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2020 Vol.37(9)

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2020, (9): 1-4.
[Abstract](1515) [FullText HTML] (638) [PDF 370KB](20)
Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium inoculation on soil fungal community structure and function in the rhizosphere of Medicago sativa
YANG Pan, ZHAI Yaping, ZHAO Xiang, WANG Shaoming, LIU Hongling, ZHANG Xia
2020, 37(9): 1669-1680. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0622
[Abstract](4871) [FullText HTML] (1456) [PDF 1133KB](39)
In China, the yield of Medicago sativa, an excellent legume forage, has been in short supply. Inoculation with AM fungi and rhizobium can promote soil nitrogen and phosphorus cycling and increase stress resistance to increase M. sativa yield. In order to investigate the effects of AM fungi and Rhizobium on the structure and function of rhizosphere fungal community, in this experiment, the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil samples of six different treatment groups (Without inoculation,only inoculation with Glomus mosseae, only inoculation with Glomus intraradices, only inoculation Sinorhizobium meliloti, double inoculation with Glomus intraradices and Sinorhizobium meliloti, double inoculation with Glomus mosseae and Sinorhizobium meliloti) were collected, based on the high-throughput sequencing technology of the fungal ITS region, the laws of fungal diversity and community distribution in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of M. sativa in different inoculation treatment groups were analyzed and compared, the FUNGuild software was used to predict the flora function between different treatment groups. The results show, in 6 different treatment groups, the soil fungal community was mainly composed of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, with Ascomycota as the main species (19.29%~61.18%). It was found at the genus level that inoculation with AM fungi and rhizobium significantly increased the abundance of beneficial fungi compared with no inoculation. For example, the dominant genus in the inoculation with Glomus mosseae GMR treatment group was Acremonium, and the dominant genus in the only inoculation Sinorhizobium meliloti KR treatment group were Stachybotrys and Trichurus, the dominant genus in the double inoculation with Glomus intraradices and Sinorhizobium meliloti GIKR treatment group was Trichoderma, and the dominant genus in the double inoculation with Glomus mosseae and Sinorhizobium meliloti GMKR treatment group was Aspergillus. And inoculation with AM fungi and rhizobium significantly increased the OTUs, Shannon index, and Chao1 index of the fungal community. Among different inoculation treatments, saprophytic types were dominant type. Inoculation of AM fungi and rhizobia increased the relative abundance of symbiotic types and decreased the relative abundance of pathogenic types. To sum up, the inoculation of AM fungi and rhizobia is conducive to the circulation of soil nitrogen and phosphorus, increases the richness and diversity of soil fungal community, increases the abundance of biocontrol bacteria, nitrogen fixation and phosphorus solubilizing bacteria, increases the relative abundance of symbiotic type, and reduces the relative abundance of pathogenic type. Therefore, inoculation with AM fungi and rhizobium enriched fungal community composition and optimized the original microbial ecological environment, which was beneficial to the improvement of M. sativa quality and yield.
Effects of silicon and nitrogen fertilization on the growth and net photosynthetic rate of Thermopsis lanceolata in an alpine meadow
XU Danghui, LI Qiuxia, ZHANG Renyi
2020, 37(9): 1681-1687. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0239
[Abstract](5658) [FullText HTML] (1123) [PDF 903KB](30)
To clarify the effect of the addition of nitrogen and silicon fertilizer on the growth and net photosynthetic rate of Thermopsis lanceolate, we set up experiments in an alpine meadow. The treatments were nitrogen fertilizer (60 g·m–2) addition, silicon fertilizer (0, 4, 8, and 12 g·m–2) addition, and mixed addition of nitrogen and silicon fertilizer. The results are as follows: 1) after nitrogen fertilizer, silicon fertilizer, and mixed fertilizer addition, the plant height of T. lanceolate increased to various degrees; 2) after silicon fertilizer was added, with the increase in application, plant biomass, leaf biomass, specific leaf area, and net photosynthetic rate assumed a trend where it first increased and subsequently decreased; 3) after nitrogen fertilizer was added, plant biomass, leaf biomass, specific leaf area, and net photosynthetic rate decreased significantly (P < 0.05); 4) compared with nitrogen fertilizer addition alone, addition of silicon fertilizer along with nitrogen fertilizer (NSi1、NSi2、and NSi3) enhanced the specific leaf area and net photosynthetic rate of the plant; and 5) there was a significant positive correlation between specific leaf area and net photosynthetic rate in the plant. Our studies found that nitrogen fertilizer addition inhibited the growth of T. lanceolate and decreased net photosynthetic rate; however, addition of silicon fertilizer along with nitrogen fertilizer improved both characteristics.
Effects of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and competition of Elymus nutans and Poa crymophila
LU Yaoyao, ZHANG Jing, LI Yaoming, LIU Rongrong, DAI Xinling, LIN Changcun, JI Baoming
2020, 37(9): 1688-1697. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0614
[Abstract](4681) [FullText HTML] (1007) [PDF 963KB](30)
To study the effect of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the growth and competition of grass species of different sizes, Elymus nutans and Poa crymophila were planted singly, in pairs, or in mixed pairs in an artificial grassland, which simulated non-competition, intraspecies competition, and interspecies competition conditions, respectively, and some of the plantings were inoculated with native AMF. The native AMF successfully colonized the roots of both E. nutans and P. crymophila and significantly improved the biomass, height, and tiller number of both plants. In contrast, the AMF significantly reduced the competitive ability (relative yield, relative yield total, and aggressivity index) of E. nutans, but increased that of P. crymophila. These results demonstrate that, even though AMF can promote the growth of both species in the absence of interspecific competition, it preferentially promotes the growth of P. crymophila under interspecific competition and may differentially contribute to the competitive ability of the two plant species in natural communities. The results also indicate that AMF plays an important role in the regulation of plant interspecific relationships and in the maintenance of community species diversity.
