Welcome Pratacultural Science,Today is

2020 Vol.37(2)

Display Mode:          |     

2020, 37(2): 1-4.
[Abstract](892) [FullText HTML] (491) [PDF 378KB](19)
Abstract:
Research on seed germination, seedling survival, and establishment of alpine plants in response to climate change: A review
ZHAO Xiaoxiang, WANG Genxu, YANG Kai, RAN Fei, YANG Yang, YANG Yan
2020, 37(2): 213-225. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0187
[Abstract](2071) [FullText HTML] (1239) [PDF 729KB](50)
Abstract:
The natural regeneration of alpine plants is an important prerequisite for the maintenance of plant community diversity and the productivity of the community in alpine regions. Investigation of the characteristic response to climate change can provide data to support the accurate assessment of the evolution direction and pattern of alpine ecosystem response to climate change, and provide a theoretical basis for exploring the mechanisms of internal evolution. This research starts with the three key regeneration stages of seed germination, seedling survival, and establishment of alpine plants, and summarizes how biological factors (such as plant factors, plant interactions, animal disturbances, and insect pollination) and abiotic factors (such as temperature, moisture, and soil properties) affect these key regeneration stages. During the seed germination stage, extreme drought and alpine snow melt in advance have changed the relationship of plant and pollination insect and nutrient structure network. Increased temperature and precipitation increase the seed germination of plants. This warming can break the dormancy of seeds and change their physiological status. An increase in soil moisture can provide an adequate water supply for seed germination. Excessive temperature and moisture hinder seed germination, which is attributable to high-temperature stress, caused by temperature above the germination threshold, and the production of pathogens by excessive soil moisture. Seedling survival and establishment stage, plant animal disturbance, and plant interspecific competition are both advantageous and disadvantageous for seedling survival and settlement. Appropriate animal disturbance increases seedling growth space, and plant interspecific competition in resource-poor mountainous areas promotes seedlings to coordinate with each other and promote survival and establishment. High-intensity feeding by animals and disturbance of seedlings and inter-species competition among resource-rich regions hinder the acquisition of plant resources and inhibit the survival and settlement of seedlings. At present, the impact of warming on the survival of alpine plant seedlings is still unconfirmed (it may promote survival or have no effect), but the conclusion that warming and increased precipitation can promote seedling growth is well accepted, showing that warmer and more moist soil allows better seedling growth. Good environmental conditions are conducive to the absorption and utilization of nutrients. This research clarifies the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on the three stages of early regeneration of alpine plants, and indicates the deficiency of research not accounting for multiple effects of biotic and abiotic factors, and proposes scientific issues that require further investigation. Thus, this study has provided a reference on the impact of climate change on alpine ecosystems for future studies.
Characteristics of litter decomposition and nutrient release of several dominant annual herbaceous species in the riparian zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area
XIE Tingting, LI Lijuan, LIU Minghui, CHEN Xuemei, CHEN Chunhua, YANG Zhihua, LI Changxiao
2020, 37(2): 226-236. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0421
[Abstract](2156) [FullText HTML] (853) [PDF 699KB](29)
Abstract:
The effects of flooding on the ground litter decomposition and nutrient release of three dominant annual herbaceous plants (Bidens tripartita, Echinochloa crus-galli, and Polygonum hydropiper) from a water-level fluctuation zone were investigated using the litter-bag method. The control group (CK) and water flooding group (F) were designed according to the characteristics of flooding in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) during summer. The results revealed the following: 1) The initial contents and ratios of elements in the three herbaceous litters were different (P < 0.05). The initial nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) contents and ratios of the litters were positively correlated with the dry mass loss rates and element release rates, and negatively correlated with the initial carbon (C) and lignin contents and lignin/N and C/N ratios. 2) Flooding accelerated the dry mass loss rates and element release rates of the three herbaceous litters, having the greatest influence on the rates of N, P, and K release. 3) Except for the rate of P release by the CK group and of K release by the F group, the dry mass loss rates and element release rates of B. tripartita and E. crus-galli were higher than those of P. hydropiper (P < 0.05). This indicates that B. tripartita and E. crus-galli may have great influence on the nutritional status of the water and sediments in the TGRA, and the rapid decomposition of their litter may lead to increases in the N and P contents, whereas P. hydropiper has little effect in this regard. Therefore, it is suggested that priority should be given to the timely recovery and mowing of B. tripartita and E. crus-galli before the summer flood season in order to reduce the release of nutrients to the water and sediments.
