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2018 Vol.35(6)

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2018, 12(6): 1322-1322.
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Orginal Article
Effect of grazing on vegetation and soil nutrients of adesert steppe in Inner Mongolia
Na Liu, Ke-yu Bai, Yun-hui Yang, Rui-yang Zhang, Guo-dong Han
2018, 12(6): 1323-1331. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0634
[Abstract](934) [FullText HTML] (84) [PDF 618KB](44)
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The effect of grazing on vegetation and soil nutrients during growing season were examined in a desert steppe in Inner Mongolia. There were four treatments: no grazing (CK), light grazing (LG), moderate grazing (MG), and heavy grazing (HG). The results of the study indicated that with increased grazing intensity, the aboveground biomass declined significantly. In August, as compared with CK, the aboveground biomass of LG, MG, HG decreased by 7.47%, 41.96%, and 51.75%, respectively. There was no significant change in the biodiversity of grassland vegetation communities; however, with increased grazing intensity, the richness decreased. Grazing intensity had no significant impact on soil organic matter and total nitrogen in the short term. The biodiversity of grassland and the organic matter in the surface of the soil were negatively correlated.
Distribution characteristics of minerals in soil and plants on Hulunbuir grassland
Jian-chuan Luo, Hao Zhang, Zong-li Wang, Ying-jun Zhang
2018, 12(6): 1332-1342. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0594
[Abstract](1762) [FullText HTML] (435) [PDF 929KB](47)
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To determine the concentration and characteristics of minerals in the soil and plants on Hulunbuir grassland and provide a basis for the healthy development of animal husbandry, soil and plant samples from 80 different meadows were collected and assayed during this study. The results showed that the concentration of mineral elements in soil from high to low was as follows: Fe, Na, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, P, Zn, V, Cr, B, Ni, Cu, Co, and Sn, in which Ca was the most variable element and K was the least; the sequence in plants was Ca, K, Mg, P, Fe, Na, Sn, Mn, Cr, B, Zn, Ni, Cu, V, and Co, in which Na was the most variable element and Ni was the least. In plants, the concentration of Co was adequate for the requirement of livestock, Ca, Mg, P, K, Mn, and Cu could only satisfy or partly satisfy requirements, whereas Na and Zn could not satisfy the basic requirements, and Fe was superfluous. The elements in soil showed no significant difference between grazing and mowing meadows, but grazing significantly increased the concentration of P, Fe, Na, V, Co, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Cr in plants (P<0.05). In 20 common plants at Hulunbuir grassland, the highest concentration of Ca was in Galium verum and the lowest was in Achnatherum splendens. The highest Mg was in Thermopsis lanceolate and the lowest was in Stipa capillata. The highest Mn was in Potentilla bifurca and the lowest was in Iris ensata. Finally, the highest Zn was in S. capillata and the lowest was in T. lanceolate. Suitable grassland utilization types, forage species, and mineral supplementary feeding measures should be adapted to the nutritional requirements of livestock, which would be beneficial to the sustainable development of animal husbandry on Hulunbuir grassland.
