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2021 Vol.38(6)


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2021, 38(6): 0-0.
[Abstract](698) [FullText HTML] (405) [PDF 26664KB](71)
2021, (6): 1-4.
[Abstract](683) [FullText HTML] (352) [PDF 351KB](64)
2021, 38(6): 1011-1011.
[Abstract](662) [FullText HTML] (286) [PDF 287KB](14)
Effects of forest and grass restoration on soil aggregate stability, and organic carbon and nitrogen characteristics in an eroded area of the Reshui River
ZHANG Jianxiong, GU Feng, ZHU Bo, ZHOU Minghua
2021, 38(6): 1012-1023. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2021-0062
[Abstract](1953) [FullText HTML] (608) [PDF 833KB](32)
Land use affects the stability of soil aggregates and the distribution of carbon and nitrogen, thereby changing the process of soil carbon and nitrogen cycling. In this study, soil aggregates, carbon, nitrogen, and other physical and chemical properties in 0 − 100 cm soil profiles of grassland, shrubland, and forestland were systematically studied in a small watershed of the Reshui River under three different forest and grass restoration measures. This was done to explore suitable forest and grass restoration measures. The results showed that the distribution, stability, and carbon and nitrogen characteristics of soil aggregates were significantly affected by different forest and grass restoration measures. In the 0 − 10 cm, 10 − 30 cm, 30 − 60 cm soil layer, the aggregate content (> 2 mm) in the grassland was significantly higher than that in the shrubland and forestland (P < 0.05). In the 60 − 100 cm soil layer, the performance followed the trend of shrubland > forestland > grassland (P < 0.05). The distribution trends of soil aggregate mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometric mean diameter (GMD) were similar to the distribution trend of the ratio of > 0.25 mm aggregate (R0.25). In the 0 − 10 cm and 10 − 30 cm soil layers, the total nitrogen and organic carbon contents of the grassland were significantly higher than those of the shrubland and forestland (P < 0.05). However, with the deepening of the soil profile, the distribution of carbon and nitrogen contents in the deep soil layer of grassland decreased. In the 30 − 60 cm and 60 − 100 cm soil layers, the distribution trend of total nitrogen and organic carbon contents of the soil was in the order of shrubland > forestland > grassland (P < 0.05). In addition, the carbon and nitrogen stoichiometric ratio of the grassland was always at a low level among the three land uses. Soil aggregate stability, and carbon and nitrogen contents were closely related to soil pH, soil particle composition, and other soil properties. The MWD was significantly and positively correlated with pH (P < 0.01), GMD was significantly and positively correlated with pH and silt contents (P < 0.05), and the correlation between R0.25 and soil particle composition was extremely significant (P < 0.01). Additionally, the correlation between the total nitrogen and organic carbon contents was significant (P < 0.05). Soil total nitrogen and organic carbon contents were both significantly and negatively correlated with pH and silt content (P < 0.01), and positively correlated with sand content (P < 0.01). The results of this study showed that grassland had a better role in stabilizing soil structure, and stabilizing carbon and nitrogen in the soil surface. However, in the deeper soil layer, the stability of aggregates in shrubland and forestland was better than that in the grassland, and the contents of carbon and nitrogen were also higher. This study provides data to support ecological restoration in dry-hot valley areas.
