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2019 Vol.36(9)

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2019, 36(9): 1-4.
[Abstract](820) [FullText HTML] (432) [PDF 407KB](7)
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Vertical spatial distribution characteristics of roots in different plant configurations of Lespedeza bicolor and Vitex negundo
ZHAO Qian, WU Hongyan, SONG Guilong, SUN Shengnian, YANG Xinyu, LIU Jiaxin, ZHANG Jun
2019, 36(9): 2183-2192. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0182
[Abstract](1503) [FullText HTML] (937) [PDF 1099KB](59)
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In this study, three plant configurations, namely " Vitex negundo + V. negundo”, " Lespedeza bicolor + L. bicolor ”, " V. negundo + L. bicolor ”, were selected from the same rock slope (35 degrees) condition in Jiufeng Forest Farm, Haidian District, Beijing. Complete stratification (0 – 5 cm, 5 – 10 cm, 10 – 15 cm, 15 – 20 cm, 20 – 25 cm, 25 – 30 cm) excavation method and root system diameter classification were adopted. (D ≤ 2 mm, 2 mm < D ≤ 5 mm, D > 5 mm) root scanning method was used to study the vertical spatial distribution characteristics of the roots and pull-out resistance characteristics, such as root length percentage, root dry weight percentage and root density, in order to provide a theoretical basis for evaluating the root vertical spatial distribution characteristics and its impact on slope protection performance under different plant allocation modes. The results showed that the vertical spatial distribution of roots of these three plants showed a decreasing trend with increase in soil depth. In soil depth of 0 – 5 cm, the largest plant allocation of root length percentage and root dry weight percentage were exhibited by " V. negundo + V. negundo” and " L. bicolor + L. bicolor”, which accounted for more than half of the total soil layer; the highest root length density was by " V. negundo + V. negundo”; the highest root length and root weakening coefficient was by " V. negundo + L. bicolor”. In 5 – 20 cm soil depth, the percentages of root length, root dry weight, root density, specific root length and root weakening coefficient were found to be the best, and these were significantly different from the other two plant configurations (P < 0.05). In the depth of 20 – 25 cm soil layer, the percentage of root length was the largest for " L. bicolor + L. bicolor”, and the percentage of root dry weight and root density was the largest for " V. negundo + L. bicolor”. " V. negundo + L. bicolor” has the greatest pull-out resistance and the strongest slope stability.
Influence of varying cover-soil thickness on the restoration of degraded riparian grassland
TIAN Man, YAN Cheng, ZHOU Jing
2019, 36(9): 2193-2200. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0614
[Abstract](1520) [FullText HTML] (964) [PDF 632KB](30)
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This experiment tested different options for restoring the damaged environment in the southern segment of the Sangonghe using four levels of cover-soil thickness (0, 8, 12, and 16 cm). Leguminosae and Gramineae local grasses were mixed and sown on bare shoal. The effects of environmental restoration and species diversity were surveyed, and the traits of the plant communities were compared after a six-year restoration period. The results were as follows. 1) In general, the coverage, height and aboveground biomass of the grassland plant community increased with cover-soil thickness. For the 0 and 8 cm cover-soil treatments, all three of the aforementioned traits were lower, compared to those of the 12 and 16 cm cover-soil treatments (P < 0.05). The coverage of grassland plants with 16 cm of cover-soil was significantly greater than those treated with 12 cm of cover-soil (P < 0.05). 2) For the different treatments, the Shannon-Wiener index ranked 16 cm > 8 cm > 12 cm > 0 cm of cover-soil; the Pielou index ranked 16 cm > 12 cm > 8 cm > 0 cm of cover-soil; and the Margalef index ranked 16 cm > 8 cm > 12 cm > 0 cm of cover-soil. No significant differences in plant species diversity was detected between the 8, 12, and 16 cm cover-soil treatments (P > 0.05). 3) There was, however, a significant positive correlation between aboveground biomass and the Shannon-Wiener index of different treatments (P < 0.01). The research showed that under the same sowing conditions, cover-soil can promote the conservation and restoration of grassland ecosystems. Therefore, we suggest that 16 cm of cover-soil is the best option.
Spatial heterogeneity and environmental drivers of grassland community functional traits in the semi-arid loess small watershed
WANG Xin, YANG Lei, ZHAO Qian, ZHANG Qindi
2019, 36(9): 2201-2211. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0145
[Abstract](1469) [FullText HTML] (941) [PDF 714KB](51)
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Plant functional traits can reflect the adaptation strategy of the community to the environment and determine the function of the ecosystem. It is of great significance for vegetation resource management and vegetation restoration to study spatial heterogeneity and environmental drivers of community functional traits at a small watershed scale. Using the typical loess semi-arid grassland watershed in Dingxi, Gansu Province as the research area, we investigated the correlation between the weighted mean of seven functional traits and abiotic environmental factors to identify the key drivers of spatial heterogeneity of functional traits using the method of variance decomposition and redundancy analysis. The results showed that 1) three abiotic factors influenced the spatial heterogeneity of community functional traits. The physical property of soil had the most influence, followed by the chemical property of soil, followed by topographical factors. The correlation between the three groups was strong, indicating that there were interactions among the three groups that affected plant functional traits. 2) The available water in soil, total carbon, available nitrogen, total nitrogen, organic carbon, pH, and the bulk density of soil have significant effects on community functional trait heterogeneity. The available water in the soil is the dominant factor, which indicates that it is the key driving factor of plant functional trait variation in a semi-arid area.