Trade-offs among ecological functions during alfalfa grassland restoration in a semi-arid region of the Loess Plateau
GUO Ruru, YANG Lei, LI Zongshan, WEI Wei, ZHANG Qindi
2020, 37(9): 1698-1709. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0637
[Abstract](4383) [FullText HTML] (984) [PDF 905KB](32)
To establish a scientific basis for vegetation restoration and reconstruction of alfalfa grasslands on the Loess Plateau, it is necessary to study the effects of different ecosystem functions on habitat reclamation. Accordingly, the aim of the present study analyzed different succession stages of alfalfa land in a semi-arid loess watershed, and the root mean square deviation (RMSD) method was used to analyze species diversity, aboveground carbon storage, soil moisture storage, and trade-offs between the five ecosystem functions of soil organic carbon storage and soil total nitrogen storage. The relativereturns of species diversity, aboveground carbon storage, soil water storage, soil organic carbon storage, and soil total nitrogen storage changed significantly with the community succession (P< 0.05), and the relative yields of aboveground carbon storage, soil organic carbon, and soil total nitrogen increased with succession, whereas species diversity and soil moisture consumption were reduced. All ecosystem functions were centered between soil organic carbon storage and soil total nitrogen storage, and the trade-off between these factors was minimal, which indicated that the factors were synergisticand that the whole recovery stage value was 0.13. Upon restoration to theLeymus secalinus community stage, the trade balance between the five ecological functions was the most balanced, with an average RMSD of only 0.21, and species diversity was highest at the long-shoulder grass community stage. The present study establishes a scientific evaluation system and theoretical guidance for the sustainable restoration of farmland to native habitat.
Effects of planted grasses on soil enzyme activities and microbial communities in a kiwifruit orchard
JING Zhaobin, LI Tengfei, LONG Mingxiu, MA Wenjuan
2020, 37(9): 1710-1718. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0043
[Abstract](3852) [FullText HTML] (972) [PDF 1105KB](36)
In order to explore and select suitable grass varieties for kiwifruit orchards in the Northern Qinling Mountains, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens, and a grass combination were planted inter-row in a kiwifruit orchard, while clean tillage was applied as a control. The effects of different grasses on the soil enzyme activities and soil microbial communities were investigated. Results showed that, unlike sucrase activity, catalase, urease, and phosphatase activities significantly decreased with increasing soil depth (P < 0.01). Compared with clean tillage, planting grasses could improve catalase, urease, sucrase, and phosphatase activities in the 0 – 20 cm and 20 – 40 cm depths of the kiwifruit orchard soil. However, the effect was either significant or non-significant depending on the grass variety. Bacteria were the dominant flora, accounting for 99.74%~99.94% of the total soil microorganisms. The amount of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes was influenced by the various grass varieties in the 0 – 20 cm and 20 – 40 cm soil depths. In particular, with the exception of T. repens, the total amount of microbes was higher in the 0 – 20 cm fraction of planted soils than in that of clean-till soils. However, with increasing soil depth the total number of microbial species decreased in soil planted with grasses, while increasing in clean-till soils. In conclusion, this study showed that planting grasses could improve the soil enzyme activities and amount of soil microbes in kiwifruit orchards. In particular, we especially recommend the woodland combination of D. glomerata, L. perenne, and T. repens due to their higher aboveground biomass. This study could provide the theoretical basis for the promotion of a ‘forest-grass-sheep ecological cultivation and rearing cyclic model in northern China’.
Key techniques for controlling mobile dunes and grassland restoration in a desertified grassland of Gannan: Take the first bending of the Yellow River as an example
WANG Qi, TANG Jinnian, LI Yinke, JIN Hongxi, YUAN Hongbo, YANG Xuemei
2020, 37(9): 1719-1728. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0021
[Abstract](4801) [FullText HTML] (1184) [PDF 742KB](22)
We established an experimental area on the windward slope of mobile dunes in the first bending of the Yellow River, as part of a pilot project to test sand controlling and grassland restoration techniques. The experiment was designed as 3 randomized block groups, exposed to 6 different treatments as follows: Dung (sheep dung), Dung + protect (sheep dung + protective species), Dung + mat + protect (sheep dung + fiber grid sand barrier + protective species), Dung + soil (sheep dung + peat soil), Dung + soil + protect (sheep dung + peat soil + protective species), and CK (control). The same formula of grass seeds was used in all treatments, and the germination and seedling density, growth height, projection coverage of grass, and the degree of wind-sand erosion accumulation were observed. The results showed the following: 1) In the six treatments, the treated sand surfaces were relatively stable, and grass seeds successfully settled, germinated. Seedlings grew in both Dung + mat + protect and Dung + soil + protect treatments. Wind severely eroded the sand surfaces and the seeds were consequently not planted for the other four treatments. There were no significant differences in average heights and the densities of grass except for projection coverage (P > 0.05). The averages of all other indicators in Dung + mat + protect and Dung + soil + protect were significantly higher than those of the other four treatments (P < 0.05). 2) The mean values of wind erosion were small for Dung + mat + protect and Dung + soil + protect, and there were no significant differences between them (P > 0.05). These values was significantly lower than those for the other treatments, except for Dung + soil (P < 0.05). In addition, there were no significant differences in the mean values of aeolian production for all treatments (P > 0.05). These findings suggested that Dung + mat + protect and Dung + soil + protect performed well in sand-fixing and promoting grassland restoration. These findings can be implemented as novel complex technologies to successfully address the sand-fixing concerns and improve grassland restoration in this area.
