this study, a threshold method combining the supervised classification with the statistical histogram of visible vegetation index was used to identify grassland vegetation. The vegetation extraction accuracies of 6 Red Green Blue (RGB) vegetation indices were evaluated. The results indicated that the Normalized Difference Green/Red Index was the most accurate index for vegetation coverage extraction (mean absolute error 2.56%, root mean square error 3.06%). The proposed method accurately estimates the vegetation coverage of desert grassland.
Soil moisture in different vegetation management methods of Caragana korshinskii shrub in the semi-arid loess area
LIU Jianrong, YANG Lei, WEI Wei, ZHANG Qindi
2021, 38(8): 1439-1450. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2021-0070
[Abstract](836) [FullText HTML] (493) [PDF 0KB](21)
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In this study, the effects of different vegetation management methods [CK (no stubble and no weeding), stubble and weeding, stubble, or weeding] on soil moisture in Caragana korshinskii shrubs were analyzed through the dynamic detection of soil moisture in a 0 – 1.8 m soil layer in the growing season between 2016 − 2018, in the Longtan catchment of Dingxi in Gansu Province, China, in order to explore the soil moisture of C. korshinskii in semi-arid loess areas under different vegetation management methods. The results showed that: 1) The stubble and weeding management resulted in the highest soil moisture, and the soil moisture corresponding to the stubble and weeding management method was higher than that related to the other three management methods in the uphill, middle, and downhill slopes. 2) During the entire growing season, each management method resulted in 0 − 0.4 m shallow soil moisture fluctuation at the maximum, while no significant change could be observed for 1.0 − 1.8 m soils. The temperature and rainfall exhibited a certain impact on the soil water characteristics but, regardless of arid or flat water years, the stubble and weeding management resulted in higher soil moisture of the soil layer than the other three management methods. 3) The soil moisture related to the different vegetation management methods could be divided into the active, second active, and stable layers using the optimal segmentation method. In the case of the stubble and weeding management of soil moisture, the active and secondary active layers were at 0 − 0.8 m, corresponding to a more significant depth than in the case of the other three management methods. Moreover, the CK soil moisture content was below 0.3 m, its depth was less than that of the other three management methods. The results of this study show that during the growing season of the study area, stubble and weeding are more suitable for the vegetation management of Caragana korshinskii shrubs in the area. Furthermore, it is important for the soil moisture management of the artificial vegetation in this area and the construction of stable artificial vegetation communities in semi-arid loess areas.
Effect of rangeland degradation on biomass allocation in alpine meadows on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China
ZHANG Fan, LI Yuanchun, WANG Xin, ZHU Jianxiao
2021, 38(8): 1451-1458. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0710
[Abstract](980) [FullText HTML] (540) [PDF 0KB](49)
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Rangeland degradation has serious impacts on grassland community structure and productivity in alpine meadows across the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. In order to reveal the impact of rangeland degradation on the community structure and aboveground/underground biomass distribution in alpine meadows, we selected three blocks near the Haibei Alpine Meadow Ecosystem Research Station in Qinghai Province that were within the random block design. There were four types of degradation in each block, which were intact, slightly degraded, moderately degraded, and severely degraded. In August 2020, plant sampling and a community survey were carried out at the same time. Our results showed that as the degradation got worse: 1) the grassland coverage, height, and aboveground biomass significantly decreased; 2) there was a significant change in the proportion of aboveground biomass allocated to different functional groups and the dominance species gradually changed from grasses into forbs; and 3) the underground biomass significantly decreased, but the proportion of biomass in deep soil increased. These results indicated that as the degradation intensified, the community structure underwent subversive changes, and the aboveground and underground biomass severely declined. Therefore, restoration plans for degraded grassland in this area should consider the grassland species composition, and corresponding measures for restoring aboveground and underground biomass should occur simultaneously.
Characteristics of dissolved organic matter release during green manure decomposition
ZHANG Rongqin, LIU Chen, LI Xiahaoqi, YANG Jianfeng, LI Huike
2021, 38(8): 1459-1468. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2021-0304
[Abstract](1692) [FullText HTML] (451) [PDF 0KB](24)
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Soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) which can characterize soil quality, plays an important role in the soil carbon and nitrogen cycle, reflecting soil quality to a certain extent. This study combined the fluorescence excitation-emission spectrum and parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) to analyze DOM content, composition, and spectral characteristics during decomposition of grass species on the Loess Plateau, which could providing data and theoretical support for soil quality and management evaluation of orchards. The decomposition rate followed the order: white clover (Trifolium repens) (WC) > crown vetch (Securigera varia Lassenn) (CV) > orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) (OG). EEM-PARAFAC identified one humic acid-like component (C1) and two protein-like components (C2, C3). The fluorescence intensity of the protein-like components was much higher than that of the humic acid-like component, and the C2 was dominant component. The total fluorescence intensity of the WC treatment was higher than that of the OG and CV treatments. The main source of DOM in CV was microbial, while those of WC and OG were terrestrial plant humus and microbial. The humification index (HIX) value followed the order: CV > OG > WC. The SUVA254 values followed the order: OG > CV > WC and increased with decomposition. According to the DOM content, composition, spectral characteristics, as well as principal component analysis results, white clover was more beneficial regarding decomposition and release of dissolved organic nutrients in Weibei drylands.