Effects of alfalfa planting with different cultivating ages on abundance of soil carbon-sequestration bacteria and labile organic carbon fractions in rainfed Loess Plateau
CAI Xuemei, PAN Zhandong, LUO Zhuzhu, LI Lingling, NIU Yining, CAI Liqun, LIU Jiahe
2021, 38(6): 1024-1034. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2021-0037
[Abstract](1641) [FullText HTML] (645) [PDF 811KB](20)
This study aimed to reveal the effects of alfalfa planting on the abundance of soil carbon-sequestration bacteria and labile organic carbon fractions. We performed an experiment in rain-fed areas of the Loess Plateau by using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR to analyze the variation characteristics of soil carbon-sequestration bacteria abundance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) artificial grassland with different cultivation ages (2, 9, 16, and 18 a) and farmland [maize (Zea mays)]. Additionally, we examined the relationship between the abundance of soil carbon-sequestration bacteria, labile organic carbon fractions, and RubisCO enzyme activity. Furthermore, we analyzed the important factors affecting the abundance of the cbbL gene and soil labile organic carbon fractions by coupling with soil physicochemical properties. The results showed that compared with farmland, 18 and 16 a alfalfa significantly increased soil total organic carbon and three kinds of labile organic carbon fractions (P < 0.05), among which total organic carbon, readily oxidizable organic carbon, soluble organic carbon, and microbial biomass organic carbon increased by 18.15% and 14.60%, 130.00% and 76.43%, 22.87% and 11.17%, 127.03% and 133.49%, respectively. Moreover, 9 a alfalfa improved the three types of soil labile carbon fractions, while 2 a alfalfa only significantly increased the content of microbial biomass carbon (P < 0.05). The copy number of cbbL gene ranged from 1.12 × 108 to 1.96 × 108 copies·g−1 in dry soil, which showed that alfalfa treatments were significantly higher than farmland (P < 0.05). The abundance of the cbbL gene increased with increasing number of alfalfa planting years. Correlation analysis showed that the abundance of cbbL gene was positively correlated with soil C, N, and pH, and negatively correlated with soil water, P, and RubisCO enzyme activity. Furthermore, stepwise regression analysis showed that soil total nitrogen and pH were key factors affecting the abundance of the cbbL gene. The results of redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that soil moisture and total nitrogen were the main factors affecting the total organic carbon and labile organic carbon fractions. In conclusion, understanding the response of soil cbbL bacterial abundance and labile organic carbon fractions to alfalfa cultivation ages provides a reference for further investigating the microbial mechanism of soil carbon sequestration in rain-fed areas of the Loess Plateau.
Spatiotemporal variations in freezing and thawing indices on the Tibetan Plateau during 1978−2017
LIAO Ying, FAN Jihui, LI Yiying, CHENG Genwei
2021, 38(6): 1035-1046. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0592
[Abstract](1522) [FullText HTML] (494) [PDF 2413KB](25)
The Tibetan Plateau is the largest expanse of alpine frozen soil in China. The study of freezing and thawing indices can provide some implications for ecological environmental evaluation. Based on the daily air temperature data obtained from 34 meteorological stations, freezing and thawing indices and their spatiotemporal variation trends from 1978 to 2017 on the Tibetan Plateau were calculated and analyzed, and some key factors that may affect these indices are discussed. The results showed that during 1978–2017, the freezing index of the Tibetan Plateau ranged from 386.8 to 886.1 ℃·d, and the thawing index ranged from 1 960.3 to 2 521.5 ℃·d; the temporal variation trends of the two indices were nearly negatively correlated, and significant downward (−9.2 ℃·d·a−1) and upward trends (11.1 ℃·d·a−1) were observed for the time series of the freezing index and thawing index, respectively. The spatial distribution of the mean value of the freezing index showed an increase from southeast to northwest, whereas the thawing index was high in the south-central and eastern areas. The rate of decline of the freezing index in the northwest of the Tibetan Plateau was faster than in the southeast, whereas the thawing index showed a rapid upward trend in most areas on the Tibetan Plateau. Freezing and thawing indices were affected by the latitude, longitude, altitude, and some socio-economic factors; however, altitude was the dominant factor.
Analysis of the spatio-temporal characteristics of the water retention function of the Wulie River Basin in Chengde City
WANG Ye, XUE Zhongcai, WANG Lin, CHANG Jianing, JIANG Baiyang
2021, 38(6): 1047-1059. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2021-0059
[Abstract](1782) [FullText HTML] (563) [PDF 5826KB](15)
The Wulie River Basin in Chengde City is an important part of the Jing-Jin-Ji water conservation functional area, and research on its water conservation function is of great significance. Based on the InVEST model, this study analyzes the temporal and spatial characteristics of water conservation from 1990 to 2018. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) The simulation results in the study area were best when the InVEST model Zhang value was 3.7. The average annual water conservation depth and total water conservation of the Wulie River Basin were 83.85 mm and 2.18 × 108 m3, respectively, and showed a slightly downward trend from 1990 to 2018. 2) The water conservation depth of the Wulie River Basin had a significant positive correlation with rainfall (P < 0.05), a significant negative correlation with potential evapotranspiration (P < 0.05), and a negative (though non-significant) correlation with temperature (P > 0.05). 3) The effect of unit area change by land use type on water conservation was, from greatest to least: forest land, grassland, farmland, and construction land. 4) Climate was the leading factor for changes in water conservation in the Wulie River Basin, and the damaging effect of land use change on water conservation is gradually increasing.