Effect of flower structure on the germination characteristics of Viola philippica
SUN Huifang, WEI Yan, YAN Ziyan, YAN Cheng
2020, 37(9): 1729-1737. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0634
[Abstract](3596) [FullText HTML] (907) [PDF 936KB](23)
Viola philippica has a unique breeding system. In early spring, it can form chasmogamous (CH) flowers with flowering and fertilization, while in summer and autumn it can form cleistogamous (CL) flowers. The morphological and germination characteristics of CH and CL seeds were compared between these two morphologically different types of flower. The results showed that: 1) The length, width, and weight of CL seeds were significantly lower (P < 0.05). 2) Seeds from the two types of flowers began to germinate after 48 h of water absorption in greenhouse; however, initial germination was delayed by decreasing temperatures. When the thermoperiod was 10 ℃/20 ℃, but the time required for the germination rate of CL seeds to reach 50% was shorter than that of CH seeds. 3) The optimal germination temperature for the two types of seeds was 20 ℃/30 ℃ day/night, which triggered a germination rate above 95%. On the other hand, at 10 ℃/20 ℃ day/night, the germination rate and vitality index of CL seeds were significantly higher than those of CH seeds (P < 0.05). 4) The germination rate of CH seeds in a low-concentration NaCl solution (0.05~0.1 mol·L–1) was lower than in a control solution (distilled water), while the germination rate of CL seeds was higher. However, the germination rate of the two types of seeds was lower after recovery by rehydration. 5) In a low-concentration NaCl solution (0.05 mol·L–1), the vitality index of CL seeds was significantly higher than that of CH seeds. In conclusion, the breeding of V. philippica produces different CH and CL seeds through seasonal transformation, a phenomenon of great significance in mediating the reproduction and renewal of the population.
Bibliometric analysis of research trends on the parasitic root weeds of the Orobanche spp. based on Web of Science and CNKI
QU Wenxing, XI Jiao, LI Xuewen, LIN Yanbing, SHI Bianfang
2020, 37(9): 1738-1748. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0631
[Abstract](4292) [FullText HTML] (1074) [PDF 35440KB](32)
This study aimed to gain a deeper understanding of the state of the art in research on the global parasitic weeds of the Orobanche spp. and provide reference data for researchers in this field. Retrieved from the core collection database Web of Science and the CNKI database, the literature related to root parasitic weeds published from 1999 to 2018 was used to conduct bibliometric analysis with VOSviewer and Excel focusing on publication time, country, scientific research institution, research directions, journal, and authors. During the last two decades, the global publication volume has increased significantly. Spain, Japan, and the Netherlands exerted a higher overall influence in this field, with a significantly higher total amount of published articles. In particular, the CSIC (Consejo Superior deInvestigaciones Científicas) in Spain, the Utsunomiya University in Japan, the Wageningen University in the Netherlands, and the Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University in China are four institutions that have a strong research record on parasitic weeds. Analysis of research directions showed that the global literature on root parasitic weeds is focused on botany, agronomy, and phytochemistry. In addition, journals like "Weed Research" and "Crop Protection" included most of the publications related to this topic. The global spread of Orobanche spp. infestation and its infection mechanism and control measures have become a concerning, hot topic, even though plant parasitic weed research has a long history. In recent years, domestic and foreign research on parasitic weeds of the Orobanche spp. has been constantly ongoing and the number of relevant publications collected by the Science Citation Index (SCI) has also increased year by year. In order to better understand the developmental history of this field and the current research status, in this study, based on the Web of Science core collection database and the CNKI database, we carried out a quantitative analysis of the literature on parasitic weeds of the Orobanche spp. during the 20 years from 1999 to 2018, thereby providing reference data for researchers engaged in parasitic weed research and knowledge on international developments.
Competitiveness analysis of grassland tourist destinations based on a structural equation model taking Sayram Lake and Narati Grassland as examples
YE Jianming, WANG Huihan, LI Jingya, HE Mingyang, YAO Lanbo
2020, 37(9): 1749-1759. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0260
[Abstract](3734) [FullText HTML] (1007) [PDF 751KB](27)
With the rapid development of grassland tourism, setting up a system to evaluate the competitiveness of tourism destinations based on tourist perception is conducive to improve the level of competition in the tourism industry, and has a reference significance for its development. This study establishes a structural equation model based on tourist perception. Empirical research was conducted taking Sayram Lake and Narati Grassland in Xinjiang as examples. Confirmatory factor analysis, validity test, and identity test were applied to prove that the theoretical model of tourists' perception is stable across samples. The mean structure model showed that the tourist perception of Sayram Lake is superior to that of Narati Grassland in terms of touring perception, service perception, environment perception, and image perception, and the differences were significant. By measuring the interaction between grassland tourism and tourists, the research idea of “Tourist Perception–Tourist Attitude–Tourism Destinations Competitiveness” can be confirmed. Among them, service perception had the most significant impact on tourists’ attitude, which shows that the grassland tourism destination management should focus on improving the quality of service. Touring perception, environment perception, and image perception affect positively. Application of this model can help tourism destinations suggest improvement measures corresponding to their own disadvantages to enhance their competitiveness.