Effects of salt-alkali mixed stresses on the seed germination of Halogeton arachnoideus
ZHAO Guangxing, LI Wangcheng, JIA Zhenjiang, SHEN Xiaojing, XIAO Rang
2021, 38(8): 1469-1476. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2021-0141
[Abstract](886) [FullText HTML] (450) [PDF 0KB](19)
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To study the influence of salt-alkali stresses on seed germination, indoor simulations were performed on Halogeton arachnoideus to investigate the effect of salt-alkali mixed stresses on seed germination, taking salt type and concentration as control factors. Following the sequence NaCl ꞉ Na2SO4 ꞉ NaHCO3 ꞉ Na2CO3, mixed in 5 different ratios, we had 5 experimental groups, A-E. Each group was divided into 6 concentrations, for a total of 30 treatments. The results indicate that as salt concentrations increased, the seed germination percentage, germination potential, and germination index of seeds decreased. The seeds that did not germinate in the salt solution were transferred to distilled water, and the seeds of different degrees could resume germination. Via regression analysis, we found the salt tolerance thresholds of A-E to be 0.26, 0.24, 0.23, 0.25, 0.16 mol·L−1 and the salt tolerance limits of 0.65, 0.62, 0.62, 0.60, 0.52 mol·L−1, respectively. Cluster analysis showed that the salt tolerance thresholds of A-E were 0.3, 0.2, 0.3, 0.3 and 0.1 mol·L−1, respectively. The mean value of regression and cluster analysis results showed that the salt tolerance threshold of H. arachnoideus seed germination under mixed salt-alkali stresses was 0.234 mol·L−1, while the salt tolerance limit was 0.602 mol·L−1. The effect of salt concentration on seed germination was larger than that of the salt species. Compared with alkaline salt, H. arachnoideus was more tolerant to a neutral salt environment.
Effect and physiological response of fungicide controlling Zoysia japonica large patch
FU Qiang, XU Yanhua, ZHANG Juming, LIU Tianzeng
2021, 38(8): 1477-1486. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2021-0110
[Abstract](787) [FullText HTML] (493) [PDF 0KB](13)
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Large patch is a turf disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani, which is seriously harmful to Zoysia japonica ‘Lanyin No. Ⅲ’. In order to explore the control effect of fungicides on “large patch”, ‘Banner Maxx’ (156 g·L−1 propiconazole), ‘Heritage’ (50% azoxystrobin), ‘Headway G’ (0.31% azoxystrobin + 0.75% propiconazole), and ‘Medallion TL’ (12% fludioxonil) were selected to determine the inhibitory effect of fungicides on the colony growth of R. solani ZS-1 and R. solani ZW54 using the mycelium growth rate method. The results showed that the four fungicides caused inhibition of R. solani to varying degrees, and inhibition of fungicide ‘Heritage’ on mycelial growth of R. solani, with EC50 values below 1 mg·L−1 being the highest. Fungicides were sprayed on Z. japonica with ‘Heritage’ and ‘Banner Maxx’, then inoculated with R. solani ZS-1 and R. solani ZW54 to observe the occurrence of large patches and the physiological effects on plants. Compared with spraying with sterile water, the large patch incidence in Z. japonica was significantly reduced after spraying the fungicide (P < 0.05). After the fungicide treatment, the relative water content, chlorophyll content, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity, chitinase activity, and β-1,3-glucanase activity of leaves were much higher than those of the control treatment, while the proline and malonate contents were considerably lower than those of the control treatment (P < 0.05). From the point of view of the resistance of R. solani, R. solani ZS-1 is considerably more resistant to fungicides than the ZW54 strain. To sum up the effects of fungicide treatment on the inhibitory rate of R. solani and the physiological effects of Z. japonica, the fungicide ‘Heritage’ has the best control effect on large patches with a control effect of over 43%. The results of this study can provide guidance for the prevention and control of R. solani and lay a foundation for improving the ornamental value of Z. japonica and its use in lawns.