Experimental study on salt tolerance of seeds of four annual plants during germination
WANG Jingrui, WANG Li, XU Xianying, YAN Haoyuan, HU Shengxin, GAO Chengbing, WEI Linyuan
2020, 37(2): 237-244. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0206
[Abstract](1762) [FullText HTML] (999) [PDF 635KB](45)
Abstract:
The seeds of four annual herbaceous plants, Bassia dasyphylla, Halogeton arachnoideus, Agriophyllum squarrosum, and Eragrostis pilosa, were selected for treatment in a study of relative germination rate, relative germination potential, germination index, and other indicators to analyze their differing salt tolerance under different concentrations of NaCl solution. The following results were found: 1) the germination rate of seeds gradually decreased with increasing NaCl concentration, and peak germination was achieved within 3 days in distilled water, while the germination was basically absent on day 7 in NaCl solution. 2) When the concentration of NaCl solution increased gradually, the germination rate and germination potential of the four plant species first increased, then decreased. The germination rate and germination potential of the same plant's seeds varied significantly (P < 0.05) in different concentrations of NaCl solution. Salt content had the greatest influence on the germination rate and germination energy of the H. arachnoideus seed, followed by E. pilosa, while the other two species exhibited the smallest change. 3) Under the condition of increasing salt stress, the germination index of the four plant species showed a declining trend, with B. dasyphylla activity index being significantly higher than that of the H. arachnoideus, A. squarrosum, and E. pilosa; the salt stress had the greatest detrimental effect on the germination index and vigor index of E. pilosa. When the NaCl solution concentration reached 2.1%, the seedling vigor index was reduced to a minimum. 4) The length of seedlings of the 4 plant species first increased with the increase of salt concentration and then decreased rapidly, thus a suitable concentration of salt promoted the growth of seedlings. Low concentration NaCl solution had a strong influence on the length of E. pilosa seedlings, while high concentration NaCl had a greater influence on the length of B. dasyphylla, H. arachnoideus, and A. squarrosum seedlings. According to the analysis of various indicators, the combined salt tolerance of the four annual plant seeds in the germination period and be ordered: A. squarrosum > B. dasyphylla > E. pilosa > H. arachnoideus. Accounting for germination rate, germination energy, seedling length, and other indicators, the optimum concentration of salt solution was 0~0.6% for B. dasyphylla, 0~0.6% for H. arachnoideus, 0~0.9% for A. squarrosum, and 0~0.6% for E. pilosa.
Effects of exogenous abscisic acid on the content of osmotic adjustment substances and antioxidant enzyme activity in the leaves of Reaumuria soongorica
HOU Youli, SU Shiping, LI Yi, CHONG Peifang, MA Pengtu, WEI Bin
2020, 37(2): 245-255. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0172
[Abstract](3694) [FullText HTML] (1131) [PDF 927KB](25)
Abstract:
An outdoor experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) on the contents of osmotic adjustment substances and antioxidant enzymatic activity on the leaves of the perennial, Reaumuria soongorica. Concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) at 2, 4, 6, and 8 mg·L–1 were utilized, all under natural field environmental drought conditions. The results revealed that the content of soluble sugar (SS), free proline (Pro), and soluble protein (SP) in the leaves of R. soongorica were reduced by exogenous ABA application, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) were increased with sprayed ABA. With increasing ABA concentration, it was observed that the above functions initially increased, but then tapered off at higher ABA concentrations. When comparing concentrations to function, the function of exogenous ABA at 6 mg·L–1 was the greatest. Before spraying osmotic adjustment substances as well as antioxidant enzymes with exogenous ABA, the content of SS, Pro, and SP in the leaves of R. soongorica significantly decreased by 35.75%, 90.08%, and 16.66% at 6 mg·L–1 of exogenous ABA. Additionally, the activity of SOD significantly increased by 28.94%, with the activity of POD being 1.35 times higher. The resultant activity of CAT significantly increased by 84.46%. In conclusion, damage to R. soongorica caused by drought stress was alleviated by the application of exogenous ABA on the leaves. Spraying at a concentration of 6 mg·L–1 of exogenous ABA obtained the most optimal results. These results show that spraying exogenous ABA at 6 mg·L–1 could alleviate the damage of drought stress on plants for the conservation of the R. soongorica population in desert areas.