Optimization and validation of a simple sequence repeat (SSR)-PCR system in wheatgrass
YU Xiaoxia, YANG Dongsheng, YU Zhuo, LU Qianqian, WU Guofang, LI Jingwei, ZHANG Mingfei
2020, 37(9): 1760-1769. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0149
[Abstract](3600) [FullText HTML] (842) [PDF 1465KB](11)
Using wheatgrass DNA as a template, both single-factor and orthogonal-design methods were used to optimize the concentrations of five components (dNTPs, Mg2+, DNA template, primers, and Taq DNA polymerase) that influence marker amplification in simple sequence repeat (SSR)-PCR systems. The optimal SSR-PCR system for wheatgrass included 250 μmol·L–1 dNTP, 2.25 mmol·L–1 Mg2+, 0.60 mmol·L–1 for each primer, 40 ng·μL–1 DNA, and 0.75 U Taq DNA polymerase, with a total reaction volume of 20 μL. This optimization, which could improve the definition and reliability of SSR bands, establishes a foundation for genetic mapping in wheatgrass, as well as for the localization of important QTLs and, thus, molecular marker-assisted breeding.
Genetic diversity of agronomic characteristics of 29 Bromus inermis germplasms
HAO Yuhui, LI Yao, TANG Feng, ZHANG Shuzhen, ZHANG Bo
2020, 37(9): 1770-1778. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0556
[Abstract](4341) [FullText HTML] (1002) [PDF 694KB](21)
The genetic diversity of 29 Bromus inermis accessions was evaluated with 23 agronomic characteristics using principal component and clustering analysis. The results showed that the different accessions exhibited various degrees of diversity for the available 23 traits, in which the largest spikelet variation was the largest 32.92%. The twenty-three characters were transformed to six principal components that represented the main information of the original target, and the cumulative contribution rate was 77.92%. The 29 B. inermis accessions were divided into three groups. Group Ⅰ had tall plants, fewer spikelets, and small leaves. Group Ⅱ had short plants, thin stems, and light seeds. Group Ⅲ had big leaves, multiple spikelets, and heavier seeds. The exotic accessions in this study have a certain practical significance for enriching the germplasm resources of China's bromegrass and for carrying out breeding of several varieties.
Comparative study on chloroplast pigment concentration and morphology between two ecotypes of Leymus chinensis in Inner Mongolia
MA Lijuan, FAN Jingqi, Narengaowa, QI Zhi, ZHANG Lingang
2020, 37(9): 1779-1786. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0029
[Abstract](4024) [FullText HTML] (1019) [PDF 862KB](35)
Leymus chinensis is a high-quality forage widely distributed in grasslands of Inner Mongolia. It can be classified as either the gray-green type or the yellow-green type according to its leaf color. Previous studies have shown that the gray-green grass has a higher photosynthetic capability and stronger environmental adaptability than the yellow-green type under stressful conditions. However, the mechanism underlying this difference is still unclear. Gray-green and yellow-green grass of the Huhetala grassland in Inner Mongolia were sampled in this study. The concentrations of chlorophyll and carotenoids in the leaves of the two L. chinensis ecotypes were quantitatively determined by a spectrophotometer. The number, size, and morphology of chloroplasts were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The photosynthetic protein complexes of the gray-green and yellow-green grass were separated via blue native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE). The results indicated that the gray-green type had higher concentrations of chlorophyll and carotenoids in its leaves compared with the yellow-green type. Even though there were more chloroplasts per cell in the yellow-green leaves, chloroplasts were larger with a higher number of grana thylakoid in the gray-green leaves. In addition, two kinds of chloroplasts with different morphologies were allocated into different cells in the yellow-green leaves. A higher level of photosystem Ⅱ (PSⅡ) dimers and photosystem Ⅰ (PSⅠ) complexes were detected in the gray-green type through BN-PAGE. It can, therefore, be inferred that the higher concentrations of chlorophyll, carotenoids, and PSⅠ and PSⅡ protein complexes are an important basis for more efficient photosynthesis and stronger environmental adaptability of the gray-green grass ecotype.
Evaluation of the adaptability and nutritional value of seven Hemarthria cultivars (lines) in the Chengdu Plain
XIE Guanqi, JING Tingting, HU Jialing, WANG Xiaoshan, LIN Chuang, REN Juncai, LU Xiaowen, HUANG Linkai
2020, 37(9): 1787-1794. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0073
[Abstract](4583) [FullText HTML] (1028) [PDF 551KB](41)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the adaptability and production performance of different sources of Hemarthria in subtropical plains and select the best cultivars (lines) in the Chengdu area. We carried out a comparative experiment of seven varieties (lines) of Hemarthria in the Chengdu plain. The results showed that in terms of hay production, the yields of ‘H248’ were the highest (the three-year average yield was 32.39 t·ha–1), while the lowest was ‘H203’ (the three-year average yield was 25.16 t·ha–1). Regarding the nutritional quality, the gray correlation analysis revealed that ‘Ya’an’ showed the highest nutrient concentration, followed by ‘H248’, ‘H255’, and ‘H202’. Taking together the hay production and the nutritional quality indicators, the performance and quality of H248, ‘Ya’an’, and ‘H255’ were outstanding and suitable for planting in the Chengdu Plain.
