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2019 Vol.36(10)

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2019, 36(10): 1-4.
[Abstract](745) [FullText HTML] (401) [PDF 431KB](5)
Study of vegetation net primary productivity in Gannan based on light use efficiency model
XU Jing, CHEN Di, LI Wenlong, WEI Wei
2019, 36(10): 2455-2465. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0018
[Abstract](1427) [FullText HTML] (819) [PDF 1270KB](28)
As an important index reflecting ecological process, the dynamic changes in vegetation net primary productivity (NPP) play an important role in understanding the carbon cycle of ecosystems and global climatie change. By using RS and GIS techniques, an improved light use efficiency model was used to estimate the vegetation NPP in Gannan from 2011 to 2014. In addition, the connections between the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of vegetation NPP and primary terrain factors were discussed in this study. The results showed that the improved light use efficiency model provided a better simulation of the vegetation NPP in Gannan and that it also could be used in large-areas and for long-term simulations. The average annual vegetation NPP from 2011 to 2014 was 478.26 g C·(m2·a)–1. Over a year the daily mean NPP of vegetation increased first and then decreased, reaching a maximum value in July; the accumulative NPP increased quickly from May and tended to be stable in October. With regard to the spatial distribution mean NPP was large in the southeast mountain area and small in the northern agricultural and farming-pastoral area and in the southwest high altitude area. As the altitude increased both the average NPP and accumulative NPP increased at first and then reduced; Over all the aspects of the slope NPP was highest on the north slope, and lowest on the south slope.
Analysis of the difference and correlation between the spatial structure and understory herbaceous species diversity of typical subtropical forests
CAO Xiaoyu, LI Jiping, WEI Xia
2019, 36(10): 2466-2475. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0728
[Abstract](1302) [FullText HTML] (716) [PDF 704KB](20)
The spatial structure of a forest has a remarkable effect on the diversity of the understory herbaceous species. To clarify the dominant factors that affect the species diversity of understory herbaceous vegetation, a subtropical pure Chinese fir plantation, mixed Chinese fir plantation, and natural secondary forest were used. On the basis of the quantitative analysis of three kinds of stand spatial structure index and understory herbaceous species diversity index of different characteristics, the main spatial structure factors influencing the understory herbaceous species diversity were excavated using grey relational analysis. The results showed that: 1) In terms of the tree species isolation degree, forest layer diversity, competition situation, and forest spatial distribution pattern, the natural secondary forest was the best, followed by the mixed Chinese fir plantation and then the pure Chinese fir plantation. 2) In the five indexes of species richness (Simpson diversity, Shannon-Wiener diversity, Simpson evenness, and Pielou evenness), a regularity showed that natural secondary forest > mixed plantation > pure plantation. 3) The degree of mixing was the common key factor affecting the diversity of the understory herbaceous species in the pure Chinese fir plantation, mixed Chinese fir plantation, and natural secondary forest. Therefore, to improve the diversity of the understory herbaceous species in pure Chinese fir and mixed Chinese fir plantations, to some extent, it is acceptable to use artificial interference measures, such as regulating the tree species structure.
Prediction of the potential distribution area of Solanum rostratum in northeast China
GUO Jia, CAO Wei, ZHANG Yue, GAO Yan, WANG Yingying
2019, 36(10): 2476-2484. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0671
[Abstract](1353) [FullText HTML] (743) [PDF 851KB](18)
Solanum rostratum is atype kind of quarantine weed with an extremely strong reproductive capacity, which can be quite harmful when spread over a large area. In this study, geological recordings of Solanum rostratum geological recording and 7 environmental factors were used to predict the potential distribution area and suitable levels of Solanum rostratum in Northeast China, based on the maximum entropy model (MaxEnt). The results indicated that the main determining environmental factors for the potential distribution are the Annual Mean Temperature and Mean Temperature of the Wettest Quarter. The suitable range of the main environmental factors are 7~13 ℃ and 21.9~24.6 ℃, respectively. The highly suitable distribution is mainly located in western Liaoning, southern Liaoning and southeast Inner Mongolia autonomous region, and the overall trend is gradually decreases outward from the center. On the basis of a suitable index, the Chifeng–Linxi–Qiqihar–Zhaodong–Xiuyan–Dandong line is the spread risk boundary for the distributution of the Solanum rostratum distribution. These predictions provide a basis for controlling the spread of Solanum rostratum.