Effects of grazing intensity on the spatial distribution of Stipa breviflora population
LI Zhiguo, LYU Shijie, YAN Baolong, HAN Guodong, WANG Zhongwu, QU Zhiqiang, WANG Jing
2021, 38(6): 1060-1068. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2021-0056
[Abstract](1500) [FullText HTML] (560) [PDF 935KB](24)
In this study, the multi-fractal characteristics of the spatial distribution of Stipa breviflora in desert steppe with four grazing intensities are discussed. The four grazing treatments were control area of no grazing (CK), light grazing (LG), moderate grazing (MG), and heavy grazing (HG), with stocking rates of 0, 0.93, 1.82, and 2.71 AUM per hectare per half year, respectively. Based on the box plot and multifractal research methods, the following results indicate that under different grazing intensities, the spatial distribution of the S. breviflora population shows multifractal characteristics. With increasing grazing intensities (except for light grazing), the multifractal complexity of the spatial distribution of S. breviflora population decreases, the niche width almost did not change, the spatial distribution changes from an aggregation state to a uniform state, and the competition intensity among individuals increases. The multifractal characteristics of the spatial distribution of S. breviflora population are the most complex under light grazing: the niche width decreases, the spatial distribution aggregation characteristics are the most obvious, and the competition intensity among individuals is the lowest. Regardless of how the grazing intensity changes, the dominant position of the S. breviflora population in the plant community did not change, and the overall spatial distribution was dominated by the large probability subset.
Biomass allocation and prediction in Nitraria nabkhas
ZHANG Zhengguo, DONG Xue, XIN Zhiming, ZHANG Jingbo, WANG Xuequan, JIAN Kaimin, MA Haifeng, HUANG Yaru, LI Yonghua
2021, 38(6): 1069-1077. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0727
[Abstract](1428) [FullText HTML] (503) [PDF 931KB](17)
Shrub nabkhas (sand dunes) are widely distributed in the arid region of northwest China. Using the common Nitraria shrub nabkha in the arid region as the research object, this study obtained the morphological and biomass data of 45 Nitraria tangutorum and 21 Nitraria sphaerocarpa shrub nabkhas through sample plot collection and literature data collection and established a biomass prediction model for Nitraria shrub nabkhas. It was found that the biomass of the surface, inner, and lower parts of the nabkha and that of the branch and leaf, and root increased by 0.31, 0.57, 0.12, 0.44, and 0.56 kg, respectively, as the total biomass increased by 1 kg. The change in plant height could explain 76%~88% of the total biomass and that of each component of the nabkha. The change in nabkha length could explain 76%~92% variation in the total biomass and that of each component of the nabkha. The combination of plant height and nabkha length could account for 89%~94% of variation in the total biomass and that of each component of the nabkha. With an increase in nabkha height, the proportion of plant biomass above the sand dune decreased and that inside the nabkha increased, however, there was no significant change under the sand dune. In addition, the proportional increase in root biomass was attributed to the increase in roots inside the sand dune. There were significant correlations between each part of the biomass and the total biomass of Nitraria (P < 0.01). This relationship can be used to predict each component using the other, thus achieving a field-tracking monitor.
