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2020 Vol.37(7)

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2020, (7): 1-4.
[Abstract](1482) [FullText HTML] (1092) [PDF 297KB](95)
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Changes of natural elements and maintaining of water conservation function in northwestern Hebei Province
LU Chunxia
2020, 37(7): 1215-1217. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0439
[Abstract](2203) [FullText HTML] (1121) [PDF 279KB](37)
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Northwest Hebei has an irreplaceable ecological position in the coordinated development of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei. Zhangjiakou City as the main part of the northwestern Hebei is a important barrier for maintaining the ecological security of the Beijing-Tianjin urban agglomeration and the upper and middle reaches of the Yongding River. This paper briefly introduces the background and related research results about the natural elements changes and water conservation function improvement in northwestern Hebei. Papers in the special journal issue focus on the development and utilization of water resources, water environment quality, water conservation function and its influencing factors. These findings will help to promote the rational use of water resource, improve the water conservation function and achieve green development.
Effects of shelter forest on rates and spatial patterns of soil erosion in a cultivated land
WU Zuo, SU Zheng'an, WANG Yong, ZHANG Xinbao, ZHOU Tao, WANG Xiaoyi, HE Zhouyao, LIU Yihan
2020, 37(7): 1218-1226. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0111
[Abstract](1757) [FullText HTML] (930) [PDF 973KB](61)
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The 137Cs tracer technique was used to study the effects of shelter forests on rates and spatial patterns of soil erosion in a cultivated land (CL) in the Bashang Region of Zhangjiakou City. The results showed that 137Cs was uniformly distributed in the soil profile of CL, and an exponentially decreasing trend of 137Cs concentration from the top to bottom layer of soil profile was observed in a shelter forest land (SFL). 137Cs inventories in SFL along the primary wind direction (ASFL), SFL perpendicular to the primary wind direction (PSFL), and CL were estimated to be 3148.38 ± 228.91 Bq·m–2, 2548.09 ± 202.56 Bq·m–2 and 1687.43 ± 174.99 Bq·m–2, respectively. 137Cs inventories in ASFL were the highest, while those in CL were the lowest. Soil erosion rates in CL, PSFL, and ASFL were estimated to be 4446.04 ± 208.68 t·(km2·a)–1, 2514.56 ± 181.08 t·(km2·a)–1, and 1357.32 ± 301.56 t·(km2·a)–1, respectively. Meanwhile, the effects of shelter forest on rates and spatial patterns of soil erosion in CL were evident. In CL, 137Cs inventories exhibited a decreasing trend and soil erosion rates exhibited an increasing trend as the distance from FSL increased, indicating that shelter belts play important roles in protecting the CL from wind erosion because the surrounding shelter forest is mature. Simultaneously, as distance from ASFL decreased, 137Cs inventories in PSFL exhibited an increasing trend. Additionally, 137Cs inventories in ASFL were obviously higher than those in PSFL, indicating that PSFL experienced greater soil loss than did ASFL. These results indicate that the surrounding shelter belts play a critical role in altering the spatial patterns of soil erosion and reducing wind erosion rates in the CL in northern China.
Analysis of soil temperature and moisture characteristics of artificial grasslands with different underlying surfaces in southeast Tibet
LI Xueqin, LU Xuyang, FAN Jihui, YAN Yan
2020, 37(7): 1227-1238. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0105
[Abstract](2231) [FullText HTML] (1228) [PDF 1080KB](48)
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To explore soil temperature and moisture characteristics of artificial grasslands on different underlying surfaces in Southeast Tibet, temperature and moisture data at a depth of 10 cm were collected from Mount Lawu, Mangkang County, Tibet, between November 2015 and December 2017. Data of three underlying surfaces for artificial grasslands, namely vegetation mulching (vegetation area), gravel + vegetation mulching (gravel area), and no mulching (bare land), were collected and compared. The results are as follows. 1) The trend of soil temperature at a depth of 10 cm was sinusoidal on all three underlying surfaces, which is consistent with the trend of solar radiation. The maximum and minimum values were recorded in July and January, respectively. Annual variation in soil temperature was the greatest (25.46 and 23.38 ℃ , respectively) in gravel area and the smallest (17.17 and 16.65 ℃, respectively) in vegetation area. The trend of daily variation in soil temperature was sinusoidal in gravel area, and soil temperature in bare land and vegetation area fluctuated slightly from 11:00 to 13:00. 2) On the seasonal scale, soil moisture was mainly affected by annual variation in precipitation, and it fluctuated periodically, assuming a W-shaped trend. On the daily scale, peak soil moisture values in summer and autumn were recorded in the midnight and evening, respectively, in gravel area, but there were no obvious daily changes in soil moisture in vegetation area and bare land. 3) In non-vegetative growth season (early November to late April), unstable, daily freezing and thawing were observed in gravel area, while the freezing and thawing process was relatively simple in vegetation area and bare land. In vegetative growth season (mid-May to mid-October), soil temperature and moisture were significantly higher (P < 0.05),and the hydrothermal conditions were better in gravel area than in vegetation area. These results indicate that gravel + vegetation mulching is an ideal underlying surface to regulate soil moisture and temperature conditions in artificial grasslands. These data can provide theoretical basis for grassland restoration.