Seasonal dynamics and characteristics of the spatial distribution of a soil seed bank of a Polygonum viviparum meadow in an alpine area in the Tianzhu Region
TAN Xiao, CHEN Li, LONG Ling, WANG Mingming, LI Chunming
2019, 36(10): 2485-2491. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0059
[Abstract](1118) [FullText HTML] (659) [PDF 489KB](23)
The seasonal dynamics and characteristics of the spatial distribution of a soil seed bank of a Polygonum viviparum meadow in an alpine area in the Tianzhu region were studied through a field investigation and seed germination tests. The results indicated that for the soil seed bank during the turning green period, the density of average unit volume (length 1.0 m × width 1.0 m × height 0.1 m) is 3 479; whilst during the yellowing period,the density of average unit volume (1.0 m × 1.0 m × 0.1 m) was 3 871. The total numbers for the soil seed bank in the yellowing period were higher than in the turning green period, with a significant difference at the 0.05 level. The soil seed density at 0 – 5 cm was significantly higher than that at 5 – 10 cm in both the turning green and yellowing periods, with a significant differences (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the same soil seed density at different sampling times. The richness, simpson, shannon-wiener, and evenness indexes of the soil seed bank in the turning green period were all higher than those in the yellowing periods, except for, richness. The difference between the simpson, shannon-wiener, and evenness indexes was not significant. The difference between the richness was at the 0.05 level; The characteristics of the life forms present in a Polygonum viviparum meadow in the soil seed bank was: the sample from the turning green period was made up of Hemicryptophytes, Cryptophytes and Therophytes, whilst sample from the yellowing periods was made up of Hemicryptophytes and Cryptophytes; The similarity of the species composition between the soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation of a Polygonum viviparum meadow in an alpine area in Tianzhu was low, The jaccard similarity index and Sørenson similarity index of the turning green period was lower than those of the yellowing periods.
Prediction of copper contents in the grassland soil based on BPNN
SHI Hongfei, HOU Jianwei, LU Zhihong, YANG Yong
2019, 36(10): 2492-2498. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0721
[Abstract](966) [FullText HTML] (588) [PDF 827KB](12)
Mining has dramatically damaged the ecological balance of grassland, and the elemental copper is diffusing through dust and surface runoff; This has affected normal production and the enrichment of food chains. Therefore, establishing a fast and easy prediction model for monitoring the content of copper in grassland soil is of great significance. This study was conducted in a mining area in Xilingol grassland and aimed to build a BPNN (BP neural network) to predict the copper content by coupling soil organic matter and pH. The results were: 1) the fitting of the training and test data was first increased and then decreased with the increase in the number of hidden layers, and the fitting reached the maximum at layer 4; 2) the number of nodes in the hidden layers was similar in layers 3, 4, 5, and 7; 3) The BPNN achieved a relatively high fitting and optimal scale when the number of hidden layers was four. Therefore, this method was able to rapidly predict the Cu contents rapidly in the surface soil of grassland.
Effect of two restorations on the grassland coverage after remediation of take-abandon soil field on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
ZHAO Ke, WANG Zhengyun, LI Yuqing, ZHENG Tianli, HU Jianbo
2019, 36(10): 2499-2506. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0066
[Abstract](1070) [FullText HTML] (625) [PDF 1230KB](19)
Human activities and climate change have important impacts on the alpine grassland ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Human activities represented by highway construction affect the function of alpine grassland ecosystem. In order to explore the recovery effects of different restoration methods on the alpine grassland ecosystem, we selected six grassland sites after two restorations (seeding method and turf method) along the elevational gradient. The coverage of the low (3 012 and 3 335 m), medium (4 229 and 4 302 m) and high (4 433 and 4 577 m) elevation sites after two restorations was measured by VegCover. We found that the coverage of turf treatment (42.3%) is significantly higher than that of the grass in the field of seeding (16.8%). The grass coverage of seeding treatment decreased significantly with the increase of elevation, but no statistic difference of the coverage of turf treatment was detected along the elevational gradient. As a result, the natural logarithm response ratio of the degree of grassland coverage under the two restorations increased significantly with the increase of elevation (r = 0.37, P < 0.05). These results suggest that turf is a better way to repair the gauntlet of the alpine meadow and the seeding method is not to be used for the temporary grassland repair in the high-altitude area.
Effect of shading on light response curve of mixed lawn grass during the initial stage of establishment
ZHANG Ran, HAN Bo, YANG Wei, TANG Min, REN Jian, XU Wenhua, MA Xiangli
2019, 36(10): 2507-2515. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0089
[Abstract](1406) [FullText HTML] (667) [PDF 927KB](19)
In this study, the effects of different shade treatments(CK, 50%, and 70%) on the chlorophyll content and light response curves of Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne were studied using mixed turf grass. The objective of this study was to provide a basis for studying the internal mechanism of shade tolerance and maintenance management of turfgrass under shading conditions. The results indicated that:1) The content of chlorophyll a and carotenoids of F. arundinacea increased significantly under shade treatments,whilst the contents of chlorophyll b decreased significantly (P < 0.05). The content of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b of L. perenne decreased significantly.The content of carotenoids increased significantly (P < 0.05); 2) With the increasing light intensity, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (Gs) of F. arundinacea and L. perenne both increased. With the increasing shading intensity, the Pn and Gs of F. arundinacea decreased, the change trends of L. perenne were the opposite; 3) The maximum assimilation rate (Amax), light compensation point (LCP) and light saturation point (LSP) of F. arundinacea significantly reduced under the shade treatments (P < 0.05), while the change trends of L. perenne were opposite. 4) Comprehensive analysis showed that F. arundinacea could adapt to shade stress by reducing its physiological activity rate, while L. perenne could adapt to shade stress by keeping the synthesis and decomposition of chlorophyll in a low dynamic balance. Moreover, L. perenne had stronger shade tolerance than F. arundinacea. In the shading environment of the cities, the sowing proportion of L. perenne could be increased appropriately to improve the visual quality of the mixed turf under shade conditions.