Effects of exogenous MeJA on the growth, physiology, and biochemistry of Viola philippica
LI Qiaoxia, PAN Chaochao, HUANG Xiaoxia, LI Jigang, ZHANG Zhengrong, WANG Bo
2021, 38(6): 1078-1086. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629..2020-0562
[Abstract](1306) [FullText HTML] (428) [PDF 831KB](20)
In this study, we investigated the effects of different methyl jasmonate (MeJA) concentrations on the growth, physiology, and biochemistry of Viola philippica. We used V. philippica as the experimental materials and sprayed its leaves on the underside with five different MeJA concentrations (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10 mmol·L−1) to quantitatively study their effects on the number of Tetranychus mites, growth index, antioxidase activities, and soluble sugar and chlorophyll content. Compared with the non-sprayed MeJA (CK), exogenous MeJA could reduce the Tetranychus mite infection rate of the leaves of V. philippica. All growth indexes in the plants increased, as well as the activities of catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and lipoxygenase, and the chlorophyll and soluble sugar content, while the malondialdehyde content decreased. When the MeJA concentration was 10 mmol·L−1, the mite damage index was the lowest and the anti-overfull effect was the best, while at the MeJA concentration of 2.5 mmol·L−1, all growth indexes reached the maximum. These results showed that exogenous MeJA could improve the resistance of V. philippica to the mite by affected the activities of various enzymes and corresponding physiological indexes, which was beneficial to its growth and development.
Study on water holding characteristics of litter under the main shrub types in the northern and southern mountains of Lanzhou City, northwest China
LIU Xiao'e, SU Shiping
2021, 38(6): 1087-1096. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0507
[Abstract](1404) [FullText HTML] (489) [PDF 691KB](7)
As ecological barriers, plantations of northern and southern mountains play an important role in soil and water conservation and regional climate improvement in Lanzhou City, Gansu Province. The aim of this study was to investigate the accumulation of litter and their water holding characteristics in different artificial shrubs in the northern and southern mountains of Lanzhou City. An investigation was conducted on the accumulation and water holding characteristics (water holding capacity, water holding rate, and water absorption rate) of the litter by field survey and laboratory soaking extraction under four main shrubs (Platycladus orientalis, Tamarix chinensis, Reaumuria soongorica, and Caragana rosea) in the northern and southern mountains of Lanzhou. The results showed that the accumulation amount of the litter under the shrubs ranged from 0.44 to 48.51 t·ha−1, and in the order of C. rosea > P. orientalis > T. chinensis > R. soongorica. The storage percentage of undecomposed litter was greater than that of semi-decomposed litter, except for under C. rosea shrubs. The maximum water-holding rate of the litter ranged from 175.20% to 323.73%, which was the highest for T. chinensis and the lowest for C. rosea. The water-holding rate of the undecomposed litter was lower than that of the semi-decomposed litter. The maximum water-holding capacity of the litter ranged from 0.85 to 84.81 t·ha−1, followed by C. rosea > P. orientalis > T. chinensis > R. soongorica. The water-holding capacities of C. rosea and P. orientalis were lower in undecomposed litter than in semi-decomposed litter, but the opposite was true for the T. chinensis shrub. The water absorption rate of the litter declined linearly within the first hour, after which the litter water absorption decreased slowly. The semi-decomposed litter had a higher water absorption rate than the un-decomposed litter. The maximum retaining amount of the litter ranged from 0.83 to 67.21 t·ha−1, the effective retaining amount of the litter ranged from 0.70 to 54.49 t·ha−1, the effective retaining depth ranged from 0.07 to 5.45 mm. and the order of the maximum litter retaining amount, the effective retaining amount and the effective depth in the different shrub types were C. rosea > P. orientalis > T. chinensis > R soongorica. Therefore, the C. rosea shrub has a high capacity for soil and water conservation in the northern and southern mountains of Lanzhou City.
Research progress of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affecting plant diseases
CHEN Tao, DUAN Tingyu
2021, 38(6): 1097-1109. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0329
[Abstract](1706) [FullText HTML] (588) [PDF 616KB](29)
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important microorganisms in terrestrial ecosystems. They can form a symbiosis with most terrestrial plants in nature, bringing a variety of positive effects to the host plant, including improved plant resistance, particularly assisting plants to resist pathogen invasion. Based on the Web of Science database and CNKI China Academic Library, this paper summarizes the new progress of AM fungi affecting plant diseases and the research on AM fungi, other microorganisms, and environmental conditions; and other factors in synergy to improve plant disease resistance in the past two years. Moreover, it analyzes the mechanism of AM fungi affecting plant diseases, including the improvement of host plant nutritional status, nutrient activation around the root system, root morphology changes, competition with pathogens for infection sites and host photosynthesis products, rhizosphere microflora changes, and host defense mechanism activation. At the end of the paper, the anti-disease function of AM fungi community, the influence of AM fungi in the ecosystem, and the research on the influence of multiple factors on plant diseases are prospected.