Effects of land use type on soil nutrient elements in the agro-pastoral ecotone of north China: A case study in Zhangbei County
ZHANG Yiying, GU Feng, LIU Quan, ZHOU Minghua
2020, 37(7): 1239-1248. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0076
[Abstract](2217) [FullText HTML] (1181) [PDF 1293KB](24)
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Four main land use types including dry land, irrigable land, grassland and forestland in the agriculture-pasture ecotone of north China were taken as research objects. The contents of soil organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, available iron, available manganese, available copper, and available zinc in 0 – 15 and 15 – 30 cm soil layers were systematically analyzed. The results showed that: 1) Irrigated land showed the highest soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and available potassium compared with grassland, forest land, and dry land, with values of 43.42, 2.62, 2.86 and 444.00 g·kg–1, respectively. 2) The effect of land use types varied between different trace elements, but the contents of the available iron, available manganese, available copper, and available zinc in the irrigated soil were all higher in all the four land use types, reaching up to 11.45, 15.21, 0.59 and 2.04 mg·kg–1, respectively. 3) Soil nutrient content had a significant correlation with soil particle composition, pH, and other basic physi-chemical properties. In summary, the influences of land use type on soil nutrients were significant, nutrient contents were higher in irrigable land soil due to high water and fertilizer input. These results will provide a theoretical basis for the scientific management of soil nutrients and sustainable use of land resources.
Characteristics and influence of topsoil porosity in the northern agro-pastoral ecotone
WANG Yanzai, SU Zheng'an, ZHOU Minghua
2020, 37(7): 1249-1258. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0213
[Abstract](1949) [FullText HTML] (699) [PDF 790KB](24)
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In the present study, Zhangjiakou city was selected as the study area, and the characteristics of soil porosity in the northern agro-pastoral ecotone, and the factors influenced by these characteristics, were analyzed. The results demonstrate that the topsoil porosity in the study area is suitable for plant growth due to critical maximum porosity values and the ratios between capillary and non-capillary porosity. The maximum porosity of the topsoil was around 42.6%, the capillary porosity was around 24.6%, and the non-capillary porosity is about 18.0%. The ratio between capillary and non-capillary porosity was around 57∶43. The maximum porosity of the topsoil was significantly different between the Bashang Plateau and Baxia areas (P < 0.05), with values of 39.98% and 44.69%, respectively. However, there were no significant differences in maximum porosity, capillary porosity, or non-capillary porosity between land use types or soil types (P < 0.05), implying that the spatial distribution of topsoil porosity in Zhangjiakou city was mostly affected by landform factors. At the whole study area scale, topsoil porosity was correlated with soil quality parameters such as soil bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil water capacity, and sand, silt, and clay contents (P < 0.05). However, considering the influential factors in different areas, topsoil porosity was mostly correlated with soil quality parameters in the Bashang Plateau (P < 0.05), but was not correlated with soil quality parameters in single region of land use types or soil types. In general, the topsoil porosity mostly affected soil water capacity in Zhangjiakou City, and had a weak influence on other soil quality parameters.
