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Comprehensive vegetation coverage of grasslands (CVCG, referred to as G) is an important ecological indicator reflecting the ecological status of a grassland. It is also an assessment index for China’s ecological civilization construction. In order to better apply CVCG to the practice of China’s ecological civilization construction, this paper expounds the concept and connotations of CVGG, introduces the method to calculate CVCG in detail, and raises precautions and suggestions for improving calculation accuracy.
By investigating herbage resources and continuously monitoring trends in herbage productivity, the productivity and dominant species of forage in different types of forest grass in Jiangxi were analyzed. Monitoring at the biomass peak periods of herbage revealed that good forage yields were obtained in all types of forest grassland. The hay yield was 1 085～4 650 kg·ha–1, with an average of 2 027 kg·ha–1, and the livestock carrying capacity was 3.1 sheep units per hectare. Annual dynamic monitoring showed a clear trend the annual forage yield trend of forest grassland. The forage yield in early June was approximately 1/3 of the annual yield, and the forage yield during the fast-growing periods (approximately July 30) was 69.3%～76.2%. The forage yield during peak growth periods (Mid-June to early September) was approximately 50% of that during the off seasons in November to April of the following year. Hay production was 11.991 million tons from 4.67 million hectares of available forest grassland in Jiangxi, giving an herbage utilization rate of only 36.7%. Thus, the utilization potential of forest grassland and benefits of using a forest–grass–livestock model are high.
An experiment was performed in winter and spring-autumn pastures of Gansu wapiti in Gansu Province, Sunan Yugu National Autonomous County, using six different grazing gradient plots. The wild fixed-point sampling observation method was used to study the interaction of grassland soil moisture with biomass under the influence of different grazing gradients. The results showed that there were significant negative correlations between soil moisture and grazing rate in both winter and spring-autumn pastures in the Qilian Mountains (P < 0.01). There was a significant positive correlation between winter pasture biomass and soil moisture (P < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation (P < 0.01) between underground biomass and soil moisture in spring-autumn pasture. A structural model showed that soil moisture of winter pastures had the greatest effect on aboveground biomass, and that soil moisture had a significant indirect effect on the root and shoot ratio through aboveground biomass. The underground biomass of spring-autumn pasture had the greatest effect on the root and shoot ratio, and soil moisture had a significant indirect effect on root and shoot ratio through underground biomass.
Spatial heterogeneity in a grassland ecosystem is associated with grassland species diversity and production stability. Understanding the drivers and mechanisms of grassland spatial heterogeneity is essential for the development of best practices in grassland management. To our knowledge, patch-scale spatial heterogeneity of the grassland communities on the steppes on the Mongolian Plateau has not been investigated to date. Here, we investigated the spatial variation of plant communities and soil properties in 216 sites in a rectangular area of 13.5 hm2 in a typical steppe dominated by Stipa grandis and Leymus chinensis in Inner Mongolia. Our results showed that plant community patches at these sites could be clustered into four groups, dominated by S. grandis, L. chinensis, Salsola collina, or jointly by S. grandis, L. chinensis, and Cleistogenes squarrosa (mixed patch). The differences in the species compositions among these patches indicated an enhancement of species diversity due to spatial heterogeneity. Soil bulk density, organic carbon (SOC), and nutrients (total nitrogen, TN; total phosphorous, TP) and pH differed among the 4 patch types (P < 0.05), but soil moisture did not (P > 0.05), which suggests that soil nutrients and bulk density are associated with the spatial heterogeneity of plant communities. The differences in soil bulk density and nutrients among these patch types are most likely related to the heterogeneity of grazing impacts at the patch scale. The grassland patches dominated by perennial S. grandis had higher SOC, TN, and TP, and lower soil bulk density than those of patches dominated by annual S. collina. The low nutrient content of the S. collina patches suggests that the growth of dominant species, S. grandis and L. chinensis, was limited on these patches, which provided a favorable condition for the fast growth of annuals such as S. collina using the pulse of water and nutrients following the summer rainfall. Our research provides new insights into the spatial heterogeneity of steppe grasslands, and is helpful for conservation and sustainable management of the steppes.