Physiological regulation of brassinosteroids on seed germination and seedling growth in Lolium perenne in response to salt stress
WANG Dan, LIU Yaxi, ZHOU Yang, LI Bin, NIE Shuming
2021, 38(6): 1110-1118. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629..2021-0034
[Abstract](1352) [FullText HTML] (490) [PDF 996KB](26)
The physiological effect of 2, 4-epinebrinolide (EBR) on seed germination and seedling growth in Lolium perenne under salt stress was studied. The results showed that the germination rate, germination potential, activity index, plant height, fresh weight, and root activity of ryegrass seeds were improved by under salt stress treatment with exogenous 0.01 μmol·L−1 EBR. The α-amylase activity of the ryegrass seeds was enhanced during germination. During the seeding growth stage, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in ryegrass seedlings exogenous 0.1 μmol·L−1 EBR treatment under salt stress significantly increased (P < 0.05), while the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly decreased. The soluble sugar, soluble protein, and chlorophyll contents were significantly elevated (P < 0.05). These results indicated that exogenous 0.01 μmol·L−1 EBR treatment alleviated the inhibitory effect of 100 mmol·L−1 NaCl and 150 mmol·L−1 NaCl stress on seed germination, while exogenous 0.1 μmol·L−1 EBR alleviated the damage of 250 mmol·L−1 NaCl stress on seedling growth. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for the application of ryegrass to saline-alkali land.
Transcriptional activation, subcellular localization, and expression analysis of MrERF1 from Medicago ruthenica
LEI Yuqing, ZHANG Yemeng, WANG Haiqing
2021, 38(6): 1119-1127. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2021-0025
[Abstract](2876) [FullText HTML] (689) [PDF 23916KB](39)
Ethylene responsive factors (ERFs) are widespread in plants and play a critical role in plant growth, development, and stress response. Here, based on RNA-sequence data of Medicago ruthenica under low temperature stress, we designed specific primers and cloned the MrERF1 gene by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Sequence analysis showed that the MrERF1 gene contained a 948 bp open reading frame, encoding 316 amino acids. One highly conserved AP2 domain was found in MrERF1, indicating that it is a typical ERF transcription factor. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrERF1 had the highest homology with MtABR1 in M. truncatula. A 35S꞉꞉MrERF1꞉EGFP vector was constructed. Transient expression analysis in Nicotiana benthamiana demonstrated that MrERF1 is located in the nucleus. A pGBKT7-MrERF1 vector was constructed, and its transcriptional activation activity was verified in AH109 yeast cells. Spatial expression analysis revealed that MrERF1 was expressed in the stems, leaves, buds, and inflorescences, but not in the roots. Further analysis showed that the transcription of MrERF1 was not related to photoperiod or biological rhythm. The expression of MrERF1 was induced under cold, salinity, dehydration, submergence, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. The present study demonstrates that MrERF1 can respond to a variety of abiotic stresses, which paves the way for further study of the functions of MrERF1.