Application of plant fibers in sports turf rootzone
WANG Cheng, LIU Zhichao, XU Wei, CHANG Zhihui
2019, 36(10): 2516-2524. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0681
[Abstract](913) [FullText HTML] (525) [PDF 854KB](16)
In order to solve the problem of the lack of stability of the sand-based sports turf at the beginning of its operation, the feasibility of using three plant fiber wastes (waste cotton, wheat straw and coconut chaff) as reinforcement material for turf rootzone was analyzed in this trial. The trial turf was planted with Kentucky bluegrass (Poa Pratensis) sod. Taking the pure sand rootzone substrate (CK) as control, 1% waste cotton (T1), 1% wheat straw (T2), and 1% coir dust (T3) were mixed into the rootzone according to the mass ratio to study the effects of each rootzone substrate on the appearance quality, soil conditions and playing quality of the turf. The results showed that compared with CK treatment, T1, T2 and T3 treatment could improve turf color, tillering and appearance quality, among which T3 treatment was the best, followed by T2 treatment. T1, T2 and T3 treatments can improve soil moisture content, compaction and shear strength, of which T3 treatment can significantly increase soil moisture content and shear strength (P < 0.05), while T1 treatment can significantly increase soil compaction and shear strength (P < 0.05). The playing quality of turf (rotational traction performance, surface hardness, resilience) in all treatments conformed to the quality evaluation standards for the sports turf. These results showed that waste cotton, wheat straw and coir dust can be used as reinforcement materials for sand-based sports turf rootzones, and the treatment by mixing 1% waste cotton in the rootzone (T1) has the best reinforcement effect, which is worthy of popularizing and applying in the establishment of sports turf.
Enrichment analysis of genes that are related to lead stress in alfalfa, based on transcriptome sequencing
GUO Qiang, WANG Yingzhe, WANG Kun, XU Bo
2019, 36(10): 2525-2534. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0675
[Abstract](1096) [FullText HTML] (632) [PDF 812KB](38)
This paper used a high-throughput Illumina Hiseq sequencing platform to sequence the transcriptome of the control group (CK) and drought treatment group (Pb96) of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and analyzed the sequencing data to further explore the molecular mechanism of alfalfa resistance to lead. The results showed that 2 242 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected under lead stress treatment. Among them, 1 321 DEGs were up-regulated and 921 were down-regulated. Within GO (gene ontology, http://www.geneontology.org/) enrichment analysis, differential genes are mainly involved in material metabolism, protein binding, and catalytic activity. According to KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes, http://www.genome.jp/kegg/) analysis, differential genes are mainly involved in metabolic pathways, photosynthesis, and starch sucrose metabolism. In COG (clusters of orthologous groups of proteins/orthologous groups of genes) analysis, differential genes are mainly involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism, translation, ribosome structure and biogenesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, transport, and catabolism. This study provides a reference for studying the molecular mechanism of alfalfa resistance to lead by transcriptome analysis of alfalfa roots.
Advances in research regarding the function of the ACBP family in plants
WANG Sizhu, ZHANG Xun, DAI Shaojun, LI Ying
2019, 36(10): 2535-2548. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0664
[Abstract](1370) [FullText HTML] (731) [PDF 818KB](17)
Acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) are lipid-carrier proteins involved in binding and transporting lipids. ACBPs play an important role in plant growth and development, as well as the responses to stress from chill, drought, and heavy metals. In this paper, the classification, structural characteristics, and physiological functions of the plant ACBP family were reviewed, to provide valuable information for a deeoer understanding of the functions of plant ACBPs.
Optimum treatment scheme for alfalfa seeds primed with PEG
ZHAO Xiaochen, TIAN Yu, ZHANG Hongxiang
2019, 36(10): 2549-2555. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0650
[Abstract](1207) [FullText HTML] (593) [PDF 529KB](21)
In order to determine the best seed priming scheme for alfalfa, the seeds were primed in different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) (5%, 10%, and 15%) with different durations (12 h, 24 h and 36 h) and temperatures (10, 15, and 20 ℃). The orthogonal design was used to determine the best treatment plan, based on the alfalfa seed germination conditions and the physiological index. The results show that the best treatment scheme was A2B2C3, which represents priming with 10% PEG at 20 ℃ for 24 h. The germination speed of seeds improved significantly, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), the peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) increased.