Effects of net-wind and wind-sand flow on the physiology of Lycium ruthenicum
YANG Yongyi, MA Yanjun, WEI Linyuan, MA Rui, SHI Xinping, ZHANG Yinghua, TANG Weidong
2020, 37(9): 1795-1802. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0581
[Abstract](4376) [FullText HTML] (949) [PDF 741KB](21)
The present study investigated the effects of net-wind and wind-sand flow on the malondialdehyde content, membrane permeability, protective enzyme activity, and osmoregulation substance content of Lycium ruthenicum leaves with wind speeds of 0 (CK), 6, 9, 12, and 15 m·s–1. The net-wind treatment, malondialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, soluble protein content, and soluble sugar content decreased, whereas membrane permeability and peroxidase (POD) activity increased, and proline content increased first and then decreased. Under the wind-sand flow treatment, malondialdehyde content, POD activity, and soluble sugar content all increased first and then decreased, whereas the trends of other indicators were identical to those of the net-wind treatment. Both the net-wind and wind-sand flow treatments damaged the leaves, and this stress caused L. ruthenicum to increase POD activity and to enhance osmotic regulation, either by eliciting increases in proline content (net-wind flow stress) or by eliciting increases in both proline and soluble sugar contents (wind-sand flow stress).
Soil and plant carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus content and their stoichiometry in spring wheat under different irrigation treatments in the Loess Plateau
YUAN Jianyu, LI Guang, YAN Lijuan, CHEN Guopeng, ZHANG Shangwen, TENG Rui, Zhuomacao
2020, 37(9): 1803-1812. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0538
[Abstract](4347) [FullText HTML] (1051) [PDF 737KB](25)
To investigate the change law of nutrients in soil-crop ecosystems, ripe Triticum aestivum located in the loess semi-arid region of Longdong, soil at a depth of 0 – 40 cm, and four different irrigation treatments [W50 (50 mm), W100 (100 mm), W150 (150 mm), and W200 (200 mm) ], were selected to analyze the nutrient and ecological stoichiometric characteristics of soil and leaves. The results showed that 1) the content of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen first increased and then decreased as the amount of irrigation increased, and the total phosphorus content did not change much with increased irrigation; organic carbon and total nitrogen content in the 0 – 40 cm soil layer decreased as soil depth increased, and the total phosphorus content did not change significantly as soil depth increased. 2) The content of C, N, and P in T. aestivum first increased and then decreased as amount of irrigation increased. When the irrigation amount was 150 mm, the maximum value was reached; the ratios of leaf C∶N, C∶P, and N∶P first decreased and then increased. According to the N∶P < 14 observed in the T. aestivum leaf, the growth of T. aestivum in Longdong was limited mainly by N. 3) There was a significant correlation between soil and leaf nutrient transformation in T. aestivum, and C∶P was the most sensitive to the nutrient relationship. The results showed that nitrogen fertilizer should be increased to ensure higher and more stable yield of T. aestivum when the irrigation amount is 150 mm.
Study of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous stoichiometry of twenty alfalfa varieties in the Horqin Sandy Land
ZHAO Lixing, LI Tianqi, LIN Zhiling, GAO Kai
2020, 37(9): 1813-1820. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0632
[Abstract](3994) [FullText HTML] (1016) [PDF 534KB](33)
After measuring the carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) content of 20 alfalfa varieties in the Horqin Sandy Land of Northern China, we calculated their C to N ratio, N to P ratio, and C to P ratio. The contents of C, N, and P significantly differed among the 20 varieties of alfalfa. The C, N, and P stoichiometry differed significantly among alfalfa varieties. Altogether, the N/P ratio of all 20 alfalfa varieties was lower than 14, indicating that the growth and development of alfalfa was mainly restricted by N availability. The alfalfa varieties tested were divided into three categories by cluster analysis, the first seven varieties being Reindeer, WL-343HQ, Zhaodong, Chicao No. 1, Longdong, WL-354HQ, and Gongnong No. 1. These varieties displayed strong structures, strong resistance to stress, and high nutritional quality. Therefore, they are suitable for cultivation in the Horqin Sandy Land. At the same time, a certain amount of N fertilizer should be applied. In particular, varieties showing the highest content of C and N in the aboveground part and the highest C content in the underground root system are characterized by strong resistance to stress and high levels of crude proteins, and thus are suitable for widespread planting in the Horqin Sandy Land.
Comparison of biomass accumulation-related traits in the F1 hybrids of common wheat and tall wheatgrass and their parents
WANG Wenjia, SONG Yunxian, HU Weijuan, LI Bin, ZHENG Qi, LI Zhensheng, LI Hongwei
2020, 37(9): 1821-1832. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0001
[Abstract](3551) [FullText HTML] (844) [PDF 1090KB](26)
Decaploid tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum) is a perennial grass with significant tolerance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. To explore the application potential of the common wheat (Triticum aestivum) × Thinopyrum ponticum hybrid as a perennial grass, the F1 plants derived from Triticum aestivum Zhongnong 28 × Thinopyrum ponticum were compared with Thinopyrum ponticum for biomass accumulation-related traits. The results showed that the F1 hybrid had significantly higher projected area and compactness at the tilling, jointing, heading, and flowering stages, caliper lengths at the tilling, jointing, and heading stages, and object extent X and object extent Y at the tilling and heading stages, but significantly lower mean green color at the tilling and heading stages compared with Thinopyrum ponticum. Additionally, the compactness and mean green color in the F1 were significantly higher than in Thinopyrum ponticum at 23 d after the first cutting, while the object extent X was lower. The leaf number, leaf length and width, and fresh weight per plant in the F1 hybrid were also significantly higher than those of Thinopyrum ponticum at the jointing stage. In both the field as well as the greenhouse, the concentrations of chlorophyll and carotenoids in the F1 hybrid was significantly higher than in Thinopyrum ponticum. In addition, the F1 hybrid had higher concentrations of fructose, sucrose, and starch but lower concentrations of glucose in comparison with Thinopyrum ponticum around June 1st. Finally, the F1 hybrid produced more herbage yield than Thinopyrum Ponticum, regardless of the number of cuttings (once, twice, or thrice a year) in both Beijing and Nanpi. Regarding seed planting, the F1 hybrid yielded more than Thinopyrum ponticum by 61.9%~103.5%. Two cuts a year produced the highest herbage yields for both the F1 hybrid and Thinopyrum ponticum, of which the first cutting, carried out around June 1st, led to a high yield and good quality. Collectively, the common wheat × tall wheatgrass F1 hybrid has better application potential as a grass than Thinopyrum ponticum.