Current bottlenecks and prospects of the land use intensity
SUN Feifei, ZHANG Zengxiang, ZUO Lijun, ZHAO Xiaoli, PAN Tianshi, ZHU Zijuan, WANG Xiao, LIU Fang, YI Ling, WEN Qingke, HU Shunguang, XU Jinyong
2020, 37(7): 1259-1271. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0074
[Abstract](3258) [FullText HTML] (1386) [PDF 566KB](28)
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There are, in general, two aspects of land use, which is the most direct human activity on terrestrial ecosystems: land-use type and land-use intensity. However, studies on land-use intensity, which lacks the adoption of established concept models, indicator systems, as well as unified method frameworks, significantly fall behind those on land-use type. With the increasing intensity of human disturbance in the terrestrial ecosystem, the concept of land-use intensity is, once again, garnering significant attention. Studies on land-use intensity can be summarized into three branches: 1) Those concerned with the estimation of human activity intensity based on population density; 2) those in which traditional methods of input and output intensity, the multiple crop index, τ-factor method, the technical efficiency method, etc. are used; 3) those in which the conceptual model of land-use intensity based on social-economic circulation mechanisms of materials and energy, represented by the HANPP index, is used. Combined with studies on the driving mechanism of land-use intensity, research trends on land-use intensity reveal that 1) the population density, which used to be taken as an indicator of land-use intensity, is gradually being replaced by the conceptual models of land-use intensity; 2) land-use intensity studies are shifting from indicator constructs to the distinction between human and natural factors, which is one of the key challenges associated with index comparisons between different natural environments; 3) remote sensing data and methods have immense potential in the study of the quantitative recognition of human activities; 4) the assessment mechanisms for land-use intensity are closely related to agricultural land and the utilization and protection mechanisms for grassland and forest ecosystems are not valued. The balanced development of the assessment mechanisms of land-use intensity and index technology systems is expected to become the inevitable future trends in land-use intensity studies.The most direct human activity on terrestrial ecosystem-land use-generally cover two aspects: land use type and land use intensity. However, the development of researches on land use intensity, which lacks mature concept model, indicator system, as well as the unified methods framework, seriously fall behind the researches on land use type. As human intensifying disturbance in the terrestrial ecosystem, the attentions of scientists to the concept of land use intensity were again aroused. The evolution of the study on the land use intensity could be summarized into three branches: 1) studies on human activity intensity calculations based on the population density; 2) land use intensity researches represented by traditional method of input and output intensity, and the multiple crop index, τ-factor method, the technical efficiency method, etc. 3) the conceptual model of land use intensity based on social-economic circulation mechanism of material and energy, represented by the HANPP index. Combined with researches on driving mechanism of land use intensity, the research trends on land use intensity shows that 1) the population density taken as an indicator of land use intensity is gradually replaced by the conceptual model of land use intensity; 2) the land use intensity researches incline from indicators constructs to the distinction between the human and natural factors, which is the key problems of index comparison between different natural environment; 3) remote sensing data and methods have huge potential in the study of quantitative recognition of human activities; 4) the assessment mechanism for land use intensity were closely related to the agricultural land, the utilization and protection mechanism for the grassland and forest ecosystems were not valued. Balanced development of assessment mechanism of land use intensity and index technology system become the inevitable trends in the future research of land use intensity.
Effects of land use type on soil available trace elements in the rocky mountain area of north China
WANG Xingling, ZHANG Yiying, GU Feng, LIU Quan, ZHOU Minghua
2020, 37(7): 1272-1280. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0075
[Abstract](2124) [FullText HTML] (923) [PDF 534KB](16)
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The rocky mountain area of north China is an important functional area for water conservation, sand fixation and soil-water retention in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei. It is an important barrier to maintain the ecological security of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei. Soil nutrient conservation capacity is an important factor affecting the construction of ecological engineering. Soil trace elements are an important part of soil fertility and are strongly influenced by land use types. To reveal the effect of land use type on soil available trace elements in the rocky mountain area of north China, the contents of soil available Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn at 0 – 15 and 15 – 30 cm were investigated considering three land use types (cropland, grassland and forestland) in Chongli district, Zhangjiakou City. The results showed that the land use type had significant influence on the content of the soil available trace elements (P < 0.05). Contents of available Fe and Mn in cropland were significantly lower than those in forestland and grassland, with mean values of 10.46 and 10.94 mg·kg–1, respectively. The available Zn content (average value 2.58 mg·kg–1) in cropland was significantly higher than that in forestland and grassland. The available Cu content (0.67 mg·kg–1) in cropland was significantly higher than that in grassland and exhibited no significant difference (P > 0.05) from that in forestland soil. The available trace elements in forestland and grassland soil showed surface polymerization, while that of available trace elements in vegetable plots in 0 – 15 and 15 – 30 cm of soil showed no significant difference. The contents of soil available Fe and Mn were positively correlated with the soil organic matter, but negatively correlated with the content of soil available Cu and Zn. The soil organic carbon content of cropland was significantly lower than that of forestland and grassland, with a mean value of 1.99 g·kg–1. These results provide a theoretical reference for soil nutrients management and sustainable land use.