Quantitative dynamics and influencing factors of the seedling occurrence of the most common plants in Seriphidium desert grassland
LI Nana, LIU Fuyuan, LU Weihua, CHEN Yishi, SUN Hairong, JIN Shengfei, ZHANG Fanfan
2019, 36(9): 2212-2222. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0633
[Abstract](1278) [FullText HTML] (783) [PDF 783KB](13)
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This study aims to understand the occurrence types and quantitative dynamics of dominant plant seedlings in Seriphidium desert grassland. We studied the effects of the key factors (soil, aspect, and climate) on seedling number and distribution in 50 sample sites of Seriphidium desert grassland. The results showed that the weight of plant litter was significantly negatively correlated with the total number of seedlings (P < 0.05), while soil organic matter, faeces, and soil compaction were significantly positively correlated with the total number of seedlings (P < 0.01). The correlation between soil pH and the total number of seedlings was not found to be significant (P > 0.05). We divided the seedlings into three types depending on soil environmental factors. Two of the seedling types are sensitive to the amount of plant litter, faecal matter, and organic matter in the soil, while the other type is sensitive to soil compactness and pH level. In addition, the slope aspect and the time of year were found to significantly influence the seedling quantity, and the number of seedlings in different slope directions was also found to change dramatically with the season. The seedlings showed explosive growth in spring, owing to the suitable temperatures and abundant precipitation, but their numbers gradually decreased as spring became summer and temperatures increased. However, the seedlings of Seriphidium transiliense, Ceratocephalus orthoceras, and Alyssum desertorum had a second growth and germination stage in autumn owing to improving meteorological conditions, and a second growth peak in late autumn and early winter. In addition, we conducted regression analysis on average climate conditions and the number of seedlings. The results showed that average monthly precipitation levels and temperature are the main factors influencing seedling dynamics.
Spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater depth and soil moisture in marsh wetland across the Heihe Wetland Nature Reserve
LIU Ruiming, KONG Dongsheng, WANG Li, HE Junling
2019, 36(9): 2223-2232. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0528
[Abstract](1453) [FullText HTML] (820) [PDF 1195KB](40)
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The wetland groundwater depth and soil moisture in the study area were monitored from 2015 to 2017 in order to accurately understand the hydrological processes in marsh wetlands across Heihe Wetland Nature Reserve. The cluster analysis showed that the 12 fixed observation points in the study area were divided into three regions according to the depth of groundwater burial (deep, medium, and shallow). The results indicated that the groundwater burial depth in the different areas varied considerably in space, and the seasonal variation was greater in summer and the fall, but less in winter and spring, The annual average groundwater depth in 2016 (42.28 cm) > 2017 (38.88 cm) > 2015 (34.33 cm). The interannual variation was not significant (P > 0.05). The soil water content in the different regions also showed large spatial differences. The shallow groundwater region varied between the different soil layers. The annual average value for soil water content in 2015 (46.79%) > 2016 (45.36%) > 2017 (43.10%), but these differences were not significant (P > 0.05), and there was a downward trend. The correlation analysis showed that the correlation between soil water content in the 0–20 cm soil layer and groundwater depth was the highest, and a regression equation was established to roughly estimate groundwater depth from the soil water data. The results showed that the excavation of diversion canals in wetlands had a strong impact on the spatial and temporal distributions of the groundwater depth and soil moisture, and that it disturbed the normal hydrological cycle, which leads to the degradation of the wetland ecological environment. The results revealed the hydrological change process occurring in the Heihe marsh wetland areas, provide a basis for the rational development and utilization of groundwater resources, and will improve the maintenance of a healthy wetland ecosystem.
Temporal and spatial changes in response to climate in grasslands of the Qilian Mountain National Nature Reserve
SONG Weihong, WANG Lina, ZHANG Jinlong
2019, 36(9): 2233-2249. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0344
[Abstract](1084) [FullText HTML] (666) [PDF 1942KB](44)
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Understanding the growth and evolution of grasslands in the Qilian Mountains, China, and their relationship with climate is necessary for scientific evaluation of this complex regional ecosystem. In this study, MOD13Q1 and Landsat data and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were used to examine spatial and temporal changes in different grassland types in response to climate in the Qilian Mountain National Nature Reserve from 2000 to 2018. We found that 1) the grassland area decreased from 2000 to 2015, and the area mainly transitioned to forest land, farmland, or waterbodies; 2) the NDVI of summer grassland vegetation in the Qilian Mountain National Nature Reserve improved significantly from 2000 to 2018, and slight improvements were seen in other seasons; 3) the NDVI of different grassland vegetation types showed increasing trends, with the highest increase in desert grassland, followed by typical grassland and alpine grassland; 4) the effect of precipitation on the NDVI of different grassland vegetation types was higher than that of temperature.