Response of soil moisture to the age of alfalfa standing and subsequent spring wheat in the rainfed Loess Plateau
CAI Xuemei, LUO Zhuzhu, LI Lingling, NIU Yining, CAI Liqun, XIE Junhong, ZHANG Yaoquan, MA Xin, PAN Zhandong
2020, 37(9): 1833-1844. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0146
[Abstract](3433) [FullText HTML] (911) [PDF 831KB](22)
Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) is the main cereal crop in the rainfed agricultural area of the Loess Plateau. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is also widely cultivated in this area. Cropping systems are dominated by continuous spring wheat in the north-western Loess Plateau of China, and the inclusion of alfalfa in cereal-based cropping systems is a traditional practice as well. Continuous production of alfalfa can form a dry soil layer and have a serious impact on the growth of subsequent crops. The aim of this study was to discuss the soil moisture characteristics of the 0 – 300 cm soil layer on land with different standing years of alfalfa and the alfalfa-spring wheat rotation system on the western Loess Plateau and to determine the soil moisture response to alfalfa standing years and succession spring wheat over an 8-year (2012 – 2019) field experiment on a 9-year-old alfalfa pasture. The results showed that the soil water content in the 50 – 110 cm soil layer was 14.17% in 1-year-old alfalfa and began to present light desiccation. The soil moisture in the 110 – 200 cm soil layer was 12.39% after 3-year-old alfalfa and showed light desiccation. Furthermore, the soil moisture in the 200 – 300 cm soil layer was 13.50% in the third year of alfalfa planting, which was lower than that under withering humidity and was severely desiccated. After the 9-year-old alfalfa was removed, the moisture of the desiccated soil layers recharged significantly over the rotation year. The soil moisture in the 50 – 110 cm soil layer fully recharged after five years of rotation, and the soil moisture in the 110 – 200 cm soil layer was fully recovered after six years of rotation. The soil moisture in the 200 – 300 cm soil layer after seven years of spring wheat rotation was only 15.11%, which could not be fully recovered. In conclusion, the soil profile was very dry after long-term continuous alfalfa production, especially the soil layer below 200 cm which was severely desiccated. Therefore, to maintain high land productivity and improve soil water storage conditions, crop rotation is needed after long-term continuous alfalfa production in the semiarid Loess Plateau of China.
Research progress and potential applications for the abiotic stress-resistant forage plant Medicago ruthenica
Wurina, SHI Fengling, XU Bo, ZHANG Yutong
2020, 37(9): 1845-1854. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0329
[Abstract](4949) [FullText HTML] (1065) [PDF 606KB](18)
The frequency, duration, and severity of abiotic stress on plant growth have been reported to increase, owing to environmental deterioration, and have caused created losses in both agricultural and animal husbandry production. Thus, the improvement of stress resistance in such forage crops is urgently needed. One Medicago species, Medicago ruthenica, can survive harsh environments, owing to its high stress tolerance, and has the potential to be used both as a breeding resource for improving the resistance of forage crops and as an ecological treatment and high-quality feed. Previous studies of M. ruthenica have mainly focused on the species’ classification, distribution, genetic diversity, biological characteristics, agronomic characteristics, cultivar introduction, and breeding. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to review studies published with the last 10 years that have investigated the morphological, physiological, and molecular responses of M. ruthenica to abiotic stress. Future research directions and potential applications are also discussed to provide a reference for the future development and use of M. ruthenica, for grassland improvement, and for cultivating new forage varieties. Future research directions should include the development of new forage varieties using the stress resistance genes of M. ruthenica and the investigation of plant hormone responses to stressful conditions.
Research progress on proteomics in forage plants
ZHANG Hui, MAI Huanyao, CHEN Sanxiong, YANG Yunjing, QIAN Xuyu, WANG Yi
2020, 37(9): 1855-1870. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0122
[Abstract](4167) [FullText HTML] (1047) [PDF 717KB](41)
Forage plants are grass crops fed to livestock in agriculture and animal husbandry and are the basis for healthy development in animal husbandry. Proteomics is closely related to nutritional quality and stress resistance in forage plants as proteins are directly involved in the regulation of various metabolic pathways in the life cycle of forage plants. Application of proteomics technology in forage plants molecular biology research is reviewed in this paper. Moreover, research progress on developmental proteomics in different tissues or organs of forage plants in recent years are summarized and the mechanism of forage plants response to biotic or abiotic stress at the proteome level is also elaborated. Furthermore, analyses in this paper highlights the current problems in proteomics study of forage plants and proposes that targeted proteomics quantification and combination with multi-omics are the development trends for forage plants proteomics research in the future. The discussions in this paper will provide a theoretical reference for the cultivation of excellent forage plants.