Soil hydrological characteristics of alpine grasslands in the Jinqiang River Valley in Eastern Qilian Mountains
ZHAO Jinmei, WANG Yanhui, WANG Zi, YANG Peng
2020, 37(2): 256-265. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0191
[Abstract](1627) [FullText HTML] (952) [PDF 558KB](18)
Abstract:
The soil hydrological effect of the alpine grassland in the eastern Qilian Mountains plays an important role in the regional land hydrological process, hydrological cycle, shiyang river resources and ecological environment maintenance. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the soil hydrologic effect of alpine grassland in order to understand the soil hydrologic process in alpine region. In this study, We analyzed characteristics of soil water holding capacity, ariation of evapotranspiration, permeability and soil water content change, etc. The results showed that the field water holding capacity, capillary water holding capacity and saturated water holding capacity of the sunny slope and the lower of sunny slope in mountain valley increased first and then decreased with the deepening of soil layer, while the soil holding capacity of valley terrace and the upper of shady slope in mountain valley increased gradually with the deepening of soil layer. The field water holding capacity and capillary water holding capacity in the 0 – 30 cm soil layer were upper of shady slope > lower of sunny slope > lower of shady slope > upper of sunny slope > valley terrace. The saturated water holding capacity were upper of shady slope > lower of sunny slope > upper of sunny slope > lower of shady slope > valley terrace. The initial infiltration rate of alpine meadow soil was the minimum, and the permeability increased with the increase of infiltration time. When the permeability reached a stable state, the permeability rate of soil was the maximum. The soil mass water content in the 0 – 30 cm layer of alpine grassland was lower of shady slope > upper of shady slope > lower of sunny slope > valley terrace > upper of sunny slope. During the period from June to September, the average daily evapotranspiration of alpine grassland in the valley was 2.429 mm·d–1, and the total evapotranspiration was 293.254 mm. The evapotranspiration of alpine grassland was in July > in August > in September and June, and increased first and then decreased with the change of seasonal temperature. It can be seen that the valley topography in the study area had a significant impact on the soil hydrological characteristics of alpine grassland. Thus, the relationship between topography and soil hydrological characteristics should be considered comprehensively in the rational management and utilization of water resources in the high and cold region of the eastern Qilian Mountains.
Effects of mining activities and vegetation restoration methods on soil organic matter content and enzyme activities in the alpine meadows of Gannan
ZHANG Weixiong, SUN Qihe, YU Zhifeng, MU Qiuyue, WANG Yugong, WU Zhengguo, LIU Jinrong
2020, 37(2): 266-272. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0202
[Abstract](1434) [FullText HTML] (768) [PDF 628KB](23)
Abstract:
Studying the effect of revegetation is important for the successful restoration of the soil and the ecological environment in a mining area. However, very few studies have been undertaken on the ecological restoration in the mined areas in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In this study, we focused on the gold mining area in the Gannan alpine meadow (located to the north east of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau) and explored the changes in the soil organic matter content and enzyme activity after five years of revegetation with herbs and woody plants. The results showed that, subsequent to mining activities, the soil organic matter content and enzyme activities decreased significantly (P < 0.05). The organic matter content and urease activities in sites planted with herbs increased significantly after five years of recovery (P < 0.05), but neither of these increased significantly in sites that were revegetated with Picea crassifolia. There was a positive correlation between soil organic matter content and enzyme activity in the restored plots and in those that were not. There was no significant difference in the soil organic matter content and enzyme activity across the soil profile (between 0 – 10 cm and 10 – 30 cm soil depths; P < 0.05). In the early stage of vegetation restoration, compared to sites with Picea crassifolia as the dominant species, the grassland community with Elymus nutans showed higher input of litter and root exudates, which could improve soil quality quickly. Thus, restoration using woody plants should ensure that the chosen tree species provide large litter inputs that are easily decomposed.