Changes in land use and soil retention functions in Zhangjiakou City
LIU Yihan, SU Zheng'an, PAN Hongyi, WANG Xiaoyi, WU Zuo, ZHOU Tao, WANG Junjie, HE Zhouyao
2020, 37(7): 1281-1292. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0181
[Abstract](2453) [FullText HTML] (847) [PDF 891KB](18)
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To elucidate the impacts of changes in the land use type use changes on soil retention capacity in Zhangjiakou City, the spatial and temporal variations in land use type and soil retention capacity from 2005 and 2015 were assessed using USLE and GIS tools. The results showed that the main land use types in Zhangjiakou were cultivated land, forests, and grasslands. Areas of forests and construction increased as the other land use types decreased from 2005 to 2015. The fastest increase in area was observed for forests, which were converted from grasslands, and the lowest decrease in area was found for cultivated land, which was converted into construction land. Meanwhile, a two-way flow between forestland and grasslands appeared. An evident difference in soil retention capacity in Zhangjiakou was found among different land use types. Grasslands were respondible for the most pronounced increase in the rate of soil retention, while forests constituted the most dramatic increase in the amount of soil retention. Soil retention amounts in grasslands and forestsaccounted for 50% of the total retention across all land use types. Soil retention capacity increased by 1.752 × 107 t in Zhangjiakou City over the past 10 years, and this result could be ascribed to increased land cover. The amount of soil conservation had increased in each county over the past 10 years; Yu County witnessed the greatest increase in the amount of soil conservation, and Qiaoxi district owned witnessed the smallest increase in the amount of soil conservation among all counties. Furthermore, the soil retention capacity was lower in the northwest regions and higher in the southeast regions of Zhangjiakou City. The highest soil retention capacity was observed in Chicheng County, and Qiaoxi District exhibited the lowest soil retention capacity among all counties. Finally, soil retention capacity was evidently higher in the Bashang Regions than in the Baxia Regions, and the amount of soil retention in Bashang accounted for 80% of the total of Zhangjiakou City, and the increase in the amount of soil retention in the Bashang Regions was 1.163 × 107 t. The results of this study help us to understand the changes to land use and soil retention function after the implementation of ecological engineering in Zhangjiakou City, and this provide a scientific basis for promoting ecological protection and developing soil erosion control plans in the future.
Spatio-temporal patterns of crop planting structure and water requirement in the Zhangjiakou region, northern China
HUANG Shaolin, LU Chunxia, LIU Yijiang
2020, 37(7): 1293-1301. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0148
[Abstract](2650) [FullText HTML] (1414) [PDF 1047KB](22)
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Zhangjiakou in northern China is a region with serious water shortage. Agriculture is the largest user of water resources; therefore, conserving water by changing planting structures is crucial. Here, we studied the changes in spatio-temporal patterns of crop planting structure and water requirement at different spatial scales in the Zhangjiakou region. The results showed that 1) from 2005 to 2015, the crop planting structure changed to high water-consuming crops. The planting area of high water-consuming crops increased by 24.75%, and the area of irrigated farmland increased by 6%. At the same time, the planting area of high water-consuming crops on Bashang plateau and Baxia area increased by 33.97% and 20.7%, respectively. The total planting area of rainfed crops decreased by 58.5% in Bashang plateau but increased by 48.51% in Baxia area. 2) Because of the increase in the planting area of high water-consuming crops in Zhangjiakou, the water requirement in 2015 was higher by 274 million~389 million·m–3 than that in 2005. Although the structure of vegetable planting showed changes toward the direction of water saving and high income, the total planting area of vegetable crops increased, which led to a 6.84 million~6.85 million·m–3 higher water requirement in 2015 than that in 2005. 3) In 2015, the water requirement of crops in Bashang and Baxia area increased by 22.36%~22.42% and 21.46%~21.81%, respectively. The water requirement of crops at Kangbao County, Guyuan County in Bashang and Zhangjiakou and, Chongli District in Baxia increased by 41.19%~41.59%, 38.86%~44.78%, 43.83%~52.42%, and 42.67%~45.26%, respectively, compared to that in 2005. The main reason for the increase in water requirement is increase in the planting area of high-water consumption crops.
Comprehensive assessment of water resources carrying capacity in the northwest Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei agro-pastoral ecotone
LIU Yijiang, LU Chunxia, HUANG Shaolin
2020, 37(7): 1302-1312. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0064
[Abstract](2652) [FullText HTML] (997) [PDF 834KB](22)
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The shortage of water resources is one of the main constraints restricting regional economic and social development . Ensuring a balance between the development process and the water resource carrying capacity has always been a major challenge. The study combines the entropy weight method with the multi-level comprehensive fuzzy evaluation method, and analyzes and investigates the current situation, as well as the spatial and temporal development of the water resource carrying capacity of Zhangjiakou City from four perspectives: water resources, economy, society, and ecological environment. The results show that the water resource carrying capacity of Zhangjiakou City was low in 2017; moreover, most regions are in a critical bearing or overload state. From 2005 to 2017, the water resource carrying capacity of Zhangjiakou City increased slightly over time, with a significant spatial differentiation . This study will provide a reference for urban water resource planning, as well as for the sustainable development and utilization of water resources in the region.