Effects of diet crude protein level on the production performance, nutrient digestion, and serum parameters of finishing Hu sheep
NIU Xiaolin, ZHANG Zhian, LI Fei, LI Fadi
2020, 37(9): 1871-1879. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0454
[Abstract](5410) [FullText HTML] (1324) [PDF 593KB](32)
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of diet crude protein level on the production performance, nutrient digestion, and serum parameters of finishing Hu sheep. A total of 54, four-month-old male Hu sheep (32.25 ± 2.5 kg) were randomly divided into three treatments, with sheep in each treatment being of similar ages and weights, and each treatment containing 18 sheep. The three dietary crude protein (CP) levels used were 11.5%, 14.0%, and 16.5%. The pre-test period was seven days, while the formal test period was 63 days. The results showed that: 1) The average final body weight of Hu sheep was significantly lower in the 11.5% CP group than in the 14.0% and 16.5% CP groups (P < 0.05), and the feed efficiency of the 11.5% CP group was significantly higher than the 16.5% CP group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in dry matter intake among groups (P > 0.05), and average daily gain tended to be greater (0.05 < P < 0.1) in the 14.0% and 16.5% CP groups compared to the 11.5% CP group. 2) Dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber contents were all significantly higher in the 16.5% CP group than in the 11.5% CP group (P < 0.05). 3) Nitrogen intake was significantly higher in the 14.0% and 16.5% CP groups than in the 11.5% CP group. There were significant differences in urine nitrogen emissions among groups (P < 0.05) and the apparent digestibility of nitrogen was significantly higher in the 16.5% CP group than in the 11.5% and 14.0% CP groups (P < 0.05). 4) The serum albumin, albumin/globulin ratio of the 16.5% CP group was significantly lower than the 11.5% and 14.0% CP groups (P < 0.05), but globulin content was significantly higher than in the other groups (P < 0.05). The alanine aminotransferase content was significantly higher in the 11.5% CP group than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly lower in the 16.5% CP group than in the 11.5% CP group (P < 0.05). Serum urea nitrogen content differed significantly among groups (P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences in other serum indicators. In summary, the 14.0% and 16.5% CP groups significantly increased fattening effects in the Hu sheep but reduced the nitrogen use efficiency.
Growth and development characteristics and growth model of Hu sheep in the fattening period
LI Guoze, ZHANG Xiaoxue, LI Fadi, LA Yongfu, ZHANG Deyin, LI Xiaolong, ZHANG Yukun, SONG Qizhi, ZHAO Yuan, WANG Weimin
2020, 37(9): 1880-1890. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0544
[Abstract](4615) [FullText HTML] (1125) [PDF 1394KB](25)
The body weight and body size of 207 male Hu lambs aged 0~180 days were measured under house feeding conditions, and three models, Logistic, Gompertz, and Von Bertalanffy, were used to fit the growth process of male Hu lambs from 0 to 180 days. We then analyzed and compared the growth parameters and model predicted values to evaluate the growth and development characteristics of Hu sheep. The results showed that the body weight and body size of male Hu lambs increased gradually from birth to 180 days. The male Hu lambs were at the peak of body weight growth from 0 to 160 days, but the development of body size occurred in stages, and the growth range of body size was different in each period. There was a significant positive correlation between body weight and body size (P < 0.01), and the correlation coefficient between body weight and chest circumference was the highest, followed by body length, body height, and circumference of cannon bone. The Logistic, Gompertz, and Von Bertalanffy models could fit the growth trend of Hu sheep from 0 to 180 days old, with R2 ≥ 0.995. By comparing the measured body weight with the predicted body weight estimated by the model, it is found that the Gompertz growth model has a more suitable fitting effect.
A study of nutritional components in tender leaves and stems of Huazhu No. 5 Ramie and degradation characteristics in goat rumen
ZHAO Na, YANG Xuehai, WEI Jintao, GUO Wanzheng, CHEN Fang, HUANG Shaowen, FAN Qiwen, ZHANG Wei, DU Encun
2020, 37(9): 1891-1900. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0077
[Abstract](3067) [FullText HTML] (840) [PDF 570KB](16)
In this study, the nutritional components of Huazhu No. 5 ramie tender stems and leaves in different crops was evaluated, and the rumen degradation characteristics of the ramie tender stems and leaves of the first, fourth, and seventh crops were determined using the nylon bag method in three healthy Boer goats with permanent rumen fistulas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of ramie and provide a data reference for the forage utilization of ramie in ruminants. The results showed that: 1) the content of crude protein (CP) and ether extract (EE) of seven stubble ramie tender stems and leaves of Huazhu No. 5 ramie first increased and then decreased with the increase in the harvest stubble. The average CP content was 22.84%, and the content of 16 amino acids accounted for 74.21% of the total protein; the average lysine content, calcium content, and calcium-phosphorus ratio was 0.88%, 4.95%, and 12.88, respectively. The dry matter intake, digestible dry matter, and relative feeding value of ramie tender stems and leaves all showed a pattern of first increase and then decrease with the increase in stubble. 2) The rumen degradation rate of CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) in ramie tender stems and leaves for 72 h showed a consistent rule, i.e., the seventh crop > the first crop > the fourth crop. The dry matter (DM), CP, organic matter (OM), NDF, and ADF of the ramie tender stems and leaves of the three stubbles were basically in the same order of rumen degradation rate value and effective degradation rate value at 72 h. The results show that the degradation rates of DM, CP, OM, NDF, and ADF in the rumen of the first and seventh seasons are high. Ramie can be used as a source of high protein forage for herbivores.