Phytoremediation of crude oil-contaminated soils using a wild ornamental plant Gerbera jamesonii in eastern Gansu Province of the Loess Plateau
WANG Jincheng, JING Mingbo, ZHOU Lihui, LIU Guangxiu, WU Shengwei, ZHOU Tianlin
2020, 37(2): 273-286. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0461
[Abstract](2653) [FullText HTML] (780) [PDF 969KB](20)
Abstract:
In order to verify whether Gerbera jamesonii can biodegrade the crude oil-contaminated pollutants in the east part of the Loess Plateau, we studied the response of plant growth index and rhizosphere soil environmental index under different soil total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) concentrations stress. The plant growth index, rhizosphere soil environmental index, as well as removal and degradation rates of soil TPH, alkane and aromatic hydrocarbon under different soil TPH concentrations (1%, 3%, 5%, and 7%) were investigated by conventional methods. We found that removal rate of soil TPH, alkane, and aromatic hydrocarbon were decreased with the increase in soil TPH concentration and achieved its highest degradation rate in the soil TPH up to 5% (P < 0.05). Besides, plant height, root length, and germination rate of the G. jamesonii were similarly decreased with the increase in soil TPH concentration (P < 0.05). Moreover, the soil TPH at 7% could significantly inhibit its biomass above the ground, but both biomasses above and under the ground were significantly promoted when the soil TPH was up to 5% (P < 0.05). Next, at the soil TPH less than 5%, its removal rate was improved by the increase in soil dehydrogenase activity, biomasses above and under the ground as well as soil microbial diversity. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that combined action of plant biomass, soil enzyme activity, and soil microbial community could be the main factors that determine the soil TPH removal rate. Meanwhile, when the soil TPH was up to 7%, severe inhibition of the plant biomass of G. jamesonii was the key factor leading to the significant reduction of soil TPH removal rate. All the results indicated that soil TPH concentration at 5% should be determined as the threshold tolerance concentration of Gerbera jamesonii, when it is applied to the ecological restoration of crude oil-contaminated soil. In conclusion, we propose that the adaptable plant of eastern Gansu Province of the Loess Plateau, G. jamesonii, is a superior plant variety with the ability for crude oil-contaminated soil restoration when soil TPH concentration is less than 5%.
Cold tolerance of native Bermudagrass germplasms in southwest China
YUAN Xiaoqing, YAN Guoqiang, HUANG Siyi, WANG Ruijia, LI Mingxi, YANG Dan, ZHANG Xinquan, LIU Wei
2020, 37(2): 287-297. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0286
[Abstract](3224) [FullText HTML] (1067) [PDF 571KB](80)
Abstract:
The cold tolerance of Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), including 50 native accessions in Southwest China and 2 introduced varieties (“Tifway” and “Tifeagle”), was studied using methods including the green period, semi-lethal temperature, and stolon regrowth experiments. The following results were obtained: 1) A green period for the 52 accessions ranging from 277 days to 306 days, with Sau02033 (Yuexi) and Sau02040 (Zigong) having the longest green periods; 2) Semi-lethal temperatures (LT50) ranged from –9.00 ℃ to –1.72 ℃, and the LT50 of Sau02014 (Jinchuan) and Sau02040 (Zigong) were the lowest; 3) Survival rates ranged from 18.05% to 42.36%, and the survival rates of Sau02012 (Jinchuan) and Ly97021 (Suining) were the highest among all accessions; 4) The results of the partial correlation analysis indicated that there was a significant correlation between the cold tolerance and altitude (P < 0.05); 5) 52 bermudagrass accessions were clustered into three groups: A, B, and C, in which the cold tolerance was A > B > C. Both “Tifway” and “Tifeagle” were clustered into group C, whereas most of the native accessions showed a higher level of cold tolerance compared to the two introduced ones; 6) According to the comprehensive results of the three methods, Sau02040 (Zigong), Sau02013 (Jinchuan), Sau02014 (Jinchuan), and XZ2 (Tibet) were the top performers, from which excellent forage and turfgrass can be obtained. The cold tolerance of bermudagrass could be better evaluated using the three reference indicators above.
Comparative study on growth characteristics of four kinds of lilyturf
CAO Na, DU Yanli, DIAO Ningning, ZHANG Xiusheng
2020, 37(2): 298-304. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0324
[Abstract](3049) [FullText HTML] (827) [PDF 698KB](12)
Abstract:
The leaf morphology, root morphology, biomass, biomass allocation and propagation ratio of Liriope spicata, L. graminifolia, L. muscari var. variegata and L. spicata var. prolifera were determined and compared in order to clarify the difference in the growth characteristics of these Lilyturfs. The results showed that the mean membership function value of root morphology (0.87) and the propagation ratio (4.00) of L. spicata were the highest. The dry weight of the total plant (3.98 g) and the root:shoot ratio (0.79) of L. graminifolia were the lowest. The propagation ratio (2.33) and the number of leaves (24.46) of L. muscari var. variegata were the least. The mean membership function value of leaf morphology (0.71) was highest in L. spicata var. prolifera. Therefore, our results suggest that when selecting a lilyturf species for use in landscaping, L. spicata and L. spicata var. prolifera can form landscape quickly. L. graminifolia should be planted in a habitat with gentle terrain and sufficient water resource. The planting density of L. muscari var.variegata should be increased appropriately. L. graminifolia and L. muscari var. variegata can maintain a landscape for a longer time. Thus, when used for landscaping purposes, it is necessary to select and cultivate these Lilyturfs according to their different characteristics.