Effects of different plant growth retardants and herbicides on the yield and interspecific competition of the alfalfa/silage corn relay intercropping system
XU Ruixuan, ZHAO Haiming, LIU Guibo, ZHANG Yingjun, QU Yi
2021, 38(6): 1128-1137. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2021-0005
[Abstract](1574) [FullText HTML] (498) [PDF 712KB](12)
To explore the feasibility of reducing the competition between alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and silage corn (Zea mays) seedlings in an alfalfa-silage corn relay intercropping system, three plant growth retardants (prohexadione-calcium, paclobutrazol, and mepiquat chloride), and two herbicides for corn fields (a compound herbicide of butachlor, propisochlor, and atrazine; and metolachlor) were applied after corn interseeding in 2018–2019, and their effects on suppressing alfalfa regeneration, improving corn growth, and system productivity were analyzed. No interactive effects were found between the plant growth retardants and herbicides. The plant growth retardants had no significant inhibitory effects on alfalfa yield, and there was no influence on alfalfa, corn, or system yields, except that the paclobutrazol improved the alfalfa yield during the coexisting period in 2019. The compound herbicide of butachlor, propisochlor, and atrazine significantly suppressed alfalfa regrowth (P < 0.05), and lowered the alfalfa plant height, SPAD value, and the yield during the coexisting period. It improved the corn yield but also significantly reduced the alfalfa yield of the next spring as well as the system total yield and total food equivalent unit in 2019 (P < 0.05). Metolachlor had no effect on the yield of both corn and alfalfa (P > 0.05) but showed a trend of improving alfalfa yield in the spring, system yield, and the total food equivalent unit. None of the plant growth retardants or herbicides used in the study prevented the alfalfa growth without negative effects on system productivity, and none reduced the competition between alfalfa and the intercropped corn.
Effects of boron-treated rhizobial inoculum on soluble sugar concentration in alfalfa roots, stems, and leaves
CHEN Yonggang, SHI Shangli, WU Fang, KANG Wenjuan, ZHANG Huihui, A Yun, LI Xinglong, CHEN Jian'gang
2021, 38(6): 1138-1146. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0375
[Abstract](1416) [FullText HTML] (477) [PDF 620KB](10)
We aimed to explore the effects of boron-treated rhizobial inocula on the soluble sugar content in the roots, stems, and leaves in different periods. Medicago sativa ‘Gannong No.5’ alfalfa was used as the test material; two rhizobial solutions (from Sinorhizobium meliloti LZgn5f and S. meliloti 12531f) containing different boron concentrations (0, 0.05, 1.5, 10, and 100 mg·L−1) were inoculated into alfalfa seedling roots, and no boron and inoculum were used as the control. The results showed that after inoculation with exogenous rhizobia 12531f containing 1 mg·L−1 boron and endogenous rhizobia gn5f containing 100 mg·L−1 boron, the soluble sugar content in alfalfa roots and stems at different sampling periods was higher than that in both the control and no-boron inoculation treatments and could promote the accumulation of soluble sugars in the roots and stems of alfalfa in different periods. In summary, under suitable boron treatment concentrations, the two strains could promote the accumulation of soluble sugars in the leaves to roots and stems in different growth periods and maintain the dynamic balance of soluble sugars in the roots, stems, and leaves.
Effect of mixed planting of Avena sativa–bean grass on grassland performance
LI Manyou, MENG Xiangwu, WANG Bin, LI Xiaoyun, SHEN Xiaotian, CAO Lijuan, LAN Jian
2021, 38(6): 1147-1155. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2021-0069
[Abstract](1681) [FullText HTML] (630) [PDF 672KB](28)
The aim of this study was to explore the yield-increasing effect of the mixed sowing combination of Avena sativa–bean grass on yield and quality. The experiment used a single-factor random zone group design to explore the effects of mixed planting of Avena sativa, Vicia villosa Roth, Vicia sativa, and Vicia villosa. on the agronomic traits and nutritional quality of pastures under drip irrigation in arid areas. Additionally, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to comprehensively evaluate the best mixed sowing combination of oat crops and three legumes. The results showed that all mixed sowing combinations had an impact on forage production performance. The mixed sowing hay yield of Avena sativa and Vicia villosa  Roth was the highest, reaching 9 490.67 kg·ha−1. The relative feeding value of mixed forage combined with Avena sativa and Vicia sativa is 108.61, which is only lower than that of legume forage mono-sowing. The results calculated by principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the mixed planting of Avena sativa and Vicia villosa  Roth had the best production performance, and could be popularized and applied in arid areas.