Responses of physiological and biochemical characteristics of alfalfa to low temperature and their relationship with cold resistance in sandy habitats
ZHU Aimin, ZHANG Yuxia, WANG Xianguo, LIU Tingyu, CONG Baiming, WANG Xin, HOU Wenhui
2019, 36(10): 2556-2568. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0476
[Abstract](1077) [FullText HTML] (630) [PDF 1186KB](16)
This study explored the response of alfalfa to exposure to low temperature in terms of the physiological and biochemical characteristics before and after the frost killing period. At the same time, the Logistic regression equation was used to calculate the semi-lethal temperature of alfalfa. The relationship between the related physiological and biochemical indexes and the cold resistance of alfalfa was analyzed, so as to provide a theoretical basis for screening alfalfa varieties having a high cold resistance. The results showed that the chlorophyll content of the upper and lower leaves of alfalfa increased before (Oct. 1) and after (Oct.15) the frost killing period and the soluble sugar content in the root neck reduced significantly, There was no significant difference in the starch content, free proline content, free amino acid content, and soluble protein content in the root neck . Among all alfalfa cultivars, the SOD and POD activity in the alfalfa root neck showed an increasing trend, while the CAT activity showed no significant difference, except for Nongjing No.8, in which the C/N in the root neck of alfalfa on Oct.1 was higher than that on Oct. 15. In the logistic equation fitted by conductance, the cold resistance of eight alfalfa cultivars was ranked as follows: Caoyuan No.3 > Dongmu No.1 > Nongjing No.1 > Gongnong No.1 > Zhaodong > Longmu No.801 > Caoyuan No.2 > Nongjing No.8. The correlation analysis showed that the median lethal temperature of alfalfa had a significant negative correlation with the content of soluble sugar and free proline in the root neck of alfalfa (P < 0.05), and had a significant positive correlation with the content of MDA content in the root neck of alfalfa (P < 0.05).
Effect of anthracnose on the growth , physiology, and biochemistry in Vicia sativa
DING Tingting, WANG Xiaoyu, NIE Bin, ZHANG Weizhen, DUAN Tingyu
2019, 36(10): 2569-2579. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0401
[Abstract](1045) [FullText HTML] (594) [PDF 968KB](22)
Common vetch (Vicia sativa) is an important pasture and green manure, which has high economic value. Colletotrichum lentis is a new pathogen of common vetch that affect the growth of Vicia sativa. In this study, a pot experiment in greenhouse was established to study the effects of anthracnose on the growth and nodule development of common vetch V. sativa CV, Lanjian No.3 including plant growth, root nodule formation, disease-related enzymes, and other disease-resistant related substances. After the pathogen infected the plants, the two hydrolase activities were increased by 33.09% and 10.74%, respectively, and the concentrations of lignin and jasmonic acid were increased by 26.77% and 70.34%, respectively. In addition, compared with the control treatment, the disease led to a decrease of 26.90%~40.00% (P < 0.01) in the aboveground and underground biomass of plants, and a decrease of 42.25% in the effective nodules (P < 0.05). Therefore, anthracnose causes serious damage to the disease-related system of common vetch, and directly affects the yield and quality of common vetch. Close attention should be paid to the occurrence of this disease and accelerate the development of prevention and control technologies should be accelerated.
Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on the growth and membrane lipid peroxidation of Medicago sativa under salt stress
JIANG Wenbo, CHEN Zhao, CAO Xinlong, NIU Junpeng, GUO Zhipeng, CUI Jian, WANG Quanzhen
2019, 36(10): 2580-2593. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0723
[Abstract](1041) [FullText HTML] (647) [PDF 1497KB](17)
Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) agent (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mmol·L–1) was used as an exogenous nitric oxide source to study the effects of exogenous NO on the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seedlings under three different salt stress conditions (24, 72, and 120 mmol·L–1). The results showed that the fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll contents of alfalfa decreased. Whereas, the relative electrical conductivity, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, and peroxidase (POD) activity had a remarkable increase (P < 0.05). Additionally, the ascorbic acid (AsA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) under the salt stress, indicating the toxic effects of salt stress on alfalfa. SNP treatments significantly (P < 0.05) improved the fresh weight, dry weight, chlorophyll, chlorophyll a/b, and AsA content and enhanced the SOD, CAT, and POD activities, but decreased the relative electrical conductivity, MDA, and H2O2 contents. This suggests that exogenous NO can enhance antioxidant enzyme activities and decrease lipid peroxidation, thereby improving the resistance of alfalfa to salt stress. The optimum SNP concentration of alfalfa under 24, 72, and 120 mmol·L–1 salt stress was 0.1, 0.3, and 0.3 mmol·L–1, respectively.
Effects of the planting date and planting rate on the yield and related characters of ‘Intimidator’ oats on the Chengdu Plain
JING Tingting, Tenzintarchen, REN Shuping, WANG Dengping, ZHANG Xinquan, YANG Shengting, CHEN Shiyong, HUANG Linkai
2019, 36(10): 2594-2600. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0070
[Abstract](1058) [FullText HTML] (621) [PDF 564KB](21)
To explore the high-yield cultivation measures of ‘Intimidator’ oats (Avena sativa) on the Chengdu Plain, a two-factor complete experimental design with three planting dates and four planting rates was set up to study the effects of different dates and rates on the hay yield, plant height, stem-leaf ratio and lodging rate of ‘Intimidator’ oats. The results showed that the planting date had a significant effect on the stem-leaf ratio, plant height, and lodging rate (P < 0.05). Among the three planting dates, the stem-leaf ratio and leaves under the early planting treatment were the smallest, but the lodging rate was the highest. Additionally, the plant height under the middle planting treatment was the highest, but the stem-leaf ratio was the largest; In comparison, the late planting treatment was the most reasonable. Planting rate had a significant effect on the hay yield of ‘Intimidator’ oats (P < 0.05). When planting rate was 90 kg·hm–2, the hay yield of oats was the highest, significantly higher than 60, 120, and 150 kg·hm–2 (P < 0.05). A comprehensive analysis of the forage yield and related traits of ‘Intimidator’ oats on different dates was conducted. When the oats were planted in the Chengdu Plain, the best conditions were a late sowing date, and a sowing amount of 90 kg·hm–2.