Effect of nitrogen application on soil nitrogen content, root growth and nitrogen uptake of a meadow in the Wugong Mountains
Xiao-juan Hou, Fei Yu, Cheng Cui, Kai Li, Zhi Li, Xue-ling Zhang, Xiao-min Guo, De-kui Niu
2018, 12(6): 1343-1351. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0413
[Abstract](867) [FullText HTML] (92) [PDF 648KB](28)
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A meadow in the Wugong Mountains was selected as the study site for an investigation into the effects of nitrogen application (N0: 0 kg·ha-1, N1: 75 kg·ha-1, N2: 150 kg·ha-1, N3: 300 kg·ha-1.) on soil nitrogen content, root growth and nitrogen uptake by the meadow using a randomized block experiment design. The results showed that the content of available N in the soil increased with the increase in nitrogen (P<0.05). In all treatments, the available N content first increased and then decreased with time, with the lowest values appearing from July to September (N0:111.7 mg·kg-1, N1:140.6 mg·kg-1, N2:162.7 mg·kg-1, N3:1 169.0 mg·kg-1). The results showed a striking difference (P<0.05) between the treatments N0, N1 and N2. The root biomass density of the treatments in the 0-20 cm soil layer from high to low was N3(10.27 mg·cm-3) >N2(10.02 mg·cm-3) >N1(8.0 mg·cm-3) >N0 (6.28 mg·cm-3), and the root length density was N3 (20.1 cm·cm-3)>N2 (20.09 cm·cm-3) >N1 (17.2 cm·cm-3) >N0 (14.3 cm·cm-3). The N accumulation of the roots (N0:13.7 kg·ha-1, N1:23.3 kg·ha-1, N2:31.2 kg·ha-1) also increased significantly with the increase in nitrogen application in the range of N0-N2 (0-150 kg·ha-1) (P<0.05) in the 0-20 cm soil layer. Therefore, more care should be taken to prevent the environmental pollution and waste of resources caused by N loss when nitrogen fertilizer is applied to meadows in the Wugong Mountains.
Dynamics of soil physicochemical properties in shrub and grass communities in Ordos Plateau
Rui-hong Zhang, Wen-tao Cai, Li-ming Lai, Lian-he Jiang, Yong-ji Wang, Yuan-run Zheng
2018, 12(6): 1352-1360. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0425
[Abstract](753) [FullText HTML] (63) [PDF 564KB](26)
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Changes in soil physicochemical properties can affect plant community succession. Studies on changes in soil physicochemical properties at different stages of shrub encroachment could help restore degraded grasslands. Based on recorded data about different plant communities in the transition zone from Stipa bungeana to Artemisia ordosica, the physical and chemical properties of soil layers at 0-50 cm at six different stages were analyzed. The results showed that in the 0-50 cm soil layer from the S. bungeana to A. ordosica community: 1) soil texture changed significantly from sandy loam to sandy soil (P<0.05); sand in soil gradually increased from 77.5% in stage Ⅰ to 89.2% in stage Ⅵ, and clay and silt in soil decreased from 0.59% and 21.9% in stage Ⅰ to 0.21% and 10.6% in stage Ⅵ, respectively. Surface soil moisture decreased from 6% in stage Ⅰ to 4% in stage Ⅵ, and soil bulk density increased from 1.58 g·m-3 in stage Ⅰ to 1.77 g·m-3 in stage Ⅵ; 2) soil levels of total nitrogen, total carbon, and total phosphorus decreased generally; levels of total nitrogen, total carbon, and total phosphorus in the 0-5 cm soil layer decreased from 0.08%, 0.77%, and 0.41% in stage Ⅰ to 0.03%, 0.25%, and 0.23% in stage Ⅵ, respectively; soil total potassium content changed considerably; 3) during the process of shrub encroachment, soil fertility, quality, and soil moisture decreased; these changes limited grass growth, and provided favorable conditions for shrub development with deep root systems. Therefore, in vegetation restoration, the quality of the surface soil layer should be improved to recover shrub-encroached grasslands.
Effect of vegetation restoration on the soil water stable aggregate in the limestone mountains of China
Tao Sun, Yi-shan Liu, Chong-yu Sun, Ai-hui Zheng
2018, 12(6): 1361-1367. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0416
[Abstract](708) [FullText HTML] (55) [PDF 501KB](28)
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In order to elucidate the effect of vegetation restoration on the soil physical characteristic and soil water stable aggregate in the limestone mountains of northern Anhui Province, soil samples were collected from land under different vegetation restoration regimes. The content of soil water aggregate was measured by high vacuum slow wetting. The results indicate that the highest content of aggregate size of 0.50~0.25 mm and lowest values of bulk density were found in the soil under Setaria glauca and Vitex negundo var. cannabifolia restoration, which indicated that the restoration of grass-shrub improved the formation of <1 mm aggregates, thereby improving the soil structure underneath. The highest value of mean weight diameter (MWD, 0.47 mm) and geometrical mean weight (GMD, 0.61 mm) were found, respectively, in the soils under grass-shrubs S. glauca and V. negundo var. cannabifolia, and the shrubs Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa and Vitex negundo var. cannabifolia. These results indicate that there was a difference in the distribution, as well as in the stability, of soil water stable aggregates among the four vegetation restoration measures. The results from the present study will provide a reference for evaluating the benefits of ecological restoration and soil quality in the region of the limestone mountain.