Lycityum ruthenicum leave membrane permeability and protection system response to the blowing of net-wind and wind-sand flow with different time durations
SHI Xinping, WEI Linyuan, MA Rui, MA Yanjun, ZHANG Yinghua, YANG Yongyi
2021, 38(6): 1156-1164. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0408
[Abstract](1402) [FullText HTML] (448) [PDF 788KB](9)
In this study, we investigated the variations in malondialdehyde (MDA) content, membrane permeability, protective enzyme activity, and osmoregulation substance content in two-year-old potted Lycium ruthenicum leaves. The net-wind and wind-sand flow conditions were simulated in a wind tunnel for 0, 10, 20, and 30 min with a wind speed of 12 m·s−1 and 63.28 g·(cm·min)−1 wind-sand flow intensity blowing stress, in order to reveal Lycium ruthenicum adaptability and response mechanism to net wind and wind-sand flow stress. The results showed that the net-wind treatment first decreased then increased the MDA content; gradually decreased the soluble protein (SP) content; led to an increasing trend in membrane permeability, peroxidase (POD), soluble sugar (SS), and  proline (Pro) contents; and first increased then decreased the catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) hydrogen peroxide enzyme activities. The wind-sand flow treatment resulted in a first increasing then decreasing MDA content; POD, CAT, Pro, and SS trend, although they were higher than CK, membrane permeability increase; SP content decrease; and a first decreasing then increasing SOD activity. The results indicated that Lycium ruthenicum leaves were damaged to a certain extent under the blowing of the net wind and wind-sand flow, and both enhanced the permeation regulation through the Pro and SS content accumulation, improving the ability of the plants to resist wind and sand. Under net-wind stress, POD activity plays a protective role, whereas under wind-sand flow stress, SOD, POD, and CAT activities play a coordinated protective role in reducing cell membrane damage.
Effects of Caragana korshinskii and Salix psammophila pellet feeds on serum biochemical, antioxidant, and immune indexes of Small-tailed Han sheep
LYU Zonghao, WANG Jinquan, QIAO Zengqiang, LI Xinfu, LIU Jie
2021, 38(6): 1165-1170. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0658
[Abstract](1977) [FullText HTML] (463) [PDF 577KB](23)
In order to evaluate the feeding value of Caragana korshinskii and Salix psammophila, Small-tailed Han sheep (three groups, n = 30 each) were fed with pellet feed prepared from either C. korshinskii or S. psammophila and corn straw pellet feed (control) to study the effects of the different feed on serum biochemical, antioxidant, and immune indexes. The results showed that compared with corn straw pellet feed, S. psammophila pellet feed can significantly reduce the concentrations of alanine aminotransferase in serum (P < 0.05); However, C. korshinskii pellet feed, compared with corn straw pellet feed, can improve the antioxidant capacity of Small-tailed Han sheep and significantly reduce the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in serum (P < 0.05). The above results show that the application of S. psammophila granules is feasible in the diet of Small-tailed Han sheep, and it is good for their liver health. Small-tailed Han sheep fed with S. psammophila have high development potential.
Associative effects of corn straw silage with beet root on fermentation by the in vitro gas production method
RAN Shengbin, LIU Jianhua
2021, 38(6): 1171-1180. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0415
[Abstract](1372) [FullText HTML] (476) [PDF 643KB](12)
This study was conducted to analyze the associative effects of corn straw silage (Zea mays) with beet root (Beta vulgaris) on fermentation parameters in vitro. Corn straw silage was combined with beet rootat ratios of 100 ꞉ 0 (T1), 80 ꞉ 20 (T2), 60 ꞉ 40 (T3), 50 ꞉ 50 (T4), 40 ꞉ 60 (T5), 20 ꞉ 80 (T6), and 0 ꞉ 100 (T7). We usedin vitro rumen fermentation technology to analyze the nutrient degradation rate, fermentation parameters, and total gas production, to evaluate the combined effect on rumen fermentation in vitro. The results showed thefollowing: 1) as the proportion of beet root increased, DMD (dry matter degradability), NDFD (neutral detergent fiberdegradability), and ADFD (acid detergent fiberdegradability) first increased and then decreased, and the nutrient degradation rate after combination was higher than that of a single raw material; 2) as the proportion of beet root increased, the pH decreased gradually, and the pH of the T1 group was significantly higher than that of the other groups (P < 0.001).The concentration of NH3-N in the T3 and T6 groups was significantly lower than that in the other groups (P = 0.003). When the proportion of beet rootswas 40%, the concentrations of TVFAs (total volatile fatty acids) and each volatile fatty acid were the highest, and when the proportion of beet root was more than 40%, the concentration showed a decreasing trend, and the acetate/propionate values of the T3, T4, and T5 groups were significantly higher than those of other groups (P < 0.001); 3) fermentation time had a significant effect on total gas production (P < 0.001), and the time and treatment had significant interaction effects (P = 0.006). As the fermentation time increased, the total gas production increased gradually, and with the increase in the proportion of beet root, it first increased and then decreased. After fermentation for 4, 8, and 12 h, the total gas production inthe T3 group was significantly higher than that inthe T1, T6, and T7 groups (P < 0.004), and after fermentation for 24 and 48 h, the total gas production in group T4 was significantly higher than that ingroups T6 and T7 (P < 0.008); and 4) the single-factor associative effects index of different proportions were different, but from the multiple-factor associative effects index, the result was T3 > T5 > T4 > T2 > T6. Therefore, the optimal combination of corn straw silage and beet root was 60 ꞉ 40.