Effect of endophyte infection on growth and endogenous hormones of Festuca sinensis under Zn and Cd treatments
WANG Meining, LIN Weihu, MA Bihua, LI Miaomiao, TIAN Pei
2019, 36(9): 2250-2258. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0547
[Abstract](1547) [FullText HTML] (1624) [PDF 715KB](41)
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In the present study, the growth and endogenous hormone contents in leaves of Festuca sinensis infected with Epichloë (E+) or free (E–) were measured under Zn and Cd treatments to investigate the endophyte-mediated alleviation of abiotic stress in Festuca. The results are as follows: 1) Compared to control, Zn treatment could improve the plant height and biomass of Festuca infected with (E+) or free (E–) (P < 0.05); the contents of gibberellic acid (GA3), cytokinin (CTK), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) increased, whereas that of abscisic acid (ABA) decreased under Zn treatment (P < 0.05). 2) Compared to control, Cd stress inhibited the plant height and biomass in F. sinensis, decreased the contents of GA3, CTK, and IAA, and increased the content of ABA (P < 0.05). 3) Endophyte infection had a beneficial effect on Zn and Cd treatments; it increased the tiller number, plant height, and aboveground biomass. Further, it increased the GA3, CTK, and IAA contents in F. sinensis under Zn treatment and Cd stress separately (P < 0.05). These results indicated that the endophyte can improve the adaptability of abiotic stress by regulating the content of endogenous hormones in F. sinensis.
Chemical control of weeds in zoysia grass lawns
HANG Nan, WANG Xiangyu, ZHANG Yunwei, WANG Kehua
2019, 36(9): 2259-2269. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0612
[Abstract](1691) [FullText HTML] (984) [PDF 543KB](29)
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Zoysia grass is found widely throughout China owing to its high environmental adaptability and ornamental value. It is used to make high-quality sports turf, and its tolerance to extensive management also makes it suitable for afforestation and slope protection. However, the quality of zoysia grass lawns can be affected greatly by weeds. Moreover, because the sowing time coincides with the vigorous summer growth period for weeds, zoysia grass seedlings are often outcompeted, which can result in the seedlings failing to establish. Therefore, it is important to develop effective methods of weed control for zoysia grass lawns. Chemical control is widely used because it is economical, efficient, and labour-saving. However, improper use of these herbicides can be harmful to zoysia grass and can cause environmental pollution. Based on related research and the authors’ experiences, this study summarises the most common weed species found among zoysia grass lawns in China and their occurrence regularity, as well as detailing the various chemical methods for weed control in the various growth stages of zoysia grass. It is hoped that this study can become a point of reference for reducing the harm that weeds cause to zoysia grass, leading to the establishment of higher quality zoysia grass lawns.
Analysis of the symptoms and possible causes of herbicide phytotoxicity on golf courses
JIN Haibo, XUE Guang, SHEN Zhenggao, LI Chunyan
2019, 36(9): 2270-2279. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0169
[Abstract](2594) [FullText HTML] (709) [PDF 596KB](21)
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This paper aims to provide a theoretical basis for the prevention of herbicide injuries to golf course turfs by analyzing the symptoms and possible causes of herbicide phytotoxicity. We proposed a ranking standard for golf course herbicides using the results of our investigation into the phytotoxicity of turf herbicides in China's golf courses, as well as reference to the ranking standards of field crop herbicide phytotoxicity, and the requirements for golf course maintenance. Combined with literature analysis, the differences in the mode of action of herbicides were used to clarify the symptoms of acute and chronic phytotoxicity caused by herbicides with different modes of action. Similar phytotoxicity symptoms caused by non-herbicides were analyzed as well. The intrinsic factors of the herbicide itself, the external factors of the environmental climate, and human factors of miss-selection and misuse of herbicides often lead to adverse selection or target dislocation of herbicides. Intrinsic factors include time and location differences, morphology, as well as physiological and biochemical adverse selection; the external factors include environmental effects, herbicide residues, climatic stresses, and reverse effects of turf pests; human factors include herbicide impurity interference, miss-selected herbicide, misapplication, and mismanagement. Multi-interaction was a common cause of herbicide-induced golf course turf injury. We recommend further research on the prevention of turf injury on golf courses, in order to minimize herbicide phytotoxicity.
The rise of Korean golf and its enlightenment to Chinese golf
GU Yue, GU Dehong, CHEN Zhihui
2019, 36(9): 2280-2291. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0080
[Abstract](2342) [FullText HTML] (1071) [PDF 711KB](21)
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The rise of Korean golf is an example of the successful development of global competition in the sports market. Based on literature research and logical analysis, this paper reviews the development of Korean golf, clarifies the main characteristics of the rise of Korean golf, and then discusses the reasons for the successful rise of Korean golf from a societal, economic, political, and cultural point of view. Furthermore, the authors hold that the rise of Korean golf, including the cultural recognition, the system, supervision, convergence, career planning, and talent-cultivation, is of great practical significance for China to correctly understand the nature of golf, promote the healthy and orderly development of golf, and enhance the national cohesion and cultural competitiveness to build a sporting power.