Optimizing the fermentation of the biological inoculant of a fairy ring antagonist
Jin-yi Zhao, Jian-feng Li, Shu-qing Zhang, Qiu-ting He
2018, 12(6): 1368-1377. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0328
[Abstract](806) [FullText HTML] (55) [PDF 724KB](15)
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The aim of this study was to optimize the fermentation conditions for obtaining the biological inoculant of an antagonist of the fairy ring mushroom Lepiota brunneoincarnata. Aspergillus flavus CP01 is a pathogen of the fairy ring mushroom, and we optimized its liquid and solid fermentation conditions. We screened for the best liquid fermentation conditions of the antagonist in terms of medium type, fermentation time, temperature, and initial pH using the single-factor method. We also screened for the optimal solid fermentation conditions of the target host fungus, viz., L. brunneoincarnata, in terms of training material and additional nutrition type, fermentation time, and temperature using the single-factor method. Results showed that the optimal growth medium of A. flavus was potato dextrose broth (PDB), which achieved the maximum dry weight of mycelial bead, while the medium type ensuring the maximum number of effective bacteria and the best antibacterial effect was corn stalk leach liquor (CSE) with an optimal initial pH of 5. The optimal liquid fermentation conditions were identified as 30 ℃ and 5 days. The optimal medium type was counteract-eutrophication straw powder by extraction as training material and corn stalk leach liquor at 1∶50 as additional nutrition type for maximum spore yield. The optimal solid fermentation conditions were identified as 33 ℃ and 9 days. These optimized parameters establish a technical basis for the development of an antibiological inoculant of fairy rings.
Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the physiology of Festuca arundinacea under soil compaction stress
Meng Xu, Shao-xia Guo
2018, 12(6): 1378-1384. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0173
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The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the growth and physiology of Festuca arundinacea was studied under different soil compaction stresses. The results showed that under four different types of soil compaction stress, inoculation of AMF in F. arundinacea led to higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, and nitrate reductase (NR) activity than that of the non-inoculated treatment, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) content and leaf relative conductivity (EC) decreased. Soluble sugar and protein content increased with the inoculation of AMF under the same soil compaction stress, whereas proline content decreased. Inoculated treatment with AMF significantly increased the stress resistance of F. arundinacea (P<0.05), and the mixed inoculated treatment was the best.
Effect of arsenic stress on root morphological parameters and absorption of nutrient elements in ryegrass
Jin-bo Li, Shi-gang Li, Gui-long Song, Xue-hua Puyang, Bo-han Xue, Yong-chao Sui
2018, 12(6): 1385-1392. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0434
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Ryegrass was regarded as a plant species with potential for phytoremediation owing to its stronger heavy metal tolerance and accumulate capacities. For exploring the root morphological parameters and absorption of nutrient elements characteristic of ryegrass under arsenic stress, a pot experiment was performed. We studied the effect of 100 mg·kg-1 arsenic (As) stress on root morphological parameters and nutrient elements absorption of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), Moreover, we aimed to analyze the relationships of arsenic absorption with root morphological parameters and the content of nutrient elements. The results indicated that total length and total surface area of perennial ryegrass were reduced significantly by 47.6% and 46.8%, respectively, as compared with those of annual ryegrass. The absorbing capacity of As of perennial ryegrass root was 1.2 times greater than that of annual ryegrass. As stress promoted the absorption of N/P/K/Mn in two ryegrass species. Perennial ryegrass root had a greater effect on N/P/K absorption, whereas annual ryegrass root had a greater effect on Mn absorption. The root morphological parameters and nutrient absorption of perennial ryegrass was more sensitive to arsenic stress.