Effects of the nitrogen application rate and sowing density on the productivity and nutritional value of × Triticosecale Wittmack in the Gannan area
REN Yuxin, LIU Hancheng, TIAN Xinhui, DU Wenhua
2019, 36(10): 2601-2611. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0564
[Abstract](1042) [FullText HTML] (578) [PDF 742KB](21)
In this paper, the effects of nitrogen fertilizer rate (0, 120, 240, 360, and 480 kg·hm–2) and sowing density (506, 675, 843, 1 011, and 1 180 million seedling·ha–1) on the plant height, the number of branches, hay yield and nutritional value of × Triticosecale Wittmack ‘Gannong No. 2’ were studied in the Gannan area were studied, As the nitrogen fertilizer rate and sowing density increased, the plant height, number of branches, and hay yield of triticale frist increased and the decreased; nutritional value also followed a similar trend. When the nitrogen fertilizer rate was 240 kg·ha–1, regardless of the density of seeding, the averag hay yield (15.63 t·ha–1) and crude protein content (12.47%) were the highest, and the fiber content was the lowest. When the sowing density was 843 million seedling·ha–1, regardless of the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied, the highest average hay yield (15.30 t·ha–1) was obtained. From the interaction of the nitrogen fertilizer rate and sowing density, a nitrogen fertilizer rate of 240 kg·ha–1 and a seeding density of 8.43 million seedlings·ha–1, led to the triticale obtained the highest hay yield (22.13 t·ha–1) and high crude protein content (12.33%) for ‘Gannong No. 2’.
Effects of fodder-rape intercropping in the alpine region
QIN Yan, GUAN Youjun, WANG Youliang, CHEN Jigui, ZHANG Yongchao, LIU Yong, WEI Xiaoxing, LI Xiaorui, LIU Wenhui
2019, 36(10): 2612-2621. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0051
[Abstract](1649) [FullText HTML] (705) [PDF 769KB](45)
To establish a suitable rape intercropping pattern in an alpine region, we used Brassica campestris as the dominant species, which is a major crop used for edible oil, and incorporated this with Hordeum vulgare, Avena sativa and Vicia sativa. We analyzed the morphological characteristics of the shoot biomass, forage quality and inter-species relationships. As the results shown, the height of the oats, which was lower than rape, had no impact on the rape landscape during the bloom period. The shoot biomass had increased by 37.27% in the rape-oat intercropping system compared to the rape monoculture. The intercropping application had not effect on the nutrient content of the fodder-rape. Concerning about both of the tourism and field production, we suggest the extension of the intercropping system of rape with oats in the alpine regions.
Analysis of phenotypic variation of introduced cultivars of tall fescue
WU Wendan, LEI Xiong, ZHAO Wenda, YANG Xiaopeng, XIONG Yi, XIONG Yanli, ZHANG Xinquan, MA Xiao
2019, 36(10): 2622-2630. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0680
[Abstract](974) [FullText HTML] (695) [PDF 603KB](10)
To enrich the germplasm resources of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) in China, and select elite varieties and breeding parents, we conducted a series of analyses for 19 introduced cultivars of forage-type tall fescue based on 14 phenotypic traits. The analyses comprised descriptive analysis of morphological traits, correlation analysis between morpho-agronomic characteristics, principal component analysis (PCA) and clustering analysis. The main results were as follows: 1) The coefficients of variation (CV) of most traits were higher than 10%, except for the internode number (IN), which demonstrated great differences and/or high diversity among the studied cultivars, and their benefits to future breeding. Owing to the highest CV found in fresh weight per plant, this character could be used to screen out cultivars with high biomass. 2) There are complex correlations among various morphological traits. The higher the plant, the better the performance of production trait, conversely, the stronger the stem of the plant, the better the reproduction traits. 3) Principal component analysis showed that the plant height, leaf size, inflorescence structure, grass yield and seed quality were the main factors influencing the phenotypic variation of tall fescue. According to the results of principal component analysis, 19 tall fescue cultivars, with the exception of Fawn and Kenwell, could be divided into two groups, which was consistent with the cluster results based on UPGMA method. Of the two groups, cultivars of group Ⅰ are suitable for seed production, whereas cultivars of group Ⅱ are suitable for screening high-yield lines or parents.