Cultivation effect of Caryopteris clandonensis and Euonymus fortunei in roof greening substrates
HAO Huirong, SUN Xiangyang, LI Suyan, LI Yinan, TAN Qiyan
2021, 38(8): 1487-1497. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2021-0183
[Abstract](2234) [FullText HTML] (555) [PDF 0KB](18)
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Caryopteris clandonensis and Euonymus fortunei have the following characteristics: drought resistance, barren resistance, pruning resistance, easy survival, extensive management, and high ornamental value during their flowering period. They can break up the monotonous landscapes in roof greening projects that otherwise use plants which are prone to diseases and insect pests, easy to damage, and have other deficiencies. However, there are few studies and reports about the cultivation of these two plants in light roof greening substrates. Two treatments were designed for each plant, resulting in the following four treatments: substrate 1 + Caryopteris clandonensis, substrate 2 + Caryopteris clandonensis, substrate 1 + Euonymus fortunei, and substrate 2 + Euonymus fortunei. Substrate 1 was m perlite ꞉ m fly ash = 100 ꞉ 15, substrate 2 was m perlite ꞉ m fly ash = 100 ꞉ 20. In this paper, the cultivation effect of light roof greening substrates made up of perlite and fly ash on the two plants after one year of growth was studied. Results showed that in substrate 2, Caryopteris clandonensis and Euonymus fortunei plant height, fresh weight on the ground, ground dry weight, root dry weight, root length, root area, root diameter, and root volume were significantly higher than that in substrate 1 (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in Caryopteris clandonensis and Euonymus fortunei chlorophyll content or root cap ratio between the two substrates. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the pH, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus of the substrates were significantly related to plant growth status (P < 0.01), followed by field water capacity, capillary porosity, and EC (electrical conductivity) (P < 0.05). The comprehensive evaluation ranked the effect in the following order: substrate 2 + Caryopteris clandonensis, substrate 1 + Caryopteris clandonensis, substrate 2 + Euonymus fortunei, and substrate 1 + Euonymus fortunei. In conclusion, substrate 2 had a better effect on the cultivation of Caryopteris clandonensis and Euonymus fortunei.
Research status and development trends of soil nitrogen cycle in grasslands during 2010 − 2020
ZHAO Yi, SUN Shengnan, YAN Xuebing
2021, 38(8): 1498-1512. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0728
[Abstract](1004) [FullText HTML] (488) [PDF 0KB](29)
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Nitrogen is the main component of proteins, nucleic acid, chlorophyll and other substances, and is the main factor limiting ecosystem function. The nitrogen cycle is one of the core element cycles in soil ecosystems and links the grassland ecosystem with society and the larger environment; in particular, nitrogen input is crucial to the level of grassland productivity. A loss in soil nitrogen will reduce environmental quality and affect human life. Therefore, the study of soil nitrogen cycle in grassland is of great significance for maintaining the structure and function of grassland ecosystems and promoting the harmonious symbiosis between humans and nature. Using Citespace software, we analyzed the literature on grassland soil nitrogen cycle during 2010 − 2020 in the core collection database of Web of Science. The results showed that the number of studies of the nitrogen cycle are rising, and in order to improve the quality of the articles, cooperation between domestic and foreign researchers should be further strengthened. Furthermore, we present a systematic review of biological factors (plants, microbes), human activities (grazing, burning, reclamation, mowing, etc.), and abiotic factors (atmospheric nitrogen deposition, warming and CO2 concentration increase, precipitation) on the soil nitrogen cycle in grasslands. With these factors in mind, we discuss the research problems that need to be studied in the future, and we propose that it is necessary to focus this research on the regional scale under the coupling effect of global change factors. Such an approach could improve the nitrogen cycle model and make possible the sustainable development of grassland areas.
Types and effects of toxins produced by plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium
ZHANG Jiacheng, FANG Xiangling, NAN Zhibiao
2021, 38(8): 1513-1524. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0716
[Abstract](2578) [FullText HTML] (707) [PDF 0KB](42)
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As a pathogen of many important crops, Fusarium spp. can not only cause serious loss of crop yield and quality, but also produce a series of toxic secondary metabolites in vitro and in host plants, which called Fusarium toxins. On the one hand, Fusarium toxins are closely related to the pathogenicity of Fusarium to host plants as virulence factors, on the other hand, Fusarium toxins cause the decline of livestock production performance and the emergence of related diseases, which in turn affects the agricultural ecosystem and poses a threat to human health. In view of the influence of Fusarium toxins on crop production and their toxicity to livestock and human, there has been considerable studies on the types of toxin in cereal crop after infection caused by Fusarium, nevertheless, there are few studies on the types of toxin in legume forage after infection caused by Fusarium and the role of toxins in the pathogenicity of Fusarium to legume forage. This study reviewed the main toxins produced by Fusarium species which commonly cause the diseases of main food and feed crops, and the effects of these toxins on plants, livestock and humans. The prospect and significance of research on Fusarium toxins in legume forage were examined.
Ecological effect of Dicranopteris pedata and its resource utilization: A review
ZHANG Yu, ZHANG Xu, QIU Zihao, CHEN Yuanqi
2021, 38(8): 1525-1536. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2021-0039
[Abstract](1370) [FullText HTML] (560) [PDF 0KB](38)
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Dicranopteris pedata is a herb species that is widely distributed in subtropical and tropical shrublands and forest ecosystems, and it plays an important role in the ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems. In addition, resource utilization by D. pedata has received extensive attention because it has considerable medicinal value. In recent decades, numerous studies on the ecological effect and resource utilization of D. pedata have been carried out across the globe. In this study, the photosynthetic eco-physiology responses of D. pedata to disturbance caused by shade and acid rain were investigated. This study also tracked D. pedata adaptation to a metal stress environment, reviews its allelopathic effects, and summarizes its functional traits. The ecological effects of D. pedata on nutrient cycling and soil biota were identified and resource utilization by D. pedata was determined. Finally, key research areas for future studies are proposed and discussed. That is, there should be a focus on the following research fields: 1) the genetic mechanisms underlying heavy metal hyperaccumulation and tolerance at the genetic level; 2) D. pedata community dynamics and their driving mechanisms; 3) the processes and mechanisms controlling the responses to global change shown by D. pedata and its interactions with plants and soil biota; 4) isolation and identification of allelochemicals; and 5) analysis, isolation, and purification of medicinal ingredients and evaluation of their drug activities. This information will provide a theoretical basis for the comprehensive exploitation and utilization of D. pedata.