Overexpression of CHS genes from Trifolium repens increases tobacco flavonoid content
WU Rong, TIAN Zaimin, ZHENG Guohua, WU Huapu, WU Yanling, NIU Yanfang
2020, 37(2): 305-313. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0288
[Abstract](3778) [FullText HTML] (799) [PDF 1392KB](14)
Abstract:
To explore the effect of chalcone synthase on the flavonoid content in Trifolium repens, the full-length cDNA fragment named chalcone synthase (TrCHS) gene in Trifolium repens was obtained by RT-PCR cloning, using the sequence of TrCHS (GenBank: No.2247906) provided by NCBI. The expression vector containing TrCHS was successfully constructed in tobacco and the transgenic tobacco lines were obtained and the flavonoid content was determined by resistance screening and molecular detection. The results showed that the expression of TrCHS and flavonoids in the transgenic tobacco were significantly increased compared to the wild type (P < 0.05), indicating that over-expression of TrCHS increased the flavonoids content in tobacco. Thus, our results provide a theoretical basis for exploring the function of TrCHS and for breeding new varieties of Trifolium repens.
Effects of salt stress on seed germination of Apocynum venetum and Poacynum hendersonii
XIAO Bin, WANG Yuanyan
2020, 37(2): 314-319. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0212
[Abstract](1475) [FullText HTML] (716) [PDF 649KB](22)
Abstract:
In this study, Apocynum venetum and Poacynum hendersonii were used to study the effects of salt stress on seed germination and seedling growth at different concentrations (0, 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, 1.2%, 1.5%, 1.8% and 2.1%) of NaCl. The results showed that with increasing NaCl concentration, germination rate (GR), germination potential (GP), and germination index (GI) of A. venetum and P. hendersonii seeds showed a remarkably decreasing trend, with delayed mean germination time, and inhibited length of germ and radicle. The degree of inhibition on each index was more obvious at higher concentrations (1.5%~2.1%). From the two species, there was no significant difference in germination rate and germination potential at low concentration (P > 0.05), and the effect of high concentration on A. venetum was significantly higher than that of P. hendersonii (P < 0.05). When NaCl concentration was 0.9%, the length of germ P. hendersonii was significantly longer than that of A. venetum, and the other differences were not significant (P > 0.05). At 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9% and 2.1% the length of radicle P. hendersonii was significantly longer than that of A. venetum, and there was no significant difference in other concentrations (P < 0.05). The relative salt injury rate was higher in A. venetum seed than P. hendersonii, but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Thus, the salt tolerance was higher in P. hendersonii than A. venetum. The optimum salt concentration range of A. venetum was 0~1.5%, while the optimum salt concentration range of P. hendersonii was 0~1.8%.
Effect of two kinds of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant growth and anthracnose of Vicia sativa
ZHANG Weizhen, DING Tingting, DUAN Tingyu
2020, 37(2): 320-329. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0317
[Abstract](1796) [FullText HTML] (693) [PDF 928KB](17)
Abstract:
Common vetch (Vicia sativa), found in the alpine regions, is a legume important for its use as forage and as green manure. Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lentis is a new disease that severely restricts the production of common vetch. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can enhance the resistance of plants to stress. In this study, a pot experiment was established in a greenhouse to study the effects of AM fungi (Glomus tortuosum and Rhizophagus intraradices) on the growth of common vetch (V. sativa ‘Lanjian No.3’) and the occurrence of anthracnose disease in it. The results showed that the incidence of anthracnose was significantly inhibited after inoculation with these AM fungi - the inhibition rate was up to 70.15%, and the disease index was down to 51.36% compared with the control. AM fungi promoted plant growth and the absorption of nitrogen and phosphorus. Compared with the control, after vaccinating with AM fungi, the shoot biomass increased by 18.44%~54.92%, and the root biomass increased by 25.68%~84.68%. The N and P content increased by up to one time compared with the control. In addition, AM fungi significantly increased the activity of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), and decreased the content of malondialdehyde of common vetch (P < 0.05). In summary, G. tortuosum and R. intraradices effectively inhibited the occurrence of anthracnose while also significantly promoting nutrient absorption and plant growth, thus changing the plant biochemical indicators. The two AM fungi have potential to be used as biocontrol agents for anthracnose of common vetch.