Using leaf mass fractions and height/mass ratios to explain the positive response of Gramineae to nitrogen addition on a sub-alpine meadow
ZHANG Renyi, XU Danghui, YUAN Jianli, LI Wenjin, Aidexiecuo
2019, 36(10): 2631-2638. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0199
[Abstract](1183) [FullText HTML] (627) [PDF 745KB](19)
Nitrogen addition tends to increase the dominance of Gramineae in grassland ecosystems. However, the underlying mechanism is rarely reported. We analyzed the morphological characteristics and responses of functional groups to nitrogen addition to explore the adaptation mechanism of Gramineae to nitrogen addition on a sub-alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. Results showed that the leaf mass fraction (LMF) and height/mass ratio (HMR) were significantly correlated with the plant height for a representative species (P < 0.05). The LMF and HMR of Gramineae were 77.86% and 34.32 cm·g–1, respectively, which is significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of forbs (66.12% and 7.20 cm·g–1, respectively). Nitrogen addition (15 g·m–2) significantly increased the aboveground biomass (P < 0.001), plant height (P < 0.01), coverage (P < 0.01) and, chlorophyll content (P < 0.05) of the community, for which only the biomass proportions of only Gramineae and sedge increased significantly (both P < 0.001), and coverage of only Gramineae increased significantly (P < 0.01). Plant height of Gramineae was always higher than that of the other functional groups whether nitrogen was added or not (P < 0.001, respectively). Therefore, a high LMF and HMR of Gramineae enhances their competition potential for aboveground resources, and enables them to respond quickly and effectively to nitrogen addition.
Advances in the application of Coix in perennial grass breeding
ZHOU Shufeng, GUO Chao, HE Jun, DONG Xiaolong, TANG Qilin, PAN Guangtang, WU Yuanqi, RONG Tingzhao
2019, 36(10): 2639-2646. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0638
[Abstract](1159) [FullText HTML] (588) [PDF 645KB](22)
Most regions in southwest China experience a subtropical humid climate, which is advantageous for growing perennial forage grass. As a native plant species of China, Coix is a rich germplasm resource with various ecotypes, especially wild Coix, which has a high nutritive value and biomass, excellent abiotic stress resistance, and perennial habit. It can be used as a promising forage germplasm. Here, we expound the prospect of developing perennial forage grass in southwest China, application of plant wild relatives in grass breeding, and advantage of wild Coix as forage germplasm, and its breeding. Furthermore, we propose future research directions in perennial forage Coix breeding and production.
Seasonal variations of main grassland types, hay yield, and nutritional value in Shaertao mountain, Xinjiang
ZHANG Fanfan, YANG Kaihu, YU Lei, HE Haixiu, LU Weihua, MA Chunhui
2019, 36(10): 2647-2654. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0578
[Abstract](1508) [FullText HTML] (584) [PDF 494KB](16)
The five main grassland types and the grass distribution of the Shaertao mountain in Zhaosu County were studied, and the hay yield and nutrient content were analyzed to reveal the seasonal variation in each grassland type. The aim was to identify the grassland type with the highest overall value and optimal utilization period. Five main grassland types were studied from May to July: Stipa capillata + Achnatherum splendens type (type Ⅰ), Iris ruthenica + Phleum phleoides type (type Ⅱ), Dactylis glomerata + herarum varianum type (type Ⅲ), Alchemilla sibirica + herarum varianum type (type Ⅳ), and Kobresia capillifolia + Carex stenocarpa type (type Ⅴ). The hay yield and nutrient content, including dry matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, ether extract, crude ash, calcium, phosphorus, and gross energy, were analyzed. A fuzzy similar priority ratio method, integrating nine indicators of hay yield and nutrient content, was used to evaluate the overall grassland values. The main conclusions are: 1) The highest overall value of the grassland type Ⅰ was observed in May, while the highest overall value for the other grassland types was observed in July. The lowest overall values for grassland types Ⅰ, Ⅱ, and Ⅲ during the period of observation were observed in November, and in August for the other grassland types (compared with July). 2) Grassland type Ⅲ exhibited the highest overall value during the study period from May to July. From August to November, grassland type Ⅱ exhibited the lowest overall value, followed by grassland type Ⅰ when the observations for October were included. The lowest overall value for grassland type Ⅴ was observed in August. The lowest overall values for grassland types Ⅰ and Ⅲ were observed in September and November. The results of this study provide a framework for the rational utilization of natural grassland resources.