Analysis of spatial and temporal differences in water conservation function in Zhangjiakou based on the InVEST model
LI Yiying, FAN Jihui, LIAO Ying
2020, 37(7): 1313-1324. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0090
[Abstract](2217) [FullText HTML] (1153) [PDF 16232KB](39)
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As the water conservation function and ecological environment support area of Beijing, the capital of China, Zhangjiakou plays important roles in protecting ecological security. Based on the InVEST model, this study estimated water yield and water conservation capacity of Zhangjiakou from 1981 to 2015 and analyzed spatial and temporal variation characteristics. The results are as follows. 1) Average annual water yield and water conservation depth of Zhangjiakou was 42.51 and 18.16 mm, respectively. 2) Water yield showed a slight upward trend, while water conservation showed a slightly downward trend in the past 35 years. The highest water yield and water conservation values were recorded in 1995 and the lowest in 1993. 3) Obvious spatial differences were observed in water yield and water conservation depth regardless of similar distribution patterns, indicating that the values around Kangbao and Xuanhua increased but those around Guyuan and Yuxian decreased. 4) Precipitation was the main effect factor for changes in water yield and water conservation in Zhangjiakou, followed by land use. 5) Multi-year average water yield was high in grasslands and farmlands, and water conservation was high in grasslands.
Analysis of spatial and temporal changes of regional ecological pattern in the northwest of Jingjinji as water conservation area during the past 30 years
ZHU Zijuan, ZUO Lijun, ZHANG Zengxiang, WANG Yafei, SUN Feifei, PAN Tianshi, ZHAO Xiaoli, WANG Xiao
2020, 37(7): 1325-1336. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0086
[Abstract](2007) [FullText HTML] (1259) [PDF 1161KB](25)
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In this study, we aimed to understand the status and changes in ecological and landscape patterns for each ecosystem in the northwest water conservation area of Jingjinji, China. Spatial distribution maps of the ecosystems in three phases were produced using land cover data from 1987, 2000 and 2015, and these were analyzed using a land transfer matrix. The landscape pattern of 19 ecosystem categories at a scale of the entire study area and six major ecosystems at county scales were analyzed using a landscape pattern index. The results show that the main ecosystem changes in this region were owing to the conversion of farmland into forest and settlement, alongside the conversion of grassland and wetland into farmland. Forests and settlements increased by 4 511.65 (0.56%) and 34 264.81 ha–1 (42.21%) , respectively, while grasslands, farmlands, and wetlands decreased by 23 572.20 (2.37%), 8518.98 (0.47%) and 6 747.53 ha–1 (4.33%) , respectively. The pressure of forest growth and urbanization expansions transformed grasslands and wetlands. The original grassland and wetland ecosystems have been destroyed by artificial expansion and the evolution of settlements and farmlands, resulting in fragmentation and diversification of the landscape patterns in the region.
Evaluating the importance of water conservation function in Bashang area , Zhangjiakou
GONG Fei, LUO Yong, TIAN Xi, YU Hui
2020, 37(7): 1337-1344. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0094
[Abstract](1887) [FullText HTML] (973) [PDF 738KB](24)
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Based on the InVEST model, the water conservation function of Zhangbei Dam was quantitatively evaluated, the importance level of water conservation was identified, and the spatial distribution characteristics were analyzed, providing a scientific basis for enhancing the water conservation function of Zhangbei County. The total water conservation in this county was 1.42 × 108 m3, the average depth was 33.98 mm, and the spatial distribution was uneven. Water conservation was directly proportional to rainfall and inversely proportional to potential evapotranspiration. Forest land had the strongest water conservation capacity, and dry land had the highest total water conservation. Water conservation was of medium importance, and human activities were concentrated in this region . Dry land and low water conservation were widely distributed. The most important water conservation areas were distributed in sparse woodland and grassland in the eastern, southern, and central regions. The main reason for the low water conservation and importance in Zhangbei County was the sparsity of forest land and grassland and the wide distribution of dry land. Projects that return farmland to grassland and forests should be continued to improve the county’s water conservation capacity by retaining the appropriate dry-land scale.