Effects of drought and salt stress on seed germination characteristics of 14 Medicago sativa varieties
GUO Xiang, GUO Yifan, HUANG Siyi, PU Qi, YANG Kang, PENG Yan
2019, 36(9): 2292-2303. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0236
[Abstract](4507) [FullText HTML] (1135) [PDF 725KB](75)
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The tolerance of 14 Medicago sativa varieties to drought and salt stress during seed germination was compared and analysed. This provided the experimental basis for the rational selection of seed varieties with strong drought and salt tolerance in production and cultivation. Alfalfa seeds were treated with 0, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mmol·L–1 NaCl solution and 0, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% PEG 6000 solution, respectively. According to the dynamic change of germination rate under different screening methods suitable to assess drought and salt stress concentration, the condition of drought and salt stress on the seed germination of different varieties of alfalfa using the standard test and the fuzzy mathematics method of subordinate function of alfalfa provided a comprehensive analysis of drought and salt resistance. The results showed that: 1) the appropriate concentrations of salt and drought stress in alfalfa were 250 mmol·L–1 NaCl and 25% PEG-6000, respectively. 2) Under drought and salt stress, the relative germination potential, relative germination rate, and relative germination index of alfalfa seeds were significantly reduced, and the change trend of the three indexes was roughly the same, with significant differences among the different varieties (P < 0.05). The response mechanism of the relative root length of the seedlings to the two kinds of stresses was different. The root length of the seedlings was significantly inhibited under salt stress, whereas drought stress had a certain promoting effect on the root length of the seedlings, with significant differences among different varieties. Under the stress of salt and drought, the relative fresh weight was significantly reduced, with the relative dry weight less inhibited than the relative fresh weight. Under drought stress, the relative dry weight of all the varieties, except ‘Magna4030’, was greater than 1, and the difference among different varieties was significant. 3) The drought resistance of alfalfa during germination was as follows: ‘Magna995’ > ‘Sibemol’ > ‘Fado’ > ‘Magna601’ > ‘Magna551’ > ‘Salsa’ > ‘Magnum VII’ > ‘Mezzo’ > ‘Magna401’ > ‘Instinct’ > ‘Weston’ > ‘Vision’ > ‘Liangmu No.1’ > ‘Magna4030’. The salt tolerance was: ‘Fado’ > ‘Liangmu No.1’ > ‘Magna551’ > ‘Magna995’ > ‘Instinct’ > ‘Weston’ > ‘Sibemol’ > ‘Magna601’ > ‘Magna4030’ > ‘Vision’ > ‘Magna401’ > ‘Mezzo’ > ‘Magnum VII’ > ‘Salsa’. Among these, the seeds of ‘Fado’, ‘Magna995’, and ‘Magna551’ have strong drought resistance and salt tolerance and the potential for popularisation and application in arid and saline areas.
Effect of gibberellin soaking on seed germination of perennial ryegrass under polyethylene glycol simulated drought conditions
SHAN Xudong, ZHANG Rui, Maiwulidai·Kahar, Gulinaer·Nuerhawulieti, XU Lixin
2019, 36(9): 2304-2311. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0140
[Abstract](1222) [FullText HTML] (642) [PDF 927KB](24)
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To study the effects of gibberellin soaking on the germination of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) seeds, germination indices were investigated under simulated drought conditions. The perennial ryegrass ‘Mathilde’ was soaked with four concentrations of gibberellin: 0, 100, 200, and 300 mg·L–1. After 24 h of seed soaking, the germination test was performed under Polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress at different concentrations (0, 5%, 10%, and 15%). The germination potential was measured on the fifth day, and the germination rate, bud length, root length, bud inhibition rate, root inhibition rate, and root-shoot ratio were measured on the fourteenth day. The results showed that with the increase in drought stress, the germination potential, germination rate, and bud length of perennial ryegrass showed a decreasing trend, and the root length first increased and then decreased. Gibberellin treatment had no significant effect on seed germination rate under 0, 5%, and 10% PEG stress; however, soaking in 200 mg·L–1 and 300 mg·L–1 gibberellin could significantly alleviate the inhibitory effect of drought on the seed germination rate of perennial ryegrass under 15% PEG stress. The seed soaking treatment (200 mg·L–1 and 300 mg·L–1) could reduce the rate of bud inhibition and increase the root-shoot ratio of perennial ryegrass under various drought stresses. In conclusion, the optimum concentration of gibberellin for inducing seed germination, enhancing seedling growth, and alleviating drought stress of perennial ryegrass was 200~300 mg·L–1.
Effects of sowing rate and row spacing on the performance of forage rye seeds
MENG Xiangjun, DU Xiaocun, WU Huijuan, YU Huiyun, ZHOU Dongchang
2019, 36(9): 2312-2318. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0514
[Abstract](2873) [FullText HTML] (933) [PDF 525KB](29)
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of sowing rate (120, 150, 187.5, or 225 kg·ha–1) and row spacing (20, 25, 30, or 35 cm) on the height, branch number, ear length, grains per spike, grain weight per spike, 1 000-grain weight, and seed yield of forage rye using a two-factor randomized block experiment. The aim was to establish a theoretical basis for producing forage rye seed in the high-altitude colder regions of China. Sowing rate had a significant effect on plant height, ear length, grain weight per spike, 1 000-grain weight, and seed yield (P < 0.05) but failed to significantly affect branch number or grains per spike. Meanwhile, row spacing had a significant effect on seed yield and branch number (P < 0.05) but failed to significantly affect plant height, ear length, grains per spike, grain weight per spike, or 1 000-grain weight. Therefore, either sowing rate or row spacing, or both, significantly affected every measured variable, except grains per spike. Below 2 800 m in elevation in Gansu Province, the greatest seed yield (≤ 6 590 kg·ha–1) was achieved using a sowing rate and row spacing of 187.5 kg·ha–1 and 30~35 cm, respectively.