Effects of irrigation quantity and nitrogen application rate on Elymus nutans biomass and its components
WEN Ya, ZHOU Pei, ZHANG Zhongxue, DUAN Yuanyuan, FENG Ganlin, DENG Yusen, GUO Zhenggang
2020, 37(2): 330-338. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0103
[Abstract](1278) [FullText HTML] (796) [PDF 653KB](28)
Abstract:
The interaction between irrigation quantity and nitrogen application rate is one of the important ways of improving forage biomass and the efficiency of natural resources use. A pot experiment was performed to investigate the effects of different nitrogen application rates (0, 200, 400 mg·kg–1) and irrigation quantities (35%~40%, 60%~65%, 75%~80% of saturated soil moisture) on Elymus nutans biomass and its components. This study showed that plant height, tillers per plant, and the ratio of aboveground biomass to underground biomass increased significantly with the increasing nitrogen application rate (P < 0.05), whereas aboveground biomass first increased and then decreased. However, nitrogen application rate had no significant effect on root volume or root biomass(P > 0.05). Plant height, tillers per plant, aboveground biomass, root volume, and root biomass of E. nutans also increased significantly and the ratio of aboveground biomass to underground biomass first increased and then decreased, as irrigation quantity increased (P < 0.05). The interaction between irrigation quantity and nitrogen application rate increased and then decreased plant height, tiller number, aboveground biomass and the ratio of aboveground biomass to underground biomass, as indicated by 3D response surface plots, in which the aforementioned parameters reached their highest values when the nitrogen application rate was 200 mg·kg–1 and the irrigation quantity was 60%~65%. These results suggested that the interaction between irrigation quantity and nitrogen application rate had a synergistically positive effect on E. nutans biomass and its composition, with an optimal theoretical combination pattern.
Adaptability of 5 alfalfa cultivars in the hill regions of central Sichuan
WEI Xiao, LI Xiaomei, ZENG Tairu, ZHANG Fan, LI Changhua, LI Xiaoling, HUANG Linkai, YOU Minghong, YAN Yanhong
2020, 37(2): 339-347. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0279
[Abstract](1529) [FullText HTML] (670) [PDF 475KB](29)
Abstract:
In order to screen alfalfa varieties suitable for hilly area of central Sichuan, the production performance of 5 alfalfa cultivars in Hesha Town and Tianbao Town of Suining City were studied. The results showed that the plant height and growth rate of ‘WL-525HQ’ were significantly higher than those of other varieties (P < 0.05) in both test sites. Comparing with other varieties, ‘Xibuzhixing’ had significantly higher (P < 0.05) yield with 5 458 and 4 138 kg·ha–1 in Hesha Town and Tianbao Town, respectively. The crude protein content (21.93%, 22.47%) and water soluble carbohydrate content (5.60%, 5.60%) of ‘WL-525HQ’ in both Hesha town and Tianbao town were significantly higher than other varieties (P < 0.05). Moreover, the acid detergent fiber content of ‘WL-525HQ’ in the two test sites (31.95%, 31.15%) were significantly lower than those of other varieties (P < 0.05). The neutral detergent fiber content of ‘WL-440HQ’ in Hesha Town and Tianbao Town were 39.27% and 39.89%, significantly lower than those of other varieties (P < 0.05). According to the comprehensive analysis of membership functions, ‘WL-525HQ’ had the highest membership degree in both test sites, which was 0.8 and 0.9 respectively. Thus, the performance of ‘WL-525HQ’ is better, which could be popularized and have better application value in this area.
Effects of chemical fertilizer reduction and application of organic manure on the yield and nutritive value of Zea mays and soil microbial activity
BAI Xuechun, ZHANG Junhong, FENG Kuiliang, WANG Tao, XIA Yukang, MA Chaoran, LONG Mingxiu, HE Shubin
2020, 37(2): 348-354. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0301
[Abstract](3500) [FullText HTML] (938) [PDF 826KB](67)
Abstract:
This study was conducted in the Guanzhong area to study the effects of chemical fertilizer reduction and application of organic manure on the yield and nutritive value of silage maize (Zea mays) and soil microbial activity. The results showed that there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the yields between the different treatments in the first year. The single fertilizer treatment (T1) had the highest crude protein content, and the application of organic manure reduced the crude protein content of maize to a certain extent and increased the fiber content. The soil microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, soil urease, and alkaline phosphatase activity of the T1 treatment were the lowest. With an increase in the ratio of organic manure application, the soil microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, and soil enzyme activity increased. This preliminarily indicates that the application of organic manure in the Guanzhong area can maintain the maize yield in the first year, and significantly increase the soil carbon/nitrogen reserves and enzyme activities. This study provides a theoretical basis for the development of the silage maize industry, improvement of the soil environment, and improvement of fertilizer utilization efficiency in the Guanzhong area.