Analysis of changes in phytoplankton and water quality in the upper reaches of the Yongding River
ZHAO Lu, ZHANG Xuejie, XING Zhuangzhuang, FAN Shoujin, KONG Qiang, ZHAO Jinhui, MIAO Mingsheng
2020, 37(7): 1345-1353. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0104
[Abstract](1589) [FullText HTML] (876) [PDF 667KB](17)
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Sampling was conducted in April (spring), July (summer), and October (autumn) 2019 to perform a qualitative and quantitative study on phytoplankton in the Guanting Reservoir and the upper reaches of the Yongding River. During the survey, a total of 226 species (including varieties and variants) of eight phytoplankton phyla were identified, and the dominant species were in the diatom clade, accounting for 42.03% of the total species of phytoplankton . Phytoplankton abundance and biomass showed significant seasonal changes. The highest phytoplankton abundance (26.10 × 106 ind·L–1) was recorded in summer, whereas the lowest phytoplankton abundance (13.64 × 106 ind·L–1) was recorded in spring. The highest phytoplankton biomass (53.06 mg·L–1) was recorded in summer, and the lowest phytoplankton biomass (11.37 mg·L–1) was recorded in autumn. The results of the evaluation of the water quality combined with the evaluation of biological characteristics of phytoplankton indicate d that the water quality of the basin was relatively good in summer and autumn, but poor in spring, and the overall water quality of the 17 sampling sites was considered to be moderately polluted. The results of redundancy analysis (RDA) indicate that total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) played an important role in promoting the growth of dominant species of phytoplankton. We believe that the upstream region of the Yongding River in the Guanting Reservoir is the point source and non-point source of pollution in the reservoir basin, and in the Yanghe River basin and Qinghe River basin. Efforts should be made to reduce the N concentration in the water to control the degree of eutrophication of the water in the Guanting Reservoir, and protect the health of the reservoir ecosystem.
Spatio-temporal evolution analysis and underlying driving forces of water supply and consumption structures in Zhangjiakou, China
DENG Ou, LI Yiqiu, LU Chunxia, LI Ruoshuang
2020, 37(7): 1354-1361. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0283
[Abstract](1276) [FullText HTML] (629) [PDF 1002KB](16)
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Studies involving the spatio-temporal evolution and underlying driving forces of water supply structures are of extremely important for implementation of rational allocation of water resources and improvement of water supply efficiency. Based on meteorological data, water supply and consumption data, social-economic data and water environmental data from Zhangjiakou City, China, the spatial and temporal evolution and driving forces affecting water supply structures were studied using multiple methods of mathematical and spatial statistical mapping, comentropy, equilibrium degree, and the grey correlation model. The results showed that, Zhangjiakou shortage of surface water, and the proportion of ground water supply continues to increase, Additionally, the results report increase in the total amount of water supply and widening of the spatial difference in water supply. Agricultural water consumption constitutes the greastest ues of water, but the total amount and proportion of agricultural water consumption continue to decrease, while the proportions of industrial and domestic water consumption continue to increasing. Ecological and environmental water supply has also increased significantly in recent years, but the totaland proportion of water consumption represented bu these sectors are not considerable. The total amount of water consumption showed a downward trend. Form 2006 to 2011, the equilibrium degree dropped sharply, and the water consumption structure was extremely unbalanced. The water consumption equilibrium degree increased rapidly in 2011–2017, and the water consumption structure developed toward equilibrium, but entropy and equilibrium degree were both low, and there is plenty of room for structural adjustments. As for the driving forces, the correlation between effectively irrigated area and added secondary industry value is "strong", whereas the correlations between irrigated area and other factors are "medium". The increase in human population, the expansion of the city, and the changing of ecological environment have resulted in increased domestic and ecological water consumption, which have become the important driving factors affecting the evolution of water consumption structure.
Cost accounting of ecological protection in the upper reaches of Yongding River
LIU Yupeng, ZHANG Yuling, ZAN Xin, YIN Lianqing
2020, 37(7): 1362-1367. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0051
[Abstract](1852) [FullText HTML] (1218) [PDF 585KB](18)
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This study takes the upstream area of the Yongding River Basin in Zhangjiakou City as the research area, the input cost of ecological protection in this area is estimated. The dynamic cost algorithm is used to calculate the direct costs of the districts and counties of Zhangjiakou City during the period of “Twelfth Five-Year Plan” and “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan”. The indirect calculation method is used to estimate the opportunity cost of protecting the local ecological environment in Zhangjiakou City. Results show that the total direct cost of ecological protection per year in Zhangjiakou City is 330 144 000 CNY and the total opportunity cost per year is 2 595 391 000 CNY. The obtained results can be used as an important scientific basis for the development of ecological compensation standards across the Yongding River Basin in Zhangjiakou City.