To explore an appropriate ecological recovery technology for mine dumps, a quantitative ecological sampling survey method was used to conduct a field survey of the vegetation community in five dumps in different recovery years in Panzhihua V-Ti-Magnetite zone. The vegetation species of each mine dump was recorded, and then importance value, community diversity, evenness, and community similarity were measured. Thirty-six types of plant species were identified in the mine dumps. Among the plant species, Gramineae was the largest group, followed by Compositae and Leguminosae. Herbaceous such as Heteropogon contortus, Phragmites australis, and Suaeda glauca showed the greatest superiority degrees and were tolerant to metal mine dumps. Herb-based shrubs were the dominant community type in the early stage of vegetation restoration in the mine dumps. During recovery and succession, the number and diversity of species showed an increasing trend during the initial stage, and then a decrease over time. Additionally, an interspecific competition relationship was discovered among different species. Significant differences were found among the vegetation communities of mine dumps in different recovery years.
Changes in temperature and precipitation in typical ecological function areas of the Qinghai Plateau from 2019 to 2050 were studied using representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The results showed that the average annual temperatures of five ecological functional zones increase under the RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 , and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Under RCP 2.6 and RCP 4.5, the annual precipitation in the Hehuang area shows a decreasing trend, while those in other regions show an increasing trend. In the scenario of RCP 8.5, the annual precipitations in the five ecological function areas showed an increasing trend. Through annual analysis, the average temperature will peak in 2040 to 2049 under RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, and will increase by 2.0 to 2.1 ℃ and 2.4 to 2.5 ℃ in 2040 to 2049 under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively. The Mann-Kendall (M-K) test, found that the average annual temperatures of the five ecological function areas in the RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5 scenarios all showed sharp changes, but at different times. The precipitation changes occured in different years under the three scenarios in the Chaidamu basin Basin area. The precipitation changes occur under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 in the Qinghai Lake area. The precipitation changes occur under RCP 4.5 in the Qilian Mountain area. The precipitation changes occur under RCP 2.6 in the Hehuang area. The precipitation changes occur under RCP 8.5 scenario for the Sanjiangyuan area. According to the accumulation of anomalies test anomalies, under the RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5 scenarios, the cumulative average temperatures and precipitations of the five ecological function areas show an upward trend, indicating high temperature and precipitation levels from 2019 to 2050. From 1971 to 2000, the temperature and precipitation of the five ecological function areas showed an increasing trend, and the warming rates of the five ecological function areas in the medium- and high- emission scenarios were higher than that of the reference year. The rate of increase of precipitation in the base year of the four ecological function zones, except for the Hehuang area is less than that in the next 30 years under the three emission scenarios. In these warm and humid environments, the growth of herbage(crops) will be affected, which will affect the development of animal husbandry and agriculture.
The study of drought risk is a hot topic in environmental research. We selected Gannan Prefecture as the study area and combining GIS spatial analysis and statistical methods, we calculated the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) from the years 1955 to 2014 in the study area; the SPEI was selected as the optimum time scale for monitoring drought in the alpine meadows of Gannan Prefecture. In addition, based on the SPEI index and drought risk probability model, ecological risk assessment due to drought was conducted. Four major results were observed. 1) SPEI6 is the optimal value for monitoring alpine meadows based on the SPEI index. 2) The results of Morlet continuous wavelet analysis showed that there was a significant " dry–wet” change in the alpine meadow of the study area within a short period of 3–6 years. 3) In terms of spatial distribution, the occurrence of drought in the growing season of the alpine meadows was mainly in the eastern part of Gannan Prefecture in the past 15 years, while the frequency of drought in the western part has been relatively low. Overall, the frequency of drought in the entire study area has gradually reduced over the past 15 years. 4) The areas with a high risk of drought in the future were located in the south of Luqu county and the south of Maqu county, especially around the Maqu wetland. The results of this study can provide a useful reference for related research on the ecological safety of meadow resources.