Effects of feeding triticale hay on the production performance and feeding behavior of lamb
ZHANG Yujie, ZHAO Haishan, XUE Ruilin, LI Taotao, MA Youji
2020, 37(2): 355-362. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0138
[Abstract](1533) [FullText HTML] (634) [PDF 706KB](29)
Abstract:
In order to explore the effect of triticale (× Triticale Wittmack) hay on the production performance and feeding behavior of lamb. In this study, 18 male lambs of Hu sheep were divided randomly into control group, test group Ⅰ and Ⅱ, with 6 lambs per group. The control group was fed with a standard premixed diet. The test group Ⅰ and Ⅱ were fed with 10% and 20% of triticale hay, respectively, which was replaced by an equal quantity of roughage along with a constant basal diet. The results showed that the average daily gain of lamb in test group Ⅰ was 189.72 g, which was significantly higher than that in the control group and test group Ⅱ (P < 0.05). The feed intake of lamb decreased with the increase of adding ratio. The feed intake of group Ⅱ was significantly lower than that of group Ⅰ and control group (P < 0.05), and the intake time was significantly higher than that of group Ⅰ and control group (P < 0.01). The times of excretion of lamb in group Ⅰ were significantly higher than that in control group (P < 0.05), and there was no significant difference with group Ⅱ (P > 0.05). The ruminant cycle amount, ruminant time, the number of ruminating food pellet and the total chewing times in group Ⅰ were significantly higher than those in group Ⅱ (P < 0.01). In summary, 10% was the optimal proportion of triticale hay, as a source of roughage, in the daily diet of lambs. The results will provide a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of triticale hay as forage.
Research progress concerning the rumen microflora of juvenile ruminants
ZHANG Jie, XU Xiaofeng
2020, 37(2): 363-369. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0278
[Abstract](22192) [FullText HTML] (19316) [PDF 443KB](46)
Abstract:
Rumen microflora and ruminant organisms have a close symbiotic relationship. A stable microflora structure plays an important role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients and animal health. The regulation of the rumen microflora structure can change the metabolism and immunity of the body. However, the construction of rumen microflora in young ruminants presents a complex process, which is affected by many factors, but with the increase in age, the microflora will gradually reach a dynamic balance. The purpose of this paper is to review the effects of maternal, dietary, and environmental factors on the rumen microflora construction of young ruminants, and to provide reference for the feeding management and regulation of the rumen microflora of young ruminants.
Nutrition composition and silage fermentation quality of Desmodium intortum
TIAN Jing, TANG Guojian, PENG Jianzong, YANG Chengwei, ZHANG Jianguo
2020, 37(2): 370-376. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0242
[Abstract](1522) [FullText HTML] (829) [PDF 613KB](16)
Abstract:
Desmodium intortum is an excellent perennial legume grass in tropics. The nutrition composition and chemical characteristics of Desmodium intortum were tested, and the effect of additives of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and glucose (G) to raw materials on the quality of silage fermentation were also studied in the present experiment. The ensiling experiment was designed into 6 treatments, they were control (no additives), additives of LAB, 1% G, 2% G, LAB + 1% G and LAB + 2% G, respectively. The results showed that Desmodium intortum had high crude protein content (20.75%) and water soluble carbohydrate content (7.19%). After 60 days of ensiling, the fermentation quality of the control silage was poor, with pH over 4.7. The treatment of inoculating with LAB alone reduced pH and ammonia nitrogen content of silage significantly, and increased the lactic acid content (P < 0.05), while adding glucose along with two concentrations did not reduce pH (P > 0.05), but decreased the ammonia nitrogen content significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control. The silages added with the mixtures of LAB and glucose (LAB + 1% G and LAB + 2% G) were of pH lower than 4.1, and lactic acid content were higher than 6.0%, which were significantly better than the other treatments (P < 0.05). And there was no significant differences between the two treatments (P > 0.05). Thus, adding LAB and 1% G to Desmodium intortum could effectively improve the fermentation quality of the silage.