Physiological response to drought and re-watering of different quinoa varieties
LIU Wenyu, HE Bin, YANG Farong, LYU Wei, WANG Wangtian, HUANG Jie, WEI Yuming, JIN Qian, CHEN Yuxiang
2019, 36(10): 2655-2665. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0698
[Abstract](1097) [FullText HTML] (969) [PDF 868KB](18)
To investigate the effects of drought and rehydration on chlorophyll fluorescence and reactive oxygen species metabolism of quinoa seedling leaves, we used the quinoa varieties ‘Longli No.1’ (L-1), ‘Longli No.2’ (L-2), ‘Longli No.3’ (L-3) and ‘Longli No.4’ (L-4) as experimental materials. Seedlings were treated with drought stress for 10 days allowed to recover for 24 hours. Subsequently, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters [Fo, Fm, Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo and non-photochemical quenching(NPQ)], MDA contents, O2·- production rate, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were determined. The results showed that compared with the un-stressed control (CK), Fo and Fm of the quinoa varieties ‘L-1’, ‘L-3’, and ‘L-4’ were decreased by 18.03%, 18.22%, and 7.72%, and 16.25%, 18.96%, and 10.64%, respectively, Fv/Fm , and Fv/Fo of the four different quinoa seedling leaves were decreased by 5.00%, 10.43%, 8.06%, 4.78%, and 16.84%, 30.71%, 25.44%, and 15.76% under drought stress, and NPQ was increased significantly. Simultaneously, MDA contents, and O2·- production rate were increased, and the activities of SOD, POD, CAT, and APX were all enhanced. After re-watering, Fo, Fm, Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo , and NPQ were all restored to the level of CK, but MDA content and O2·- production rate was not much higher than CK; the SOD in different quinoa seedlings was lower than CK; and POD, CAT, and APX were still higher than CK. In conclusion, re-watering treatment after drought stress will not only can recover the damage to the photosynthetic system in different quinoa seedling leaves but may also be helpful to alleviate the harmful effect that is caused by drought stress on seedling growth.
Effect of oleanolic acid on the growth and reproduction of the pea aphid
TANG Shijuan, MIAO Jinbei, CHEN Yanlin, SHAO Ya, LU Kang, WANG Senshan
2019, 36(10): 2666-2673. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0726
[Abstract](911) [FullText HTML] (528) [PDF 773KB](12)
Oleanolic acid, a triterpenoid, has antifeedant, lethal, and avoidance effects on herbivorous insects. This study aimed to clarify the effects of oleanolic acid on the physiology of two color morphs of pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). For this, the pure artificial diet film feeding technology was applied and 5 groups of artificial diet, with different concentrations of oleanolic acid, were prepared to rear the green and red morph pea aphids in incubators. The following parameters were measured: survival rate, growth rate of relative daily average weight, ratio of winged phenotype, and percentage of reproducing individuals. The results showed that oleanolic acid had inhibitory effects on the growth and reproduction of the green morph, but did not affect the red morph. In the range of 0.1~2.0 mg·mL–1, all the measured parameters (except the ratio of winged phenotype) of the green morph decreased with the increase of the oleanolic acid concentration, and the lowest data was obtained at 2.0 mg·mL–1. The ratio of winged phenotype gradually increased with the increase of the oleanolic acid concentration and reached a maximum at the concentration of 1.0 mg·mL–1, but then gradually decreased. These results will lay a technological and theoretical foundation for further studies on the physiological and behavioral mechanisms of how oleanolic acid affects the development and reproduction of the pea aphid.
The current situation of the Irish dairy industry
ZHANG Chao, WANG Jing, LIU Hao, PENG Hua
2019, 36(10): 2674-2683. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0434
[Abstract](1250) [FullText HTML] (728) [PDF 1048KB](15)
Ireland is located on the central and southern parts western Europe. It has a superior natural environment for agricultural development along with a vast area of grassland. Under the influence of the North Atlantic warm current, the climate is mild and humid. Winters are not extremely cold and summers are not extremly hot. The environment is very suitable for animal husbandry. In recent years, the Irish dairy industry has made remarkable achievements with a gradual improvement in the scale level and the rising number of dairy cows. The production of fresh milk has increased significantly, and the pricing system of high-quality fresh milk has constantly improved as well. The dairy processing industry is highly developed, and the per capita consumption of dairy products is at the forefront of the European Union and even the world. A remarkable increase in the net export of a wide variety of dairy products has been observed. The supporting policies related to dairy production, trade, and other industries are perfect. The development of the Irish dairy industry has provided some experience for the development of the sairy industry in our country. It is suggested that our country should improve the mechanism of interest linkage of the dairy industry, explore the mechanism of pricing system of fresh milk, encourage the development of dairy processing in the aquaculture sector, and improve the level of social service of the dairy industry.
Analysis of the economic and ecological benefits of the pastoral households based ecotourism in the steppe region of Inner Mongolia
WANG Yanan, WANG Zhiyi, Suriguga, ZHANG Le, LI Yanlong, CHENG Jianwei, LI Yonghong
2019, 36(10): 2684-2692. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0710
[Abstract](1289) [FullText HTML] (555) [PDF 650KB](24)
Grassland ecosystems provide multiple services to human society, covering pastoral production, environmental regulation, biodiversity conservation and cultural and natural leisure pursuits. Eco-tourism based on the magnificent steppe landscapes and unique Mongolian culture is an important option for the use of the vast steppe grasslands in Northern China to benefits of economic development and ecological security in the region. However, the economic and ecological effects of the ecotourism operated by local herder families have not been well evaluated.In this study,we investigated the family economy and assessed grassland ecological status of the 45 pairs of " Tourism + Livestock Production” versus " Pure Livestock Production” pastoral households in the typical steppe region in central Inner Mongolia. We found that 1) The average total income of " Tourism + Livestock Production” households (60 600 CNY) was significantly higher than that of " Pure Livestock Production” households(11 400 CNY) (P < 0.01); 2) The average annual net income from tourism business (65 300 CNY) was similar to that of livestock production (66 400 CNY) in the " Tourism + Livestock Production” households; 3) The grasslands of the " Tourism + Livestock Production” households had greater vegetation cover, and contained a lower proportion of the indicator species for grassland degradation, than that of " Pure Livestock Production” households, indicating a better pasture status. The operation of ecotourism in herders' family grasslands reauries only small investment but yields significant economic and ecological benefits. We therefore concluded that ecotourism is an important alteration to pastoral production in the steppe region to allow sustainable grassland resources use and achieve the dual goals of ecological protection and socio-economic development. The awareness of ecological knowledge and protection in ecotourism should be invreased.