Effects of different priming methods on seed germination of Carex leucochlora
LI Hui, TENG Ke, YUE Yuesen, TENG Wenjun, WEN Haifeng, HAN Chao, ZHANG Hui, FAN Xifeng, WU Juying
2021, 38(8): 1537-1547. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0532
[Abstract](1065) [FullText HTML] (514) [PDF 0KB](14)
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As an excellent turf ground cover, Carex leucochlora has potential application in landscape construction. However, the large-scale development and utilization of seeds are limited due to the long germination time. The effects of different initiators and methods on seed germination of C. leucochlora were studied. The results showed that 5% KNO3 and 480 mg·L−1 GA3 had the best priming effect on C. leucochlora seeds. Compared with the untreated seeds (CK), their germination potential increased by 11% and 32% respectively, the germination rate of both increased by 4%, the germination index increased by 2.06 and 2.69, respectively, and the average germination time was shortened by 2.11 d and 2.72 d, respectively. In the mixed treatment experiment, the best treatment was found to be the protocol in which seeds were first initiated with 5% KNO3, then soaked in 10% NaOH solution for 20 min, and then initiated by addition of 480 mg·L−1 GA3. With this protocol, the germination potential and germination rate were increased by 92% and 5% compared with the untreated seeds. Similarly, the germination index was increased by 5.92, and the average germination time was shortened from 9.01 d to 4.46 d. This study solved the problems of slow germination of C. leucochlora seeds, and provided a basis for the large-scale application of C. leucochlora in the garden green space.
Effects of drought stress on photosystem Ⅱ and photosynthesis in Beta vulgaris during the vegetative development period
LI Sizhong, GAO Weishi, ZHANG Liming, BAI Xiaoshan, LIU Jun, DONG Xinjiu, YANG Hongze, SHA Hong, GAO Yan
2021, 38(8): 1548-1558. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0537
[Abstract](849) [FullText HTML] (439) [PDF 0KB](11)
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In order to explore the response mechanism of the photosynthetic apparatus and function in sugar beet leaves to drought stress, cultivars ‘XJT9907’ (drought sensitive type), and ‘XJT9916’ (drought tolerant type) were used to determine the chlorophyll a fluorescence induction curve of each treatment using a plant efficiency analyzer (Handy-PEA) when the field water capacity was 45%~50% at the sugar beet leaf cluster stage over seven days. The chlorophyll a fluorescence induction curve in each treatment was measured simultaneously using the OJIP-test data analysis method. The standardized data, specific activity parameters, performance index, total performance index, and energy distribution ratio of the related optical system Ⅱ (PSⅡ) were obtained. The results showed that drought stress: 1) increased the variable fluorescence intensity and decreased the electron transfer efficiency of leaves (ΨEO, φEO, φRO); 2) decreased the absorption, capture, dissipation, and transfer of light energy per unit area (ABS/CSO, DIO/CSO, ETO/CSO, REO/CSO), but had little effect on drought tolerant varieties; 3) decreased the energy connectivity between PSⅡ units and electron transfer between these photosystems; 4) led to the (oxygen-evolving complex, OEC) inactivation of the PSⅡ oxygen evolution complex and imbalance of electron transfer between the PSⅡ acceptor and donor sides; 5) The net photosynthetic rate of leaves of XJT9907 and XJT9916 decreased by 32.2% and 10.3%, respectively; 6) the drought-tolerant cultivar, XJT9916, prevented over-excitation of energy by strong energy dissipation (DIO/CSO, DIO/RC), resulting in a lower reduction in the net photosynthetic rate of the leaves than in the drought-sensitive cultivar, XJT9907. When the soil water content of XJT9907 and XJT9916 beet leaf clusters was 45%~50% of the field water holding capacity, the photochemical activity of the leaf photosynthetic system was reduced, the electron transfer reaction and the Calvin-Benson cycle was out of balance, and the photosynthetic mechanism stability and light energy utilization efficiency were reduced, leading to leaf light inhibition, thereby reducing the photosynthetic capacity of the leaf. The reduction in the photosynthetic capacity of sugar beet under drought stress is related to the down-regulation of PSⅡ function. Compared with Fv/Fm, the performance index, PItotal, can be used as a sensitivity index for screening drought-resistant genotypes.