Identification of lactic acid bacteria inoculant ZZU A341 and its effects on fermentation properties of alfalfa silage
WANG Yuan, WANG Yanping, HAO Xiangmei, YANG Fengyuan, ZHAO Shanshan
2020, 37(2): 377-382. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0273
[Abstract](1336) [FullText HTML] (759) [PDF 472KB](17)
Abstract:
To obtain effective lactic acid bacteria inoculants for alfalfa ensiling, alfalfa epiphytic lactic acid bacteria strains were screened based on an antibacterial activity test, acidification ability on alfalfa meal, and structural carbohydrates constituents. Their impacts on fermentation of alfalfa silage were also studied. Results indicated that strain ZZU A341 displayed high antibacterial activity as well as effective acidification of alfalfa meal and structural carbohydrate constituents. Strain ZZU A341 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Silage receiving ZZU A341 demonstrated lower pH and ammoniacal nitrogen content than silage receiving the commercial inoculant YX. The pH and ammoniacal nitrogen content in silage receiving ZZU A341 were significantly lower than the naturally ensiled alfalfa. Thus, lactic acid bacteria inoculants identified through this screening system could effectively improve fermentation qualities of alfalfa silage.
Coordinated development of resource-environment-economy system in the industrialization of desertification control technology: A case study of Alxa League of Inner Mongolia
ZHANG Weijia, RAO Liangyi
2020, 37(2): 383-392. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0283
[Abstract](1330) [FullText HTML] (752) [PDF 722KB](27)
Abstract:
Desertification control is extremely important for the construction of an ecologically stable civilization in China. The industrialization of desertification control technologies consolidates the achievements of desertification control, which is a complex process involving resource, environmental and economic systems. The coordinated development of these three systems has attracted much attention. In the current study, a coordinated development index system was first constructed based on the integrated framework model of pressure – state – response and resource – environment – economy. Then, taking Alxa League of Inner Mongolia as an example, a coordination degree evaluation model was constructed by using principal component analysis and membership function. Finally, the comprehensive development levels of resource, environmental and economy systems (REE) and the coordination degree among systems in the industrialization of desertification control technology in this region from 2010 to 2016 were quantified. The results showed that the economic system and resource system had differing levels of development and the environmental system was relatively underdeveloped. The degree of coordination in the REE system was low but with an overall rising trend. Measurements taken from two aspects of development and coordinated sustainability would facilitate improvements to the coordinated development level of the REE system and promote the industrialization of desertification control technology.
Environmental attitudes and behavioral intentions of golf tourists: The moderating effect of specialization
ZHU Fang, SU Qin
2020, 37(2): 393-402. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0277
[Abstract](1964) [FullText HTML] (639) [PDF 544KB](20)
Abstract:
The products and services provided by golf tourism depend on the natural environment, so the importance of sustainable environmental management becomes increasingly prominent. Golf provides unique competitive advantages for destinations, making the golf tourism market become one of the largest industries related to sports. Golf tourism has both positive and negative effects on the environment; the negative impact is mainly due to the destruction of the natural landscape, as well as the maintenance of the green, which requires a large amount of water and pesticides. On the positive side, golf tourists may be the key factor and actors in promoting and supporting environmental protection. Golf is closely related to healthy and natural environments, and so golf tourists are often keen to promote, support, and participate in the protection of the ecology and environment. This study focuses on golf tourists and we adopt a partial multiplication structural equation model through potential structure analysis and internal consistency analysis. Further, based on the level of specialization, wherein the number of golf trips, consumption expenditure, and average time of stay are used as indicators, the golf tourists were divided into three categories: primary, secondary, and advanced. Brief ecological paradigm (BEP) and Reconstructing tourism ecological orientation (RTEO) scales were used to measure the environmental attitudes and behavioral intentions of golf tourists, and the reliability of the scale was tested. On the whole, the BEP scale score was higher than that of the RTEO scale, and the reason for this difference may be that the environmental behavioral intention is closer to the actual behavior, while the environmental attitude is a more idealized perspective. Further comparison shows that the scores on the BEP and RTEO scales of advanced golf tourists are very similar, indicating that the higher the level of specialization, the closer is the relationship between environmental attitudes and behavioral intentions. The results show that the advanced golf tourists have the highest BEP and RTEO scores. This is because of the difference in specialization, due to which the advanced golf tourists have a stronger sense of environmental responsibility for the golf course, and they are more concerned about the sustainable development of the golf course and tourism. Causal analysis confirmed the relationship between environmental attitudes and behavioral intentions, and the two constructs were confirmed in samples of different levels of specialization, that is, there was a strong relationship between environmental attitudes and behavioral intentions. However, this study did not find differences in the level of specialization among golf tourists. Generally speaking, the income level and education level of golf tourists are relatively high, which are also the two key factors directly influencing environmental attitudes and behavioral intentions.