Investigation of silage corn production based on the new management entity in Hubei Province
XU Xiangyu, ZHANG Minmin, ZHOU Jianxiong, XIANG Libo, YUAN Jiafu, PENG Chenglin
2019, 36(10): 2693-2702. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0687
[Abstract](1128) [FullText HTML] (602) [PDF 491KB](19)
Based on the household survey of the production of the new management entity of silage corn in the Huanggang, Jingmen, and Xiangyang regions in Hubei Province, this investigation analyzed the planting mode, fertilizer and pesticide input level, mechanization level, yield and other aspects, and discussed the factors influencing the planting of the new management entity planting enthusiasm. The results showed that the main planting pattern in the Huanggang region was large-scale two-season planting, whilst in the Jingmen and Xiangyang regions it was mainly a one-season planting. The pesticide with the largest application area was herbicide and most common ingredient was atrazine, which was mainly applied in the form of a compound. The mechanization level of silage corn cultivation was relatively high and the net profit per year can reach 19 247.5 CNY·ha–2. The land rent is the highest proportion within the cost composition. The yield can be increased by adjusting the variety, sowing date, density, and other measures. The cost can be reduced by optimizing the fertilizer composition and fertilization. The labor cost can be reduced through coordination and cooperation
Effects of sodium diacetate and molasses on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration silages containing straw
QIU Xiaoyan, YAO Yuanzhi, PAN Runze, LI Yasi, WU Xianjin, XIANG Sunjun, SHAO Tao, TIAN Yuqiao
2019, 36(10): 2703-2711. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2019-0064
[Abstract](1198) [FullText HTML] (513) [PDF 535KB](26)
This study explored the effects of sodium diacetate and molasses on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of silage with rice straw, corn stalk, whole bead, and fine material. The experiment was divided into four groups: control group (C, no additive), sodium diacetate group (S, 0.5% FW), molasses group (M, 3% FW), sodium diacetate and molasses group (SM, 0.5% + 3% FW). After 35 days of fermentation, all total mixed rations (TMRs) were exposed to air and samples were analyzed on the 0th, 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, and 15th days for analysis of their aerobic stability. All silages were of good quality having low pH value, low ammonia/total nitrogen, very low propionic acid (1.06~1.54 g·kg–1 DM) and butyric acid (1.66~4.64 g·kg–1 DM) content. For aerobic stability, S group was the greatest stability (> 312 h), and higher than (P < 0.05) C (> 216 h) and M (> 288 h) groups. Furthermore, in the whole aerobic exposure stage with S group, aerobic microorganisms and yeasts were at a lower number, the pH value remained at about 4.50 after 12 days of aerobic exposure, the acetic acid content was at a higher level (2.12 g·kg–1 DM), prolonging aerobic stability. Therefore, it was suggested that 0.5% sodium diacetate could be used to produce TMR silages.
Public attitude and willingness to pay for transgenic turfgrass under the influence of values
ZHANG Lijuan, JI Mengchen, REN Liang
2019, 36(10): 2712-2724. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2018-0678
[Abstract](908) [FullText HTML] (504) [PDF 627KB](22)
Transgenic turfgrass has significant commercial and ecological value, however, whose commercial application was affected by the public’s attitude and willingness to pay. In this paper, structural equation model (SEM) was employed to demonstrate the influence of personal values on the public’s attitude and willingness to pay toward transgenic turfgrass, based on the perception theory and technology acceptance model, and random investigation was used. The results showed that, the public’s attitude toward transgenic turfgrass was positive, and the willingness to pay toward transgenic turfgrass was high, the attitude directly affected the willingness to pay, the more positive of the attitude, the higher the willingness to pay. The perceived benefits had a positive impact on attitude, and the perceived risk had a negative impact on attitude. The attitudes could be influenced significantly by the different values of egoistic, altruistic and biospheric; biospheric values had the greatest impact on attitudes, followed by altruistic values and egoistic values. People who strongly endorse biospheric values were most sensitive to perceived benefits and perceived risks, people who strongly endorse egoistic values were more sensitive to perceived risk, and perceived benefits and perceived risks played a part of mediating effects in the influence of biospheric values toward attitudes. Upon this conclusion, the public’s attitude can be adjusted or changed by activating or strengthening their specific values under different circumstances. Therefore, the government and genetically modified plants regulatory authority can formulate promotion strategies of scientific and democratic, taking into account personal interests, social development and ecological environment, so that transgenic turfgrass can truly benefit humanity.