Adaptation of the main functional trait of Alhagi sparsifolia leaves and roots to soil water stress
XU Mengqi, GAO Yanju, ZHANG Zhihao, ZENG Fanjiang
2021, 38(8): 1559-1569. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2021-0092
[Abstract](1444) [FullText HTML] (538) [PDF 0KB](24)
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Plants respond to changes in soil moisture by changing their functional traits and nutrients distribution across above-ground and underground organs. This research monitored the changes of the main functional traits of leaves and roots of Alhagi sparsifolia under four moisture levels (W1: 30% field capacity (FC); W2: 40% FC; W3: 55% FC; CK: 75% FC). The results showed that a decrease in water significantly reduced the plant leaf, stem, thorn, aboveground and underground biomass of A. sparsifolia, but had no significant effect on the root: shoot ratio. A. sparsifolia seedlings adapted to water stress by reducing leaf area, increasing the specific leaf area, reducing root volume, and increasing specific root length. These preliminarily results suggest that different adaptive strategies can be formed using the synergistic or balance effect among the traits of A. sparsifolia. Under water stress, more nutrients absorbed by the A. sparsifolia seedlings were distributed in the root. The regular pattern of nutrients content among the organs ranked as follows: root > leaf > stem > thorn. We found a positive correlation between aboveground and underground nutrient contents under the water stress. This study provides an effective reference for vegetation ecological restoration in the south of Taklimakan.
Interaction effects of plant density and nitrogen rate on the growth and physiological traits of alfalfa in saline alkali soils
LU Faguang, GU Lifeng, LIU Yuqian, REN Zhen, SHI Yu, XU Zhenran, ZHOU Guisheng, LU Haitong, WANG Xiaoshan, ZHANG Wangding, REN Zhiqiang, ZHU Guanglong
2021, 38(8): 1570-1578. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2021-0211
[Abstract](826) [FullText HTML] (444) [PDF 0KB](30)
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Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of nitrogen rate and planting density on the growth and physiological traits of alfalfa WL919 grown in saline soil. The effects of three planting densities (D1 = 15.0 kg·ha−1, D2 = 30.0 kg·ha−1, and D3 = 45.0 kg·ha−1) and three nitrogen rates (N1 = 150.0 kg·ha−1, N2 = 225.0 kg·ha−1, and N3 = 300.0 kg·ha−1) were investigated in this study to provide technical support for high-yield cultivation of alfalfa in saline-alkali soils. The results showed that 1) the plant height and dry biomass yield of alfalfa increased at first and then decreased with the increase in planting density. They reached their highest at medium density (D2) and then decreased, but they always increased with the increase in nitrogen application rate. 2) The results for the interactions between planting density and nitrogen application rate showed that alfalfa plant height and hay yield were both optimal under the medium-density and medium-nitrogen (D2N2) treatment. 3) Alfalfa is at the budding stage and the initial flowering stage at 120 days after sowing. At this time, the forage quality of alfalfa is optimal and the hay yield is 11 057.2 kg·ha−1, which means that it is the most suitable harvest time. 4) The malondialdehyde content was the lowest at 60 d after sowing. At this time, the nitrogen application rate had no significant effect on the malondialdehyde content (P > 0.05). At 120 d after sowing, the D3N2 combination had the lowest malondialdehyde content. 5) The proline content first increased and then decreased as the planting density and nitrogen application rate increased. In general, superoxide dismutase activity increased as the planting density and nitrogen application rate rose, and the maximum value was showed under D2N2 treatment. Peroxidase activity was higher under the medium density (D2) treatment and under the D2N2 treatment. Oxidase activity was optimal, whereas catalase activity increased at first and then decreased with the increase in nitrogen application at the D2 and D3 densities. Catalase reached its optimal activity under medium nitrogen (N2). The results for the interaction between planting density and nitrogen application rate showed that the growth and physiological characteristics of alfalfa in saline soil under the medium density and medium nitrogen (D2N2) treatment were optimal.
Evaluation of resistance to Colletotrichum trifolii in seedlings of 40 alfalfa cultivars
HU Wenjing, YANG Yapeng, Abudukeyimu·Asiyamu, GE Ruiyun, MA Jianhui, LI Kemei
2021, 38(8): 1579-1586. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2021-0125
[Abstract](1953) [FullText HTML] (511) [PDF 0KB](18)
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Colletotrichum trifolii is an important pathogen that causes anthracnose in alfalfa. In severe cases, it can cause devastating damage to alfalfa crops. A spore suspension spray inoculation method was used to evaluate seedling resistance to C. trifolii in 40 alfalfa cultivars, using incidence and disease index as indicators. Among the tested cultivars, Magnum 2, Vinal, and Algonquin showed high resistance, and WL363HQ, Magnum 7, Ladinuo, 4030, 4010, Rembler, and Liangmu, showed moderate resistance. Fifteen cultivars, including Xinmu No.4, Gannong No.4 and Xunlu showed moderate susceptibility, and 15 cultivars, including Xinjiang Daye, Gannong No.6, and Gannong No.9 showed high susceptibility. Twenty-five percent of tested cultivars displayed resistance. Seventy five percent of cultivars were susceptible. There was a significant difference in resistance between highly resistant and highly susceptible cultivars (P < 0.05).