To alleviate the current paclobutrazol overuse in Ophiopogon japonicus, a two-factor randomized block experiment was carried out in Santai county, Mianyang city to compare the effects of three kinds of plant growth retardants, namely paclobutrazol (PP333, 2.5 g·L–1), uniconazole (S3307, 2 g·L–1), and mepiquat (DPC, 0.05 g·L–1), along with minute adjustments in fertilizer formula, on the agronomic traits, yield, total saponins, and total polysaccharides of O. japonicus. The results showed that minute changes in the fertilizer formula had no significant effects on the growth of O. japonicus (P > 0.05), and application of a plant growth retardant, except DPC, could increase the yield of O. japonicus. The applications of PP333 and S3307 increased the yield of O. japonicus by about 37.03% and 16.65%, respectively, compared with control. Application of S3307 significantly increased the total polysaccharide content of O. japonicus, by about 25.45% (P < 0.05), which was greater than the increase caused by PP333 and DPC. The three plant growth retardants significantly reduced the total saponin content of O. japonicus. Correlation analysis revealed that PP333 and S3307 mainly increased the yield of O. japonicus by reducing the accumulation of dry matter in the aerial parts and promoting root swelling. The best production measures for top dressing application was using nitrogen fertilizer at 1 382.4 kg·ha–1, phosphate fertilizer at 6 004.8 kg·ha–1, and potassium fertilizer at 1 252.8 kg·ha–1, in combination with spraying S3307, according to the grey relation-DTOPSIS comprehensive evaluation analysis. Those results indicated that the application of S3307 in the production of O. japonicus can effectively reduce the harm caused by PP333 application without affecting the interests of farmers.
NAC is one of the largest transcription factor families unique to plants, and plays an important role in regulating plant growth and development and responding to abiotic stress. In this study, the ZjNAC2 gene was cloned from Zoysia japonica using the RACE method. Its coding region is 1 110 bp in length, encoding 369 amino acids. Conserved domain analysis showed that the ZjNAC2 has a typical NAM domain at the N-terminus, indicating that ZjNAC2 belongs to the NAC transcription family. At the same time, the 1 574 bp promoter sequence was obtained using a genome walking method. Cis-elements prediction demonstrated that there were many different response elements within the promoter, such as ABA and abiotic stress-responsive cis-elements. Subcellular localization results showed that ZjNAC2 was located in the nucleus. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that ZjNAC2 was expressed most abundantly in roots and was significantly enriched in senescent leaves. In addition, ZjNAC2 expression was inhibited by 200 μmol·L–1 ET, 10 μmol·L–1 MeJA, 10 μmol·L–1 ABA, or 20% PEG4000, but induced by 300 mmol·L–1 NaCl treatment. This study demonstrates that ZjNAC2 is an important transcription factor which could be involved in multiple signaling pathways. The present study paves the way to further study the functions of ZjNAC2 in Zoysia japonica.
Three soil types, including sandy soil, residual soil of weathered bedrock, and sierozem were used to equip a device to control rainfall and monitor the growth and survival of Artemisia scoparia for two consecutive years. The results showed that the survival curve of A. scoparia populations was similar to that of a Deevey type I curve, having a convex shape. From the interannual perspective, there was a significant difference in the number of A. scoparia between years. The number of A. scoparia in 2018 was higher than that in 2017. The number of populations reached the peak in July. According to soil type, the survival rate and cumulative survival rate of A. scoparia populations in the sierozem habitat were higher than those in the sandy soil and residual soil of weathered bedrock. Regarding the amount of rainfall, in sandy soil, the standardized survival of populations in increased rainfall treatment was higher than that in normal and decreased rainfall treatments in 2017, but the opposite was true in 2018. The standardized survival of populations in the increased rainfall treatments was lower in weathered bedrock and sierozem habitats. These results were mainly caused by precipitation and intraspecific competition. In conclusion, the survival number of A. scoparia populations was higher in the sierozem habitat. Furthermore, precipitation affected the survival of A. scoparia to a certain degree. In years with more rainfall, the intraspecific competition of the A. scoparia population increased, which reduced the population survival.