Identification of a new virus on alfalfa in Xinjiang
LI Kemei, Aziguli · Muhanmaiti, GE Ruiyun, LIU Xuexue, LI Baoyi, Refukati· Xuehelati
2019, 36(9): 2319-2324. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0120
[Abstract](1604) [FullText HTML] (781) [PDF 742KB](13)
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A suspected viral disease outbreak was observed on cultivated alfalfa in Xinjiang. In the second year, some alfalfa plants became dwarfed, the branches thinned, and the leaves curled. In the fourth year, the rate of disease incidence in some fields reached 100%. To determine the pathogen, 219 suspected alfalfa samples were collected from Urumqi, Changji, and Altay. RT-PCR molecular detection and identification were carried out using the reported coat protein gene specific primers of bean leafroll virus (BLRV). The results showed that 55 samples could be amplified to obtain a 955 kb specific fragment with a detection rate of 25%. The sequence of this fragment (accession number: MK263743) had a homology of 85.1% – 96.5% with the nucleotide sequence of the BLRV coat protein, and the highest sequence homology (96.5%) was with the BLRV (accession number: KR261610.1) from Argentina. The constructed phylogenetic tree helped in the identification of the virus as belonging to Luteovirus, Luteoviridae.
Influence of crown height and clipping frequency on compensatory growth of Italian ryegrass
LI Mingyue, WANG Xiaoling, QIN Rongrong, GUO Yadan
2019, 36(9): 2325-2333. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0183
[Abstract](967) [FullText HTML] (579) [PDF 664KB](14)
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In this experiment, we examined the influence of crown height and clipping frequency on the compensatory growth of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum). Two light and dark experiments were conducted to test Italian ryegrass prior to the jointing stage. The light experiment included 5 treatments: clipping once to a 5 cm crown height (HS); clipping twice to a 5 cm crown height (HF); clipping once to a 2 cm crown height (LS); clipping twice to a 2 cm crown height (LF); no clipping (CK). The dark experiment included 3 treatments: 5 cm crown height without root clipping (B5); 2 cm crown height without root clipping (B2); 5 cm crown height with root clipping (BD5). Results of the light test showed that the content of soluble carbohydrates of single clipping of high crown Italian ryegrass in roots was higher than in crowns, which increased the photosynthetic rate and organic matter accumulation. Reduced biomass due to clipping was compensated for and the compensatory growth occurred in single clipping of high crown Italian ryegrass. However, this was not observed in the frequent clipping and low crown treatment. Results of the dark experiment showed that the regeneration ability of high crown Italian ryegrass increased after clipping. Additionally, the energy needed for regeneration was mainly derived from crown rather than root. Thus, stubble height and clipping frequency had an important influence on the regeneration of Italian ryegrass, and results showed that single clipping of high crown Italian ryegrass had the highest regeneration ability.
Characteristics of soil seed banks in an artificial desert vegetation in the Hexi Corridor
LU Yanfang, MA Li, ZHAN Yufang, ZHEN Weiling, TENG Yufeng, QIAN Wanjian
2019, 36(9): 2334-2341. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0472
[Abstract](1412) [FullText HTML] (870) [PDF 665KB](57)
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The soil seed bank plays an important role in vegetation restoration. This research determined artificial vegetation seed bank of the Hexi Corridor. We conducted a field vegetation survey with fixed point soil sample collection and a seed germination experiment. Research characteristics of the composition of the soil seed bank in the artificial vegetation and the spatial distribution and species diversity were determined. The results showed that: 1) There were 9 species of plants in the soil seed bank that belonged to 3 families and 8 genera. The soil seed bank was simple. The family of the species were concentrated. The number of annual plants accounted for 89.53 % of all seed bank plants. 2) Seed bank density at 0 – 2 cm depth was 54.71 grains·m–2, 2 – 5 cm was 58.00 grains·m–2, and 5 – 10 cm was 132.86 grains·m–2. At 0 – 5 cm, the lowest density of the soil seed bank occurred and at 0 – 5 cm it was the highest. 3) There were numerous common species in the soil seed bank and of ground plants. The similarity factor was 0.600 8. Medium or highly similar levels occurred with lower spatial heterogeneity. There were positive correlations between composition, quantity, and density of ground plants and seed bank. 4) There was a low diversity index for the different gradients in the seed bank. As the depth of the soil increased the trends in the Simpson and Shannon-Wiener index, and Pielou’s evenness index (E) showed consistency in the soil seed bank.
Effect of precipitation and nitrogen application on spring wheat yield in dryland based on APSIM model
RU Xiaoya, LI Guang, YAN Lijuan, CHEN Guopeng, NIE Zhigang
2019, 36(9): 2342-2350. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0500
[Abstract](1247) [FullText HTML] (1043) [PDF 1103KB](30)
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of water and nitrogen on the yield of spring wheat in the middle Loess Plateau of Gansu Province, China. Using experimental field data and the Agricultural Production System Simulator (APSIM), precipitation and nitrogen application gradients were established. The results demonstrated that the APSIM model was highly accurate for simulating spring wheat yield; the determinant coefficient, normalized root mean square error, and model consistency index were 0.95, 27.36%, and 0.91, respectively. Furthermore, the yield of spring wheat first increased and then decreased with increases in precipitation or nitrogen application. The maximum mean yield (5 406.64 kg·ha–1) was observed at 20% precipitation and a nitrogen application rate of 157.5 kg·ha–1. However, according to the curve fitting equation for yield variation, yield would be maximized (5 988 kg·ha–1) at 55% precipitation and a nitrogen application rate of 257.25 kg·ha–1.