Water environment capacity in arid area: A case study of the Yongding River in Zhangjiakou City
HE Lixia, ZHANG Yuling, JIA Xiaoyu, YIN Lianqing
2020, 37(7): 1368-1375. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0236
[Abstract](1434) [FullText HTML] (675) [PDF 792KB](20)
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The deterioration of water quality in the watersheds of arid regions has become an issue that cannot be ignored. The salient features of such deterioration are small water volume and high levels of pollution, and the task of improvement is very difficult.This report focusses on the upper reaches of Yongding River in Zhangjiakou City. According to the current water pollution status, the chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus are factors that affect capacity, and the improved coefficient formula method suitable for arid areas was applied to study the water environmental capacity and rational allocation of the upper reaches of the Yongding River in Zhangjiakou City.The results showed that the water environmental capacity of COD, ammonia nitrogen, and total phosphorus were 16 264.44, 789.15 and 183.64 t·a–1, respectively. The COD reductions for the industry, urban life, rural life, agricultural sources, livestock and poultry farming and tourism sectors were 317.05, 3 108.66, 318.10, 67.14, 130.19, and 207.57 t·a–1, respectively; the ammonia nitrogen reductions were 72.83, 1 212.64, 238.95, 45.48, 237.37, and 97.89 t·a–1; and the total phosphorus reductions were 2.23, 61.48, 12.35, 4.49, 10.87, and 3.39 t·a–1, respectively. The water environmental capacities measured in Zhangjiakou area on the upper reaches of Yongding River are scientifically sound and within reasonable expectations, and provide a scientific basis for the relevant administrative departments of the city to carry out water environment management and to formulate discharge limits for key enterprises, which has a practical significance.
Study on water resources optimization allocation and its sustainability development in Zhangjiakou
HAN Yan, ZHANG Xiaoling
2020, 37(7): 1376-1385. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0067
[Abstract](1630) [FullText HTML] (848) [PDF 813KB](21)
Abstract:
Water scarcity is an important constrict factor for economy development and eco-environment protection in Zhangjiakou. In this paper, based on analysis of water resources system in Zhangjiakou, a multi-source water coordination allocation model has been established, which combining water quality and water quantity. The maximum economy benefit as objective function, the maximum available water and minimum water requirement as constricts, the water resources optimization allocation model has been carried out. After meet the water requirement of eco-environment, the water resources has been distributed by using the model under different frequency in different planning years. The results indicate the ration of water shortage respectively are 11.6%, 12.5% in 2025 and 2030, and the water scarcity would be increased during dry year or very dry year. The water shortage mainly occurred in Haihe river basin. The underground water is main source for water supply, and utilization of reclaimed water is gradually increasing. The main water user is agriculture sector in Zhangjiakou, and the water use by agriculture is gradually decreasing. The sustainability development measure have been proposed for water exploitation of Zhangjiakou in the future, which provides a support for harmonious development between eco-society and environment protection.
Effects of planting industry agglomeration on water environment: Threshold regression analysis based on panel data
GUO Shili, ZENG Qiuping, YU Hui, LIU Shaoquan, DENG Xian
2020, 37(7): 1386-1396. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0112
[Abstract](1988) [FullText HTML] (799) [PDF 857KB](17)
Abstract:
Based on district- and county-level data of Zhangjiakou from 2012 to 2016, this study used the threshold model and other methods to assess the effects of planting industry agglomeration on water environment of the industry. The results are as follows 1) From 2012 to 2016, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of Zhangjiakou planting industry showed a decreasing trend and the ammonia nitrogen yield showed an increasing trend. 2) Zhuolu, Kangbao, Chicheng, Zhangbei, Huailai, Guyuan, and Chongli represented the clusters of central planting industry, while Yu, Wanquan, and Xiahuayuan represented the clusters of lower planting industry. 3) Before crossing the threshold of agglomeration degree, planting industry agglomeration showed positive effects on COD; however, after crossing the threshold value, it showed negative effects. The degree of planting industry agglomeration showed negative effects on ammonia nitrogen yield. 4) Public finance budget expenditure and funding for research and development showed positive effects on COD and ammonia nitrogen yield. Investment of fixed assets showed negative effects on COD and positive effects on ammonia nitrogen yield. The total output of planting industry showed negative effects on COD and positive effects on ammonia nitrogen yield. Chemical fertilizer application positively affected COD but negatively affected ammonia nitrogen yield.