Common vetch (Vicia sativa) is an important legume forage and green manure crop in China's grassland agricultural system. In this article, the advances in research on the distribution and damage, pathogens, disease cycles, and control strategies of V. sativa non-fungal diseases are summarized. By the end of the year 2017, there were 38 non-fungal diseases reported for this legume forage worldwide: 4 bacterial diseases, 5 viral diseases, 24 nematode diseases, and 5 parasitic seed plant diseases. These diseases occurred in 15 countries, including China, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Morocco. Diseases caused by Pratylenchus coffeae and Meloidogyne hapla only occurred in China. To date, evaluation of loss, life cycle, and management of diseases, such as chocolate spot, leaf roll, and those caused by mosaic virus and nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne arenaria, and Pratylenchus penetrans, has been performed at various levels; however, there have been few studies on other diseases. In the future, we should strengthen the research on diseases caused by other pathogens, and increase the integration of studies on diseases of V. sativa and other crops.
Low temperature is one of the important limiting factors affecting plant growth. The chilling resistances of six Elymus germplasms were evaluated, and, after 8, 16, and 24 days of chilling treatment (5 ℃), plants were harvested and their relative membrane permeability, relative water content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, chlorophyll content, accumulation of osmotic regulation substances and antioxidant enzyme activities, and change rates (measured value under low temperature treatment/measured value under control) were analyzed and compared. The aim of this work was to explore the differences in cold resistance among the plant materials used, to provide a theoretical basis for the selection of Elymus lanceolata germplasm in alpine regions. The results showed that, in the process of low-temperature treatment for 24 days, all the six tested materials showed different degrees of cold adaptability. Through subordinate function analysis of the changes in relative plasmalemma permeability, relative water content, and MDA and chlorophyll content, it was found that 12-9-1, 11-6, and 09-214 which grow at high altitudes could maintain their water and chlorophyll content by maintaining low relative membrane permeabilities and high osmotic adjustment abilities under chilling stress to exhibit a stronger chilling resistance.
The percent seed germination, germination index, radical length, and plumule length of Achnatherum inebrians seeds and seedlings of the Yuzhong and Alax ecotypes were measured in treatments with different temperatures (10 ℃/20 ℃、15 ℃/25 ℃和20 ℃/30 ℃, all under a 12/12 h light/dark cycle), light conditions (24 h light and 24 h dark), and PEG (polyethylene glycol) concentrations (0, –0.3, –0.6, and –0.9 MPa). The results showed that 15 ℃/25 ℃ was the most suitable temperature for the seed germination of both Achnatherum inebrians ecotypes. The generation rate and index, radical length, and plumule length of these two ecotypes significantly decreased under treatments with increasing PEG stress levels. Under the combined action of all three factors, the radical length and plumule length of the Alax ecotype of Achnatherum inebrians were greater than those of the Yuzhong ecotype.
This study was conducted to evaluate new lines of Leymus secalinus ‘Yanbei’ for their production performance and biological characteristics. Wild L. secalinus and L. chinensis ‘Nongjing No.4’ were selected as controls, and various comparison experiments were conducted for 3 years at the experimental site of Shanxi Agricultural University (Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine experimental station at the Practaculture Science experimental site), Taigu County, Shanxi Province. The results showed that the yield of L. secalinus ‘Yanbei’ was the highest, with an average yield of 10 125 kg∙ha–1 in 3 years and 109 cm in the vegetative shoot, which was significantly higher than that of other varieties (P < 0.05). Seed production was 145 kg∙ha–1, which was 56.4% higher than the wild species. L. secalinus ‘Yanbei’ showed the longest leaf length and protein content (9.46%). All test indices were analyzed using the grey relational degree method. The characteristics of the test varieties were: L. secalinus ‘Yanbei’ > wild L. secalinus ‘Youyu’ > wild L. secalinus ‘Hunyuan’ > L. chinensis ‘Nongjing No.4’.