Design and implementation of plant retrieval system in Yuzhong County, Gansu Province
XIU Yangjing, HOU Mengjing, XIE Yuhong, FENG Qisheng, LIANG Tiangang
2021, 38(6): 1181-1193. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1674-5124.2020-0550
[Abstract](1524) [FullText HTML] (583) [PDF 1370KB](31)
The identification and classification of herbaceous plant species is an important component of grassland resource surveys and related scientific research and teaching. With the continuous development and application of computer technology, new means and methods are provided for the construction, classification, and retrieval of plant image databases. In this study, we established a resource information database of common herb image data in Yuzhong county, Gansu province, including 13 families and 256 species of common herbs, based on the Access platform. On this basis, a plant retrieval system for the area was designed and developed using the VBA language. The accuracy evaluation results showed that when the input morphological information number was 3, the plant recognition rate could reach over 70% except for Gramineae. When the input morphological information number was 6, the plant recognition rate could reach over 80%, although the recognition rate of Plantaginaceae, Cyperaceae, Salviaceae, and Tribulus could reach 100%. The identification accuracy of the system to various herbaceous plant families is high, the system operation is simple and easy, the visualization effect is good, meeting most of the user requirements.
Evaluation of silage performance and nutritional quality of different corn cultivars in Qinghai Plateau
LI Xiang, ZHANG Yemeng, ZHU Lili, YANG Xuegui, LI Wenjun, WANG Yuanlan, XU Huijun, QI qi, CHEN Zhiguo
2021, 38(6): 1194-1208. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0726
[Abstract](2079) [FullText HTML] (482) [PDF 673KB](25)
In order to screen for the silage corn cultivars suitable for cultivation in the Qinghai Plateau area, the silage performance and nutritional quality of 50 corn cultivars were evaluated using principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The results showed that 1) the main agronomic characteristics of the tested cultivars were significantly different (P < 0.05). The variation range of plant height and ear height was 270.30~378.90 cm and 84.40~195.60 cm, respectively. The variation range of fresh weight and dry weight was 0.70~2.70 kg and 0.30~1.03 kg, respectively. The average number of leaves ranged from 10 to 19 per plant, and the variation range of leaf greenness was 53.18% to 97.67%. The protein content (dry matter basis) of the tested cultivars was 6.16%~13.81%, and the levels of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber (dry matter basis) were 29.75%~61.13% and 16.45%~33.45%, respectively. 2) With reference to the quality grading standard of silage corn, 50 tested cultivars could be graded simply, of which 19 were classified as first-level, 12 as second-level, and 8 as third-level. 3) The cumulative contribution of the top five principal factors was 84.644% in the principal factors analysis. There were 24 corn cultivars that performed well in comprehensive traits and were suitable for planting in this area. 4) Cluster analysis grouped the tested cultivars into four categories that can be selected and utilized according to the breeding objectives. Comprehensive analysis results showed that the Gaokeyu 138 variety was suitable for planting as silage corn in Qinghai.