Effect of ‘Monument’ herbicide on overseeded turf grass
Mai-cheng Zhan, Zuo-xiang Xiang
2018, 12(6): 1393-1399. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0691
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To solve the issue of appropriate transitioning from cool-season turfgrass to warm-season turfgrass during spring in an overseeded turf in Hunan area, different concentrations of ‘Monument’ were foliar sprayed on a Zoysia japonica ‘Lantai No. 3’ lawn that was overseeded with ryegrass to inhibit its overgrowth and to create suitable conditions for the regrowth of zoysia grass. The results showed the NDVI and green index to decrease initially and then increase after foliar application of ‘Monument’ in the overseeded turf. The MDA content and electrolyte leakage gradually increased while the turf density declined for ryegrass and increased for zoysia grass after foliar application of ‘Monument’ in the overseeded turf. The most suitable spraying concentration was recorded to be 3×10-2 mL·m-2 for the two ryegrass cultivars. According to our results here, it takes 45 days to completely transition for ‘Panterra’ and 60 days to completely transition for ‘Monterey’ under this spraying concentration. This concentration of ‘Monument’ can effectively inhibit the overgrowth of ryegrass and accelerate the proper transitioning of ryegrass to zoysia grass in an overseeded turf during spring. This study provides theoretical and technical guidance for the extension and application of techniques for overseeding turf.
Overexpression of Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium CBF1 gene enhances resistance to drought and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana
Chen-xu Liu, Yu Liu, Jie Liu, Yue-yao Gao, Yun-wei Zhou
2018, 12(6): 1400-1408. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0395
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The C-repeat-binding-factor (CBF) is a class of plant-specific transcription factors with multiple functions. In the present study, the ClCBF1 gene isolated from Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium was constructed using the plant expression vector pBI121, and Agrobacterium-mediated was used to genetically transform Arabidopsis thaliana. Four transgenic lines were obtained. After resistance screening and RT-PCR, three transgenic lines with high expression were studied. The results showed that the seed germination rate and root length of transgenic A. thaliana were 2.0 times and 1.2 times higher than that of wild type in 150 mmol·L-1 mannitol medium, respectively, whereas the seed germination rate and root length of transgenic A. thaliana were 1.1 times and 1.4 times higher than that of wild type in 150 mmol·L-1 NaCl medium, respectively. Under drought and salt stress, the survival rate of transgenic A. thaliana seedlings was higher than that of the wild type seedlings, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) was significantly higher than that of the wild type. The MDA content and relative conductivity were significantly lower in transgenic A. thaliana seedlings than that in wild type seedlings (P<0.05). These results indicate that the ClCBF1 gene plays a role in A. thaliana under drought and salt stressconditions.
Effect of low temperature stress on physiological indexes of cold resistance of Stylosanthes guianensis var. intermedia and S. guianensis ‘TPRC2001-1’
Li Li, Peng-zhi Yang, Shan-wen Ke, Tian-xiu Zhong, Shu Chen, Xin-ming Xie
2018, 12(6): 1409-1415. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0482
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To explore cold resistance of Stylosanthes, the vegetative leaves of S. guianensis var. intermedia and S. guianensis ‘TPRC2001-1’ were treated at 4 ℃ for 0 h, 24 h, and 48 h in the present study. Then, the cold resistance-related physiological indexes were measured including relative electrical conductivity, malondialdehyde content, free proline, soluble sugar, and soluble protein. The results showed that S. guianensis var. intermedia had a lower relative electrical conductivity and lower malondialdehyde content, as well as higher free proline, soluble sugar, and soluble protein content than those of TPRC2001-1, which proves that the S. guianensis var. intermedia has stronger cold resistance than that of TPRC2001-1.