Effects of intercropping Dolichos lablab with silage maize on the yield and quality of mixed forage in the Chengdu Plain, China
DONG Zhixiao, HE Runhao, KUANG Jianyang, NIE Cong, YANG Jian, GOU Wenlong, MA Xiao
2021, 38(8): 1587-1595. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2021-0122
[Abstract](917) [FullText HTML] (548) [PDF 0KB](62)
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This study aimed to explore the best proportion of corn (Zea mays) and Dolichos lablab in the Chengdu Plain, and its impact on mixed forage production and quality. The corn cultivar ‘Demeiya No. 1’ was intercropped with different sowing rates of D. lablab ‘Rungai’, and the agronomic characteristics, fresh and hay yields, and forage nutrients of corn were determined at a suitable harvest time, and the increasing corn fresh yield was used to assess the economic benefit. With the increased seeding rate of D. lablab, plant height, stem thickness, stem-leaf ratio, and other indicators of corn were decreased, while mixed forage yield, crude protein, crude fat, in vitro digestibility, and dry-to-fresh ratio increased compared with the monoculture of corn. Among them, the fresh grass yield of mixed forage treated with 52 500 plant·ha−1 corn intercropping 112 500 plant·ha−1 D. lablab was the highest, at 63 711.86 kg·ha−1, and the net increase was 20 081.69 CNY·ha−1 compared with the monoculture of corn, but the content of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) was reduced. A comprehensive analysis of the fresh grass yield and nutrient components by the membership function revealed that the membership function value of 52 500 plant·ha−1 corn intercropping 112 500 plant·ha−1 D. lablab was the highest (0.83), and the comprehensive evaluation of the mixed forage under this treatment was the best. The synthesis showed that the intercropping of 52 500 plant·ha−1 of corn with 112 500 plant·ha−1 of D. lablab was the optimal planting mode for improving forage yield and quality in the Chengdu Plain.
Effect of texturized and pelleted starter on growth and gastrointestinal development of early weaning lambs
CAI Xiaofang, ZHANG Chengxin, LI Yong, LIU Peng, LI Cailian, GUO Yanli
2021, 38(8): 1596-1604. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0508
[Abstract](1429) [FullText HTML] (556) [PDF 0KB](9)
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of texturized and pelleted starter on the growth and gastrointestinal development of early weaning lambs. Forty-two newborn, healthy male lambs were selected and randomly assigned to two groups; lambs were fed pelleted, and texturized starter feed, respectively. The experiment lasted for 42 days. The changes in feed intake, body weight, and absolute growth of lambs in two groups were similar before 21 days old. After 21 days of age, the starter feed intake, body weight, absolute growth, and relative growth of lambs fed texturized starter feed were higher than those fed with pelleted starter feed. There were differences (P < 0.05) in the body weight at 42 days of age, the starter feed intake in the last two weeks, and the relative growth rate at 15~21 days of age. The fattening index, body length index, chest circumference index, and tube circumference index at 42 days, and rumen weight and rumen weight / pre-weaning carcass weight were also improved (P < 0.05) in the texturized group. Compared with the pelleted starter, the texturized starter was more beneficial to rumen development, an increase of feed intake, and body weight and body size of lambs pre- and post- weaning, but there was no effect on the development of other stomach chambers and intestines.
Effects of coccidian parasites on the personality and physiological traits of plateau pika
ZHONG Liang, ZHU Hongjuan, YU Yibo, QU Jiapeng
2021, 38(8): 1605-1614. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2021-0149
[Abstract](874) [FullText HTML] (447) [PDF 0KB](12)
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We measured the variation in food intake, body mass, fecal cortisol concentration, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and exploration in 30 plateau pikas fed with Eimeria coccidia oocysts (COs), anthelmintic, and normal saline (NS), respectively. On the 5th day, the number of CO-fed pikas reached the peak, and the population of the CO-fed group was significantly higher than that of the anthelmintic-fed group and control group (NS-fed group) (P < 0.05). On the 18th day, there was no significant difference in food intake between the CO-fed group and the control group (P > 0.05), but the food intake was significantly lower than that in the anthelmintic-fed group (P < 0.05). On the 8th day, the fecal cortisol concentration in the CO-fed group and anthelmintic-fed group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). On the 18th day, the fecal cortisol concentration and RMR in the CO-fed group and the control group were significantly higher than those in the anthelmintic-fed group (P < 0.05). On the 5th day, exploration in the CO-fed group was significantly lower than that in the anthelmintic-fed group and the control group (P < 0.05). When Eimeria coccidia infected plateau pika, it increased their cortisol concentration, decreased their RMR, and weakened their exploration, which reduced the risk of predation and promoted the transmission rate of Eimeria coccidia in plateau pikas. This study provides a new basis for using Eimeria coccidia as a potential biological control agent to control plateau pika populations.