The dry matter yield, soil fertility, and economic output of different rotation systems of common vetch (Vicia sativa) were studied under field conditions in the Tibetan Plateau in the Lhasa region for two consecutive years. The treatments used in this study were fallow – Hordeum vulgare – fallow (F–H–F), rape (Brassica napus) – Hordeum vulgare – rape (R–H–R), common vetch – Hordeum vulgare – common vetch (V–H–V), common vetch – Hordeum vulgare – rape (V–H–R), and rape – common vetch – rape (R–V–R). The results showed that the highest yields were observed with V–H–R and R–H–R (27.24 and 26.89 t·ha–1, respectively). There was a significant difference in total crude protein production between the rotation systems (P < 0.05), and the R–H–R system had the highest, at 3.68 t·ha–1. The V–H–V and V–H–R systems with Lanjian No. 1 had higher average soil total N content than that of the F–H–F and R–H–R systems, which increased by 134.9%, 19.6%, 115.6%, and 9.8%, respectively. The differences in soil organic carbon content among the rotation systems were not significant. The systems with the highest economic output values were V–H–V and V–H–R, at 44 284 and 41 444 CNY·ha–1, respectively. Therefore, spring common vetch provides excellent forage for relieving forage shortage in livestock husbandry of the Tibetan Plateau, and has great potential.
An investigation of the elemental nutrient residual rate of Cartagena korshinskii shrub litter was conducted using the litter bag method (4, 2, 0.01 mm) in Yanchi County, Ningxia. The results showed: 1) At 210 days, there was a " release” of litter N and K, whereas there was an " accumulation” of litter P and cellulose in C. korshinskii shrub litter within litter bags with three size meshes. Regarding lignin, there was an " accumulation” in the large shrub microhabitats, whereas there was a " release” in the microhabitats with very small-, small-, and medium-sized shrubs in the 0.01 mm mesh litter bags only. 2) There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences in residual rate in the litter between three types of meshes in the microhabitats of small, medium, and large-sized shrubs. In the microhabitats of very small-sized shrubs, however, the residual rate of litter N, P, and K was in the order of 0.01 mm (–32.99%, 121.03%, –2.04%) > 4 mm (–63.64%, 14.31%, –6.95%) > 2 mm (–75.47%, 9.79%, –36.32%), that of lignin was 0.01 mm (–10.56%) > 2 mm (–46.18%) > 4 mm (–49.59%), and that of cellulose was 2 mm (160.44%) > 4 mm (97.80%) > 0.01 mm (21.56%). It was concluded that there were similar changes in litter nutrient elements N, K, P, and cellulose in microhabitats of very small, small, medium, and large shrubs in all three mesh sizes. However, there were interactive effects of soil faunal groups and shrub canopy sizes on litter lignin following the decomposition process in desertified grassland ecosystems of Ningxia.
To study the effects of different proportions of stems and leaves of Amomum villosum in the diet of Guangdong Leizhou black goats on growth performance and blood biochemical indexes, 20 goats were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups (CK, Ⅰ, Ⅱ, and Ⅲ), with 5 black goats per group. The control group (CK) was fed with a standard premixed diet. The test Ⅰ, Ⅱ, and Ⅲ groups were fed with 5 %, 10 %, and 20 % of King grass, respectively, which was replaced by an equal quantity of fresh A. villosum along with a constant basal diet. The trial period was 60 days. It was found that there was a significantly higher average daily feed intake (ADFI) and average daily gain (ADG) in the test Ⅰ and Ⅱ and CK groups than in the test Ⅲ group (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between the CK and test Ⅲ group (P > 0.05). Feed to gain of the test Ⅱ group was significantly lower than that of the control and other test groups (P < 0.05). The glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of the test Ⅲ group was significantly higher than that of the CK group (P < 0.05); other blood biochemical indexes were not significantly different in the other test groups (P > 0.05). In summary, 10% was the optimal proportion of stems and leaves of A. villosum, as a Chinese herbal medicine and source of roughage, in the daily diet of Leizhou black goats. The results will provide a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of the stems and leaves of A. villosum as forage.