Advances in nutritional value and bioactive substances in forage shrubs in the Yungui area
HU Tinghua, YU Yingwen, XU Zhen, MAO Wenya, MU Jingxuan
2019, 36(9): 2351-2364. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0291
[Abstract](1793) [FullText HTML] (1102) [PDF 631KB](45)
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The forage shrub is a major plant protein food for livestock and poultry with high protein, low fiber, high minerals, and good palatability, and plays an important role in grassland animal husbandry. We summarized the common forage shrub species and their nutritional value and bioactive substances in the Yunnan-guizhou region, as well as the medicinal value of several kinds of forage shrubs. Meanwhile, we also reviewed the high nutritional value and systematic forage shrubs. The results indicated that the crude protein contents of shrubs of Indigofera, Albizzia, Sophora, and Amorpha of Leguminosae, and the Broussonetia of Moraceae in this region is >20%, which belong to high-protein fodder; the crude protein:crude fibre of Morus mongolica and M. australis is <1, and their palatability is better; the shrubs of Desmodiumthe, Bauhinia, and Indigofera of Leguminosae, Rubus and Cotoneaster of Rosaceae, and Morus of Moraceae are high-quality mineral fodder; the shrubs of Leguminosae’s Sophor are high amino acid fodder; the shrubs of Buddleia and Brucaceae of Loganiaceae, Rubus, Rosa, and Pyracantha of Rosaceae, and Gutiferae’s Hypericum are rich in flavonoids, tannins, and other bioactive substances, which have antibacterial, antioxidant, and other medicinal values. Based on the above, the main research areas for herbage shrubs in the future are as follows: to decrease the effect of antinutritional factors in forage shrubs, to strengthen the domesticated wild forage shrubs, to develop scientific fodder production technology, and to clear the main genera’s bioactive components and pharmacological values, which will provide some practical guidelines for the reasonable development and utilization of forage shrubs and animal husbandry development in the Yunnan-guizhou region.
Evaluation of the nutritional value of mulberry leaves fed to Yunnan Yunling cattle
WANG Ningwei, HUANG Xianzhi, LIU Jianyong, HUANG Bizhi, SHEN Yihong
2019, 36(9): 2365-2373. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0623
[Abstract](1600) [FullText HTML] (848) [PDF 516KB](28)
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The content of routine nutrients, amino acids, and anti-nutrition factors present in mulberry leaves (Morus alba) was analysed using a chemical analysis method to evaluate its feed value. The degradation rates of the dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), and acid detergent fibre (ADF) of mulberry leaves were determined using the nylon-bag technique. The results showed that the crude protein in mulberry leaves is 22.50% and thus it can be used as a protein source in feed. The effective degradation rates of the nutrients in mulberry leaves were CP 65.02%, ADF 48.39%, NDF 56.42%, DM 58.56%, and OM 59.42%, respectively. There were 17 kinds of amino acids detected in mulberry leaves; the essential amino acid (EAA)/toll amino acid (TAA) was 0.427 and the essential amino acid (EAA)/non-essential amino acid (NEAA) was 0.746. The closeness degree (μ) was only 0.524, and the score of ratio coefficient of amino acid (SRCAA) was only 65.02. The anti-nutritional factors in mulberry leaves were polysaccharides, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, phytic acid, DNJ, and oxalic acid. In conclusion, mulberry leaves showed high nutritional value and could be used as a protein feed. The imbalance of amino acids and the problem of anti-nutritional factors in feed necessitates adequate consideration.
Effectiveness of bio-medicaments against oat powdery mildew
SUN Haoyang, ZHANG Weiwei, ZENG Liang, CHAI Jikuan, JIAO Run’an, JIN Xiaowen, GONG Wenlong, LI Rong, ZHAO Guiqin
2019, 36(9): 2374-2383. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0530
[Abstract](1257) [FullText HTML] (682) [PDF 754KB](13)
Abstract:
In order to compare the effectiveness of seven bio-control fungicides against natural oat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae) infections, a field experiment was conducted in Huajialing Township, Tongwei County, Gansu Province, China. At 7 d after the 1st application, the biocontrol agents were generally less effective than either of the chemical fungicides (triazolone and myclobutanil), and only matrine and physcion provided sufficient control (85.01% and 83.93%, respectively). At 7 d after the 2nd application, the effectiveness of each biocontrol agent was better than at 7 d after the 1st application, and physcion and Bacillus subtilis provided the greatest level of control (91.82 and 91.46%, respectively). At 20 d after the 2nd application, physcion provided the greatest level of control (85.12%), which was greater than provided by either of the chemical fungicides, triazolone (80.60%) and myclobutanil (84.12%), and there was no significant difference in the control provided by the chemical fungicides and that provided by osthole, B. subtilis, or matrine. Furthermore, plants treated with the biocontrol agents yielded significantly greater flag leaf chlorophyll content, 1 000-grain weight, and seed yield, with 0.5% physcion treatment yielding the best results, also with 0.5% physcion treatment the seed yield increased by 16.77% compared with the control. These results indicated that biological fungicides were slightly less effective against oat powdery mildew at 7 d after the 1st application but were more persistent. Furthermore, 0.5% physcion was an effective control agent against B. graminis f. sp. avenae with regard to control efficacy, persistence, and seed yield. In the early onset spraying pesticides on plants and spraying the 2nd time interval 7 d, could effectively control occurrence of powdery mildew, achieve to ensure the production and reduce economic losses.