Cloning and expression analysis of RtMYB1 gene from Reaumuria trigyna
Chao Du, Xiao-mei Sun, Ying-chun Wang, Lin-lin Zheng
2018, 12(6): 1416-1424. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0354
[Abstract](941) [FullText HTML] (122) [PDF 1509KB](19)
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The MYB transcription factor family plays an important regulatory role in imparting resistance to abiotic stress in plants. Based on transcriptome sequencing data, an MYB transcription factor was cloned from a rare secretohalophyte, Reaumuria trigyna, and named RtMYB1. The RtMYB1 gene has an ORF of 780 bp, encoding 236 amino acid residues. Expression of the RtMYB1 gene can be induced by stress factors, including salt, cold, high temperature, ultraviolet radiation(UV), and drought (PEG), indicating that the gene may be involved in regulating the response of R. trigyna to abiotic stress. This study lays the foundations to explore and better understand the resistance mechanisms against abiotic stress in R. trigyna.
Genetic dissection of grain forage traits in hulless barley
Xin-chun Liu, Yun-ping Lai, Yi Yu, Jin-e Yuan, Basangyuzhen, Zong-yun Feng
2018, 12(6): 1425-1434. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0409
[Abstract](756) [FullText HTML] (69) [PDF 806KB](16)
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To gain genetic information on forage traits for breeding new hulless barley varieties with high yield and good forage quality, we characterized the grain forage traits of 60 accessions of hulless barleys originating from the Qing-Tibet plateau. Unconditional and conditional association mapping analyses, conducted using a mixed line model as implemented in TASSEL software, and bulk sample analysis (BSA) methodology were used to identify markers significantly associated with grain forage traits. High genetic variation in grain forage traits was detected in the association mapping panel. These barley accessions were classified into three subgroups based on population genetic structure analysis, which indicated significant relationships between accession subgroups and their region of origin. Twenty-three sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers for grain forage traits, including crude protein content, starch content, and ash content, were determined using unconditional association analysis, whereas 20 and 24 SRAP markers significantly associated with crude protein content and starch content, respectively, were detected in the conditional association study. Additionally, a total of 37 SRAP markers associated with variation in grain forage traits were detected using the BSA methodology, among which, 2 and 4 SRAP markers associated with crude protein content and starch content, respectively, were also identified in the unconditional association study. These results provide potentially valuable information for improving grain forage traits and the cultivation of good quality, high-yielding accessions of hulless barley.
Effect of two types of mutagens on seed germination and physiological characteristics of alfalfa
Xiao-hui Shen
2018, 12(6): 1435-1442. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0404
[Abstract](727) [FullText HTML] (73) [PDF 546KB](16)
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To explore the effects of two types of mutagens on seed germination and physiological characteristics of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) using Wega7F alfalfa seeds as test materials, this study analyzed seed germination, seedling growth, and physiological characteristics under mutagenic treatments with doses of 60Co-γ and ethyl methyl sulfonate (EMS). The results showed that the effects of 60Co-γ rays on germination percentage, germination index, and seedling growth varied with dose. A low dose (150 Gy) increased germination percentage, germination index, seedling growth, and plant height, whereas high doses (300 and 450 Gy) reduced germination rate, seedling growth, and plant height. However, treatments with EMS at different doses reduced germination rate, seedling growth, and plant height. The two mutagens increased the branch number of alfalfa. Plant biomass increased with the two mutagen treatments at lower doses. Chlorophyll content increased with 60Co-γ irradiation and 0.4% EMS treatment. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and hydrogen peroxidase (CAT) were enhances under the two mutagenic treatments at different doses; the order of activity of the three enzymes was POD>CAT>SOD. The results of this study suggested that 60Co-γ at 150 Gy had significant influence on alfalfa yield and plant height; the application of alfalfa has been used to provide certain value. EMS treatments were more effective in increasing the potential for alfalfa branching, which is beneficial for improving the ornamental aspects of alfalfa.