Understanding the response characteristics of wetland soil fauna under elevated CO2 concentrations is fundamental to wetland biodiversity conservation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of high CO2 concentrations (370, 550, and 700 ppm) on the soil fauna of a Calamagrostis angustifolia wetland in the Sanjiang Plain. Experiments were conducted in an open top chamber using the Tullgren and Baermann funnels to extract soil animals. The results showed that: 1) a total of 4, 985 soil fauna belonging to 62 groups (statistics presented to the family level except for Acerentomata; statistics for larvae and adults presented separately) from 7 classes in 13 orders were obtained and they showed significant differences under different CO2 concentrations (P < 0.05). 2) With the increase in CO2 concentrations, the abundance of soil fauna increased and the Pielou index decreased significantly (P < 0.05), but no significant changes were observed in the Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, and Margalef indexes (P > 0.05). 3) With the increase in CO2 concentrations, the abundance of omnivorous and saprophagous functional groups increased significantly (P < 0.05), but the abundance and group number of phytophagous and predatory functional groups exhibited no significant change (P > 0.05). 4) Redundancy analysis revealed the relationship between the total number of soil fauna and soil organic matter, soil total phosphorus, and Calamagrostis angustifolia biomass with significant correlation (P < 0.05) observed between them. However, the total number of soil fauna had an insignificant effect on other soil environmental factors (P > 0.05). It is obvious that Calamagrostis angustifolia biomass, soil organic matter, and soil total phosphorus affect the abundance distribution and the distribution characteristics of functional groups of soil meso- and micro-fauna in the Sanjiang Plain.
The objective of the study is to evaluate the optimal method for potato pulp silage (Solanum tuberosum) preparation. Three mixing treatments were performed with pure potato pulp (PP), potato pulp mixed with ground corn (PC), or with oat hay meal (PG). Lactobacillus (LAB) was added or not added during silage making. Distilled water was added as a control (CK). The silage samples were collected for further analysis after 30 days. The following results were obtained. 1) The crude protein (CP) contents of PG treatment were significantly reduced compared to PG and PP treatments (P < 0.05), while no significant difference was observed between PP and PC treatments (P > 0.05). 2) The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents of PP, PC, and PG treatments were significantly higher than CK (P < 0.05). After adding LAB, the contents of NDF in PP and PC treatments and the contents of ADF in PG treatment were significantly lower than CK (P < 0.05). The highest NDF and ADF contents were shown in PG treatment (P < 0.05). 3) The relative feed value (RFV) of PP and PC treatments was significantly higher than PG (P < 0.05). 4) Compared with the original sample of potato starch residue, the variation in pH of silage samples decreased, and the lactic acid content increased significantly (P < 0.05). The pH of PC silage was significantly lower than that of PP and PG silage. After adding LAB, the pH of PC silage and the propionate contents of PG silage decreased, and the total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) contents of PG silage increased significantly (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the optimum silage treatment for potato pulp is to mix with ground corn. The addition of LAB can promote the silage fermentation quality.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of tannic acids on the fermentation quality, aerobic stability, and nutrient content of cassava (Manihot esculenta) foliage silage and to determine the optimal tannic acid addition rate. Experimental treatments included a control (CK) and three treatments of different tannic acid addition ratios (0.5%, 1%, 2% of fresh weight). Silos were opened after 30 days of ensiling and fermentation quality, aerobic stability, and chemical composition were analyzed. Results showed that the addition of tannic acids increased lactic acid content (LA), decreased pH and butyric acid content (P < 0.05), and improved aerobic stability relative to the control. In the 1% addition treatment, pH was lower and LA content and silage scores were higher than in other treatments. Additionally, fiber content decreased (P < 0.05), and crude protein (CP) and relative feed value (RFV) of tannic acid treatments increased. We found that the RFV of the 1% addition treatment was significantly higher than in other treatments. In conclusion, tannic acid addition improves the fermentation quality, aerobic stability, and nutrient value of cassava foliage silage, and results suggest that a 1% tannic acid addition is the most appropriate treatment.