Study on the associative effects of quinoa andsorghum straw under different diet ratios of concentrate to roughage
WANG Zhengwen, WEI Yuming, YANG Farong, LUO jin, JIAO Ting, ZHAO Shengguo
2021, 38(8): 1615-1625. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0478
[Abstract](1050) [FullText HTML] (599) [PDF 0KB](17)
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This study aimed to evaluate the associative effect of different quinoa and sorghum straw ratios under different Concentrate-Roughage ratios. Therefore, the experiment set the concentrate to a roughage ratio of 30 ꞉ 70 and 40 ꞉ 60, respectively, with quinoa straw ꞉ sorghum straw ratios of 40 ꞉ 60 ꞉ 0 (Ⅰ), 40 ꞉ 45 ꞉ 15 (Ⅱ), 40 ꞉ 30 ꞉ 30 (Ⅲ), 40 ꞉ 15 ꞉ 45 (Ⅳ), and 40 ꞉ 0 ꞉ 60 (Ⅴ), as well as 30 ꞉ 70 ꞉ 0 (Ⅵ), 30 ꞉ 55 ꞉ 15 (Ⅶ), 30 ꞉ 40 ꞉ 30 (Ⅷ), 30 ꞉ 25 ꞉ 45 (Ⅸ), 30 ꞉ 10 ꞉ 60 (Ⅹ), 30 ꞉ 0 ꞉ 70 (Ⅺ). The combination ratios of the 11 mixed feeds, along with the separate concentrates, and quinoa straw and sorghum straws as controls were used during in vitro gas production experiments that were conducted to determine the in vitro dry matter degradation rate (IVDMD), rumen fluid pH, and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) of the different diet combinations. Moreover, the ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) content was also investigated and the single and multiple factors associative effect indices were calculated for each feed combination. The results showed that the GP of all groups increased significantly within 24 h, then leveled off, except for the fermentation time. The IVDMD increased with an increase in the sorghum straw addition. When the ratio of concentrate to roughage was 40 ꞉ 60, the GP24 h, the NH3-N content, and the total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) increased by 36.2% and 53.5%, 30.7% and 30.3%, and 12.2% and 33.3%, respectively. Moreover, the single factor associative effect index (SFAEI) of the NH3-N and TVFA in group Ⅲ were significantly higher than those in other groups(P < 0.05), and the multiple factors associative effect index (MFAEI) in the same group (Ⅲ) was significantly higher than that in other groups (P < 0.05). When the ratio of concentrate to roughage was 30 ꞉ 70, the GP24 h, the NH3-N content, and the TVFA increased by 29.2 and 23.2%, 35.1% and 2.06%, and 32.7 and 16%, respectively. Compared with the single quinoa and sorghum groups, the SFAEI of the TVFA in group Ⅷ was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, the SFAEI of the NH3-N in groups Ⅷ and Ⅺ were significantly higher than in group Ⅵ (P < 0.05), and the MFAEI in group Ⅷ was significantly higher than in groups Ⅵ, Ⅸ, and Ⅹ (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the MFAEI of the concentrate ꞉ quinoa straw ꞉ sorghum straw was 30 ꞉ 40 ꞉ 30, which was the largest. It could be used as an optimal feed combination and a suitable additive amount in the production practice.
Research and implementation of the inference engine in the rodent community expert system in the Alashan desert area based on a MapGIS platform
GAO Hongwei, ZHOU Yanqiu, Manduhu, FU Heping, LI Ming, FU Jiangfeng
2021, 38(8): 1626-1637. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2021-0310
[Abstract](884) [FullText HTML] (516) [PDF 0KB](17)
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Building on previous research and development of the rodent community expert system in the Alashan desert area, we analyzed the relative quantity of Meriones meridianus, Dipus sagitta, and Phodopus roborovskii in three different types of habitats (reclamation, rotation grazing and overgrazing) as well as the dynamic relationships (both quantitative and non-linear) of eight different plant factors. We utilized the MapGIS platform with eight plant factors and three dominant rodents in three habitats, and a database system composed of population data, a knowledge base system composed of image information of three dominant species of rodents, and a model library system composed of 19 ecological models in three habitats, so as to form an inference engine for the dynamic relationship between the relative number of populations in the rodent community and plant factors. The MapGIS was developed using the programming language VB (Visual Basic) and was designed and applied in the expert system.
Balance of supply and demand of straw fodder resources and development potential of animal husbandry in the dry farming area of central Gansu: A case study in Anding District, Dingxi City
DU Yuehong, CHEN Qiangqiang, CUI Xiujuan, WU Xi, ZHAO Rongfang
2021, 38(8): 1638-1649. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2021-0088
[Abstract](1428) [FullText HTML] (485) [PDF 0KB](25)
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The utilization of straw feed is of strategic importance to promote the development of the grass-fed livestock industry, to store food in grass to reduce competition between humans and animals for land, and to increase food security. In this study, the grass valley ratio and energy conversion theory were used to estimate the amount of crop straw resources and the potential of straw fodder to save food in the settled area. On this basis, two scenarios of planting structure adjustment (A) and straw fodder utilization enhancement (B) were designed with eight scenarios to estimate the development potential and economic benefits of grass-fed livestock farming. From 2000 to 2018, the total amount of straw resources of the bulk crops wheat, corn, and potato in Anding District was 4.870 3 million tons; the stock of grass-fed livestock was 11.326 1 million sheep units, the demand for straw feed was 7.441 2 million tons, and the amount of straw fodder was 1.770 5 million tons. There was a huge gap between the supply and demand of straw feed. Wheat, corn, and potatoes are three major crops and they had a straw food saving potential of 288.5 thousand tons, 572.1 thousand tons, and 1.181 7 million tons, respectively. Using the actual 2018 stock of 142.8 thousand sheep units as a baseline, the combination of scenarios was compared. The straw carrying potential under the Ah + Bh scheme was as high as 286.9 thousand sheep units, with an economic benefit of 302.113 7 million CNY, which was the optimal scheme. The potential for livestock development of the worst option, Al, was 44.2 thousand sheep units, with an economic benefit of 46.550 3 million CNY, a difference of 242.7 million sheep units, and an economic benefit of 255.563 4 million CNY compared to the optimal scheme. Overall, the livestock-carrying potential and economic benefits under the combined A and B scenarios were higher than the potential of a single scenario, and integrated grass–livestock development was an effective development model that could be promoted in dry farming areas.