Verticillium wilt of alfalfa: Occurrence, perniciousness, and detection
Suonancuo, HUANG Yuanzhi, LI Yanzhong, YU Binhua
2019, 36(9): 2384-2394. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0438
[Abstract](2699) [FullText HTML] (827) [PDF 1150KB](30)
Abstract:
Verticillium wilt of alfalfa (VWA) is a devastating fungal disease caused by Verticillium alfalfa resulting in considerable economic loss for the alfalfa industry in Europe and North America, and is a national quarantine disease in China. In China, VWA was discovered in Xinjiang and Gansu Province in 1998 and 2014, respectively. This article summarises the systematics and morphology of V. alfalfae and describes the disease cycle, epidemic pattern, loss, diagnosis, control technology, spreading and occurrence, and the risk of VWA. Finally, it prospects further research in the future.
Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes: Mechanism and its application in ruminants
YAN Baipeng, LI Fadi, LI Fei
2019, 36(9): 2395-2403. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0724
[Abstract](1260) [FullText HTML] (726) [PDF 564KB](24)
Abstract:
Enzyme is the mainly product of secretion from bacterial and fungal microbial, which has high catalytic efficiency, high selectivity, non-toxic and harmless. It is of decisive significance to improve the feed conversion ration and reduce the cultivating costs on enzyme preparation supplementation in diets. Studies on enzyme preparation have mainly focused on non-ruminant animals, which the results shown that enzyme preparation supplementation in diets can significantly improve growth performance, nutrient digestibility and body immunity. Ruminants have the complex digestive system, which the mechanism of enzyme preparation supplementation in diets remain unclear, all these prevent the research progress in ruminal nutrition. This article reviewed the mechanism of action of enzyme preparations and its application in ruminant production, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation and microbial flora, which aimed to provide references for the further research.
Optimization of the management of the livestock population structure and analysis of its influencing factors in four typical animal husbandry counties of northwest Sichuan
CHEN Xiaoxia, SUN Feida, SHI Fusun, LIU Lin, XU Zejun, ZHANG Caibin, LI Fei, LIAO Libin, GAO Juanting
2019, 36(9): 2404-2412. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0643
[Abstract](1018) [FullText HTML] (588) [PDF 846KB](17)
Abstract:
The population characteristics of livestock, family composition of herdsman, and management of livestock slaughter are important factors that influence the optimization of the management of the livestock structure in traditional pastoral areas. In this study, we performed comprehensive analyses on the livestock population characteristics, composition of herdsman families, and management indices of livestock slaughtering in August 2018 in four typical animal husbandry counties of northwest Sichuan, including Ruoergai, Hongyuan, Aba, and Rangtang, based on 20 townships and 124 pastoral households. The results showed that, excluding Ruoergai county, sheep were the main livestock. The highest reproducing ratio of female yaks and sheep in Rangtang county was 66.63% and 68.26%, respectively, while the lowest in Ruoergai county was 48.23% and 51.67%, respectively. In terms of the reproduction rate, the highest reproduction rates of yaks and sheep in Ruoergai county were 46.04% and 63.26%, respectively, whilst in Rangtang county they were 35.51% and 63.67%. On the contrary, the lowest reproduction rates of yak and sheep in Aba and Hongyuan county, with 31.36%, 46.21%and 40.07%, 43.30% respectively.Men aged from 32 to 38 years old were the main herding labor force in a typical animal husbandry county, and their degree of education was generally low. The largest ratios of illiteracy and primary school education were 31.29% and 46.51%, respectively, while the lowest ratio of college education, junior college, or above was 4.96%. In terms of the management of livestock slaughter, the slaughter time of sheep in Aba county was more than 1 year, which is within a reasonable range. However, the slaughter time of yaks and sheep in other counties is relatively long, the slaughter rate is relatively low, and the largest slaughter rate was only 21.08% in Hongyuan county. Therefore, encouraging the development of education in pastoral areas, adjusting the structure of livestock, and accelerating the turnover of livestock populations are crucial to the optimization of livestock structures and the sustainable development of animal husbandry.
Mixed ratios and additives affect the quality of peanut vines and whole-plant corn in mixed silages
WANG Siwei, LI Kuiying, ZHANG Haina, LI Yuanying, SHI Shaoqing, WANG Kun
2019, 36(9): 2413-2422. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0567
[Abstract](2792) [FullText HTML] (1653) [PDF 570KB](40)
Abstract:
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of mixed ratios and additives on the quality of mixed silages containing peanut vines and whole-plant corn. One peanut vine silage, one corn silage, and three mixed ratio silages containing peanut vines and whole-plant corn were examined in this study. The mass ratio of peanut vine to whole-plant corn was 1∶3, 1∶1, 3∶1 in mixed silages. The control group, composite additive group, and Lactobacillus group were placed in all silages, and each group had three replicates. The silage quality of each group was measured after 60 days at ambient temperature. Results showed that the colour and total score of mixed silages decreased significantly with increasing peanut vine ratios (P < 0.01). The pH of the composite additive group was significantly lower than in the Lactobacillus and control group (P < 0.01). The ammonia nitrogen/total nitrogen of mixed silages decreased and lactic acid and propionic acid increased when two kinds of additives were used (P < 0.05). With increasing proportions of peanut vines, pH, ammonia nitrogen/total nitrogen, and acetic acid increased significantly (P < 0.01), while lactic acid, propionic acid, and total acid decreased significantly (P < 0.01). Water soluble carbohydrates increased significantly after adding compound additives (P < 0.01). With increasing peanut vine ratios, crude protein, ether extract, water soluble carbohydrate, and relative feed value decreased significantly (P < 0.01), while Acid detergent fiber (ADF) and ash content increased significantly (P < 0.01). We conclude that a peanut vine to whole plant corn ratio of 1∶3 is the optimal proportion for mixed silages, providing a similar silage quality to that of silage corn. Silage compound additives can improve the quality of peanut vine and whole-plant corn mixed silages.