To understand the effects of different fermentation times on the quality of pineapple residue silage, we examined pineapple residue in Southern China. Fresh pineapple residue containing 65% to 70% water was selected and placed in a sealed plastic silage container filled with 2 L. After compacting and sealing the lid, the container was kept in a light storage room. Nutrient content was measured, and the relative feeding value was calculated at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days after collection. Results show that the dry matter content of silage pineapple residue was significantly lower than that of fresh pineapple dregs (P < 0.05). With increased fermentation time, DM content increased, and fermentation in fifth week was significantly higher than in second week (P < 0.05). CF, CP, Ash, Ca, and P content in silage pineapple residue was significantly higher than that of new pineapple residue. Fresh pineapple dregs (P < 0.05) decreased with increased fermentation time, with the number of dregs observed in the fifth week and no significant difference from fourth week (P > 0.05). CP content in the fourth week was significantly higher than in the first two weeks (P < 0.05). Ash content was the highest during the second week, but significant differences were not observed. Ca content was the highest in the fourth week (P < 0.05). The pH of silage pineapple residue was significantly lower than that of fresh pineapple residue (P < 0.05). NDF (neutral detergent fiber) and ADF (acid detergent fiber) content was significantly higher than that of fresh pineapple residue (P < 0.05), and pH and NDF were equal (P < 0.05) during the third, fourth, and fifth weeks of fermentation. As fermentation time increased, DMI (dry matter intake), DDM (digestible dry matter), and RFV (relative feeding value) increased. There was no significant difference in DMI, DDM, and RFV between the third and fifth week of fermentation (P > 0.05), but the 3rd, 4th, and 5th weeks were significantly higher than the first two weeks (P < 0.05). In summary, fresh pineapple residue can be used for feeding after 28 days in silage.
Using a pastoral household survey and site-specific normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data, this study was conducted to investigate the impacts of the Grassland Ecological Compensation Policy on grassland and the livelihood of herdsmen in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu, China. The results showed that 1) the Grassland Ecological Compensation Policy increased the living standards of herdsmen; the consumption expenditures increased by 4.6 × 103 CNY and religious expenditure increased by 8.2 × 103 CNY for every 1.0 × 104 CNY increase in the total income of the Grassland Ecological Compensation Policy. 2) In contrast to previous studies, the number of livestock animals increased with increase in the total income of the Grassland Ecological Compensation Policy; the number of livestock animals increased by 293.60 sheep units with every 1.0 × 104 CNY increase in the total income of the Grassland Ecological Compensation Policy. 3) The increase in total income of the Grassland Ecological Compensation Policy also promoted the production input of herdsmen; the expense of renting grassland and purchasing forage increased by 1.05 × 104 and 3.9 × 103, CNY respectively. 4) Because of increased production input, the Grassland Ecological Compensation Policy reduced the actual grazing capacity of the grassland, which promoted the restoration of grassland vegetation, and grazing capacity decreased by 0.34 sheep units·ha–1. The coverage of grassland improved by 2% for every 1.0 × 104 CNY increase in the total income of the Grassland Ecological Compensation Policy.
Flavonoids in astragali radix exert biological health functions actions such as antioxidant and immune-enhancing effects. They are often added to food and feed as immunopotentiators. The effects of ethanol concentration, the solid/liquid ratio, and extraction time on the extraction content of total flavonoids (TFA) from Astragalus membranaceus were evaluated using single factor experiments. Furthermore, the optimum beneficiation and depuration technology of TFA was investigated with HPD722 macroporous resin-polyamide combination method. The results showed that the extraction content of TFA and relative standard deviation (RSD) were 2.78 mg·g–1 and 1.41%, respectively, under the conditions of 70% ethanol concentration, solid/liquid ratio of 1∶17, and an extraction time of 70 min. When TFA were enriched and purified using HPD722 macroporous resin-polyamide, the extraction content of TFA was 311 mg·g–1 and its purity was increased 112 times. As the main component of TFA, the content of calycosin was increased 327 times from 0.13 mg·g–1 to 42.56 mg·g–1 and formononetin was increased 132 times from 0.06 mg·g–1 to 7.89 mg·g–1.