Virtual water consumption and flow in the development of the vegetable industry in Zhangjiakou City
LIU Yijiang, LU Chunxia, HUANG Shaolin
2020, 37(7): 1397-1404. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0059
[Abstract](1418) [FullText HTML] (746) [PDF 983KB](12)
Abstract:
The concept of virtual water and its applications have enriched the theory of traditional water resources and provided new ideas and methods for ensuring the security of water supply and demand. In this study, Zhangjiakou City was used as the research area and using the virtual water theory, the virtual water consumption and flow pattern during the development of the vegetable industry were analyzed. Results showed that: 1) From 2005 to 2016, the virtual water volume of vegetables in Zhangjiakou showed an overall upward trend, increasing from 402 million to 595 million m3. The spatial distribution of the virtual water volume of vegetables is different. The area above the dam is higher than that below it. 2) More than 90% of the total amount of vegetable virtual water in Zhangjiakou City flows outside the district or even abroad; this proportion is continuously increasing. The virtual water output of vegetables in Zhangjiakou City is mainly concentrated in the Bashang area. The study will be of great significance to Zhangjiakou City with regard to adjusting and optimizing its industrial structure, promoting structural water-saving, and constructing water-saving agriculture.
Spatial temporal variation characteristics of wind erosion in Zhangjiakou City, northern China, using a wind erosion model
WANG Xiaoyi, SU Zheng'an, MA Jing, WANG Yanzai, LIU Yihan, ZHOU Tao, WANG Junjie, HE Zhouyao, WU Zuo
2020, 37(7): 1405-1415. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0133
[Abstract](1422) [FullText HTML] (780) [PDF 625KB](21)
Abstract:
The spatial temporal variation characteristics of wind erosion during 2005, 2010 and 2015 in Zhangjiakou City were assessed using a wind erosion model, combined with remote sensing images, digital elevation model (DEM) data and land use data. The results showed that slight erosion was estimated at 11 784.90 km2 and accounted for 32.41% of the total area in 2005, while moderate erosion was estimated at 2 461.93 km2 and accounted for 6.77% of the total area . This indicated that slight and moderate erosions were the primary wind erosion intensities in Zhangjiakou City. In 2015, slight erosion was estimated at 7 322.08 km2 and accounted for 20.14% of the total area. This indicated that the area of wind erosion has a different intensity, showing a downward trend in Zhangjiakou City from 2005 to 2015. Moderate wind erosion was mainly distributed in Kangbao County, Shangyi County and Zhangbei County of Zhangjiakou City. Wind erosion area in Bashang Region was 9 520.47 km2, 8 086.85 km2 and 5 674.71 km2 in 2005, 2010, and 2015, respectively, In the Bacia Region, it was 4 762.36 km2, 2 808.34 km2 and 1 647.37 km2 in the Baxia Region in the 2005, 2010, and 2015, respectively. These result indicated that the area of wind erosion gradually declined in the Bashang and Baxia Region. The area of wind erosion and the proportion of wind erosion in each land use type was relatively higher in grassland and cultivated land than in other land use types. The intensity of wind erosion for each land use type was high for slight erosion. To conclude, the area of wind erosion for each land use type gradually declined from 2005 to 2015. These results could provide a scientific basis for soil erosion control and ecological environment construction in Zhangjiakou City in the future.
Changes in drought trends in Zhangjiakou due to global climate change
LIU Miao, ZHOU Yuanyuan, LU Chunxia
2020, 37(7): 1416-1423. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0072
[Abstract](2889) [FullText HTML] (902) [PDF 1050KB](30)
Abstract:
Based on monthly precipitation and temperature data of Zhangjiakou from 1959 to 2017, drought index was determined and used to estimate annual and seasonal drought trends as well as trends within vegetative and non-vegetation growth periods. The results were as follows. 1) Annual average precipitation and precipitation in summer and winter significantly increased. Precipitation in spring, autumn, and vegetative and non-vegetative growth periods increased, although the trend of change was not significant. 2) Annual average temperature and temperature in spring, summer, and autumn showed a significant increasing trend, while that in winter as well as vegetative and non-vegetative growth periods showed a non-significant increasing trend. 3) Annual average drought index and drought index in spring, autumn, and vegetative growth period showed a non-significant increasing trend. 4) Overall precipitation, temperature, and drought index did not show a significant change across different timescales, including annual average and values in spring, summer, autumn, and winter. 5) The greatest effect of precipitation and temperature on drought trend was observed in winter. 6) Drought in summer, winter, and non-vegetative growth period showed a non-significant decreasing trend. Although precipitation and temperature in the study area showed increasing trends across different timescales, drought showed an overall increasing trend, because increasing temperature led to excess evapotranspiration, ultimately increasing precipitation. The degree of change in precipitation and temperature varied across different periods, resulting in diverse degrees of drought.