An empirical study of the Gansu agricultural structure adjustment based on supply-side reform
ZHOU Zhenying, WANG Yue, LIN Huilong
2019, 36(9): 2423-2432. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0540
[Abstract](1321) [FullText HTML] (796) [PDF 749KB](53)
Abstract:
With the improvement of Chinese national income and consumption levels, the national food consumption structure has changed. Gansu is a typical agricultural and pastoral province; thus, it is important to determine ways to adapt to the change in the current food structure and future food demands. In this study, we systematically analysed the current agricultural production structure and changes in food consumption in Gansu Province using survey data from the Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Hall and the statistical data of the Yearbook. Results show that the current grain planting area accounts for 65% of the cultivated land area in Gansu Province. Pork production accounted for 53.55% of pig, beef, and mutton production, and the agricultural production structure of Gansu Province is still dominated by 'pig-grain'. We found that the food consumption structure in Gansu Province has changed in the past 10 years. The average annual per capita consumption of wheat raw grain decreased by 4.28%, the average annual growth of per capita consumption of pork and beef and mutton increased by 0.23%. The consumption of beef and mutton in meat had a 9.74% substitution effect on pork. One option for structural adjustment in Gansu is to develop grassland agriculture. Here, we provide practical suggestions for adjusting the agricultural structure in Gansu Province. Based on conclusions from this study, we suggest that Gansu Province should first focus on supply-side reform in agricultural structure adjustment and optimization. This can be achieved by promoting the adjustment of planting structure, particularly concerning grain choices in feed. We also suggest building forage and foddering bases with diverse varieties. Finally, an herbivorous animal husbandry structure mainly composed of cattle and sheep should be established to adapt to the change of food consumption structure.
Exploration of the teaching reform and innovative practices in biological control of plant diseases
ZHANG Shuwu, XUE Yingyu, LIU Jia, XU Bingliang
2019, 36(9): 2433-2440. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0342
[Abstract](1001) [FullText HTML] (604) [PDF 466KB](21)
Abstract:
Biological control of plant diseases is an emerging topic in recent years and it is closely related to the concept of green and sustainable development agriculture. This study explored methods for teaching reform and practice innovation using a combination of the current state of agricultural production, the frontiers in developing and characterizing biological control methods of plant disease, as well as, requirements for training the technical personnel. The present study mainly reinforced the designing of teaching resources as well as innovative teaching methodologies, and raised the student's practical ability. In addition, it aims to reform the examination system, which is the core element, to bring about teaching reforms and to practice innovation for the course on biological control of plant disease. Our teaching reform and innovation practices have demonstrated that the improved curriculum motivates the students to study proactively, enhances the students' practical ability, and improves the students’ satisfaction as well as quality of teaching. Finally, our teaching reform and innovation will further promote the students to master the methods of biological control of plant diseases, and enhance the ability to solve the problems in actual production using the knowledge.
Effect of humic acid sodium composite adsorbent adsorption of Zearalenone
XU Jing, QI Desheng
2019, 36(9): 2441-2447. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0134
[Abstract](3697) [FullText HTML] (930) [PDF 470KB](139)
Abstract:
Using an in vitro test, humic acid sodium composite was tested using different adsorbents. The optimal proportion of the two adsorbents making up the composite was tested using the best composite G, and the effect of different factors (buffer pH, temperature, processing time, the amount of compound G used to add volume, initial concentration, and alkali gibberellic ketene corn analysis) on the absorption, were studied. Results show that 1) when testing several kinds of sorbents, the humic acid sodium and activated carbon composite was the best adsorbent, with a detoxification effect as high as 95.17% and a resolution ratio of about 4.94%. The humic acid sodium adsorption rate of zearalenone (ZEN) seedlings was only 79.53%. The detoxification effect was better when using the composite humic acid sodium and activated carbon, and compounds made of composite G and the ZEN form were very stable. 2) We found that the adsorption rate increased by increasing the pH of the solution at 37 ℃ and adding 0.15% of adsorbent G to reach the adsorption equilibrium at 60 min. The highest adsorption was observed at pH = 7~8. 3) Initial concentration of ZEN has a significant effect on the detoxification of ZEN by absorbent G. For the detoxification of ZEN by adsorbent G, the data was better fitted to the Freundlich equation.
Development problems and countermeasures of electronic commerce for characteristic agricultural products of Tianshui City
CHEN Liling, WANG Le, FAN Wangni
2019, 36(9): 2448-2455. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0214
[Abstract](1118) [FullText HTML] (1219) [PDF 420KB](15)
Abstract:
This article investigates the development dilemma of individuals and the institution of network sales of characteristic agricultural products in Tianshui City, Gansu Province. Many factors influencing the development of characteristic agricultural products of Tianshui were identified. In addition, questionnaires were designed based on the influencing factors. SPSS was used to analyze the factors affecting the development of e-commerce of characteristic local agricultural products based on data gathered from the survey questionnaires. The influencing factors, from strong to weak, were object factors, platform factors, environment factors, subject factors, and media factors. Furthermore, the development countermeasure that corresponds to the current local situation is proposed.