Effect of implementing grassland subsidy policy in Tianzhu County, Gansu Province, China
WANG Shuqing, XU Yi, YANG Kun
2021, 38(8): 1650-1656. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0643
[Abstract](894) [FullText HTML] (407) [PDF 0KB](25)
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Grassland is an essential ecological asset and a productive resource, which means that it has an important strategic position in China’s social and economic development. Since the 18th National Congress of the CPC, China has incorporated the construction of ecological civilization into the overall layout of “five in one”, and implementation of the compensation for grassland policy is an important measure that will accelerate the construction of ecological civilization. In addition, the policy is of great significance to the sustainable development of the ecological environment and poverty reduction in pastoral regions. This study investigated the two rounds of compensation policy by analyzing the statistical data over the years and by consulting the almanac. The changes in livestock carrying capacity and the ecological, economic, and social benefits of different grassland types before and after implementing the policy were analyzed. The results showed that 1) after implementation of the two-round bonus policy, the ecological environment of the Tianzhu County grassland gradually recovered and the per unit yield of hay reached 2 162.28 kg·ha–1, which was 45.4% higher than before the bonus policy was implemented. 2) The mode of production used by the livestock industry continued to change. The theoretical livestock carrying capacity increased by 429 800 sheep units, which implies a 54.3% increase compared to before the introduction of the bonus policy. 3) The per capita income of farmers and herdsmen increased from 4 012 CNY before the policy was implemented to 8 265 CNY. After two rounds of the grassland ecological compensation policy following implementation of the prominent issues, the following are considered relevant and are therefore recommended: 1) increase investment in ecological compensation and improve the compensation standards of the Grassland Compensation Prize; 2) accelerate the development of modern agricultural industries, increase industrial support, and actively develop agriculture and animal husbandry with distinctive features; and 3) establish and improve the system of grazing prohibition and grazing control, and scientifically formulate measures for grazing prohibition and control.
Analysis of current standards for forage seed industry
GU Chen, JIA Zhiqing, WANG Yingxin, HE Lingxianzi, LI Qingxue
2021, 38(8): 1657-1662. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0494
[Abstract](1905) [FullText HTML] (723) [PDF 0KB](90)
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Forage seeds are not only the backbone of prataculture and animal husbandry. They are crucial for ecological civilization construction and urban landscape greening. China has a large amount of grassland resources and a high utilization of forage seeds, but it has a weak forage seed industry. Standardization is the key to promote the rapid and high-quality development of the forage seed industry and has led to positive progress in China over the past 30 years. Nonetheless, the current standard system is still in chaos, lacking systematic classification and integration. Here, in order to further strengthen and perfect our standard system and promote the high-quality development of the forage seed industry, the current standards related to the forage seed industry were collected and sifted as many as possible, and then were sorted into five categories including germplasm, production and processing, quality inspection, packaging, storage and transportation, and sowing. We organized the current standards; summarized the standards that may need to be updated; and identified standards that need to be developed. Our results will serve and provide convenience to standard makers and users, and provide references for the improvement of the standard system of the forage seed industry.
Application of a teaching-learning method based on PBL collaborative group division of labor in practical teaching of grassland conservation
GAO Lijie, ZHOU Guona, Aotegenbaiyin, WU Chunhui, LIU Shudong, CHEN Baojiang
2021, 38(8): 1663-1669. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2021-0076
[Abstract](1916) [FullText HTML] (598) [PDF 0KB](29)
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In this paper, two students majoring in Pratacultural Science in the College of Animal Science and Technology of the Agricultural University of Hebei (with different teaching practices) were taken as a study sample for practical application of teaching reforms aimed at expanding experimental teaching approaches, introducing course practice skills competitions, practicing teaching off campus, establishing a collaborative steering group made up of entrepreneurs, developing innovative content for teaching of grassland protection practices, practicing teaching informatization reform, and developing a course evaluation system to assess the effects of incorporating PBL (Problem-based learning) into teaching-learning methods used to teach a Grassland Conservation Course under the auspices of collaboration between industry, education, research, and local communities. Our results indicate that this teaching method can improve teaching quality and student test scores to a great extent, and enhance students’ comprehensive professional practice quality. Thus it should be widely promoted in the teaching of “grassland protection”.
2021, 38(8): 1670-1670.
[Abstract](170) [FullText HTML] (96) [PDF 0KB](0)
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