Effect of income objective on the forage-livestock balance of sheep production in the Tibet autonomous region
ZHI Digang, WANG Lingling, YANG Ding, WANG Qian, QIAO Fuyun, GUO Zhenggang
2020, 37(9): 1901-1911. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0240
[Abstract](3801) [FullText HTML] (1028) [PDF 923KB](39)
Forage-livestock balance is the basis for the sustainability of animal husbandry and for the health of grassland ecosystems in the Tibet autonomous region. Thus, the present study used two economic income objectives for raising livestock to estimate the forage-livestock balance between two neighboring counties (Namling County, in the YNL River Region, and Shenza County, in the northern Tibetan Plateau) and to propose optimal feasibility plan for achieving forage-livestock balance in the Tibet autonomous region. The results indicated that livestock number will increase if the objective of husbandry is economic gain and will, otherwise, remain stable. Meanwhile, regardless of objective, both counties experienced a shortage in forage supplies from 2015 to 2017. Indeed, Namling and Shenza County experienced forage supply shortages of 140 500 ~166 500 tons and 73 900 ~96 700 tons, respectively, when maintaining livestock number and shortages of 293 500~328 900 tons and 226 700~257 000 tons, respectively, when maximizing economic income. The feasibility plan proposed for balancing forage supply and livestock demand involves the establishment of pasture silage maize (Zea mays), oat (Avena sativa), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). To maximize economic income in Namling County and to maintain livestock number in Shenza County, the counties should reduce sheep number by 69 700~116 000 and 128 000~167 500, respectively, or increase alfalfa production by 53 400~88 800 tons and 73 900~96 700 tons.
Microbial changes in and quality improvement of mulberry leaf silage
XU Zeping, XIAO Run, SHEN Shijie, SHEN Yihong, HUANG Xianzhi, XIANG Zhao
2020, 37(9): 1912-1925. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0145
[Abstract](2980) [FullText HTML] (802) [PDF 881KB](33)
This study aimed to explore the reasons for changes in the microbial flora composition and in mulberry leaf silage, specifically, the reasons for the poor direct silage effect. We focused on the improvement of soluble sugar content and lactic acid bacterial counts. The dynamic characteristics and quality of mulberry leaves in silage were studied. Three experimental groups were evaluated: Mulberry leaf cornflour group (M), mulberry leaf lactic acid bacteria group (J), and mulberry leaf group (control Y). We used respiratory membrane bag silage, and sampling was performed on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 20, 28, 38, and 56 of ensilage. Microbial isolation culture and second-generation sequencing methods were used to analyze the microbial changes across treatment groups and to detect silage quality. The addition of lactic acid bacteria and cornflour significantly reduced the crude protein content in mulberry leaves (P < 0.05) and increased (P < 0.05) the soluble sugar content. However, this had a small impact on the number of major microorganisms. Additives shortened the aerobic respiration and lactic acid fermentation periods in mulberry leaf silage and increased the abundance of Firmicutes and lactic acid bacteria. The order of silage quality was M > J > Y. Lactic acid bacteria and cornflour both improved mulberry leaf silage quality, with the latter having a more pronounced effect.
Development of a comprehensive practical teaching system for grass-like crop cultivation science under the emerging agronomy framework
YANG Huimin, ZHANG Jianquan, YANG Xianlong, YANG Qian, WANG Zikui, SHEN Yuying
2020, 37(9): 1926-1930. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-2019-0549
[Abstract](3219) [FullText HTML] (739) [PDF 547KB](24)
With rapid developments in the field of agronomy, the establishment and update of the pratacultural science course system is encountering great opportunities and challenges. In this study, practical teaching methods for the science of grass-like crop cultivation were analyzed. Subsequently, the creation of a comprehensive practical teaching system for this subject was proposed that would strongly support teaching of the "Grass-like Crop Cultivation Science" course. This would also assist the development of an internationally first class approach to pratacultural science. Additionally, such a system would be of great importance in helping students to understand relative theories, enhance their grass-like crop cultivation skills, and develop their innovative capability and ability to utilize cultivation science.
Approach to plant species identification in natural grasslands based on deep learning
GAO Hongyuan, GAO Xinhua, FENG Qisheng, LI Wenlong, LU Zheng, LIANG Tiangang
2020, 37(9): 1931-1939. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0041
[Abstract](4154) [FullText HTML] (1086) [PDF 761KB](52)
The classification and identification of plant species plays an important role in the investigation of natural grassland vegetation. The traditional classification of plant species is time-consuming and laborious and requires high professional knowledge. With the rapid development of computer vision and deep learning, plant image classification and recognition based on deep learning algorithms has become a popular research topic. Based on the image data set of 293 natural grassland plants, the TF-slim module of the TensorFlow deep learning framework was used to construct the image recognition model of natural grassland plants by fine-tuning the training parameters of the Inception V3 model. The training results show that the model has a recognition accuracy of 89.41% in Top1 and 97.71% in Top5. Compared with the recognition effects of applications such as Xingse, Huabanlv, The Flower Recognition, and Paizhaoshihua, the results show that the plant recognition model trained in this study can recognize more species of natural grassland plants, and the recognition accuracy is higher.