Germination characteristics of 10 alfalfa varieties under Na2CO3 stress
Yun-tao Wang, Lin-qing Yu, Zhi-min Yang, Chun-jie Wang, Lei-lei Yan, Jian Ge, Wei-juan Wang, Xiao-feng Dong
2018, 12(6): 1443-1450. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0258
[Abstract](670) [FullText HTML] (77) [PDF 481KB](13)
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To clarify the seed germination characteristics of alfalfa under Na2CO3 stress, 10 alfalfa varieties were utilized in the present study, and the effects of different concentrations of Na2CO3 (0, 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.2%, and 0.3%) on the main seed germination characteristics, including germination rate, germination energy, hypocotyl length, and radicle length were measured. The results showed that the salt tolerance of different alfalfa varieties had obvious differences. By increasing Na2CO3 concentration, the germination rate first increased and then decreased, the germination energy was reduced, the plumule length and radicle length were shortened, and the salt tolerance indexes of the different alfalfa varieties were dissimilar. The synthetic analysis of four parameters indicated that the order of Na2CO3 salt resistance was Zhongmu No. 1 > Giant > YL702 > Phabulous > Zhongcao No. 3> Longmu 801 > YL80 > AC Caribou > YL604 > Algonquin.
Effect of trinexapac-ethyl overuse on the growth of Paspalum vaginatum
Xu-sheng Wang, Han-fu Luo, Ju-ming Zhang
2018, 12(6): 1451-1458. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0514
[Abstract](792) [FullText HTML] (66) [PDF 681KB](17)
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Trinexapac-ethyl (TE) inhibits vertical growth of turf, thereby reducing mowing frequency. Recently, TE has been widely used on turf at golf courses; however, it is often overused, leading to damaged turf. A field experiment was conducted on Paspalum vaginatum turf with 3 kinds of TE products (P, M, N) at 4 different concentrations, including a conventional concentration (1 mL·L-1), a medium-high concentration (1.5 mL·L-1), a very-high concentration (2 mL·L-1) and a super-high concentration (10 mL·L-1). Turfgrass clippings, biomass, color, density, and growth rate were measured during the experiment to examine the effects of TE overuse on P. vaginatum with the aim of providing a reference for the rational use of TE. Clippings taken from turf that were treated with the applications of the 3 products (P, M, and N) at the conventional concentration decreased by 70%, 78.5%, and 80%, respectively, and vertical growth rate decreased by 66.0%, 51.5%, 53.6%, respectively, when compared to the control. Clippings taken from the super-high concentration of P, M, and N decreased by 82.2%, 87.8%, and 81.3%, respectively, and vertical growth rate decreased by 71.1%, 72.2%, and 83.6%, respectively, when compared to the control. The higher the concentration of TE, the more the clippings and growth rate decreased. However, there was no significant difference between concentration treatments (P>0.05), i.e., concentration had no significant effect on biomass. The color of turfgrass exposed to the conventional concentration of P, M, and N was 7.9, 7.9, and 8.0, respectively, whereas the color of turfgrass exposed to the super-high concentration was 7.3, 7.2, and 7.2, respectively. The density of turfgrass when exposed to the conventional concentration of P, M, N was 8.1, 8.1, and 8.2, respectively, whereas the density of turfgrass exposed to the super-high concentration was 7.5, 7.4, and 7.4, respectively. A comprehensive analysis showed that at the conventional concentration of 1 mL·L-1, product P inhibited turf growth rate the most but had less influence on turf clippings, color, and density; thus, it had the best control effect. TE overuse did not have an obvious inhibition effect on turf but the quality of the turf decreased.
Effect of temperature and water on seed germination of Leymus secalinus
Chuan-qi Wang, Sha Liang, Wen-jing Zhang, Shi-mei Deng, Baosaihenna, Yan-jun Miao
2018, 12(6): 1459-1464. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0340
[Abstract](771) [FullText HTML] (71) [PDF 481KB](19)
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This study used a polyethylene glycol reagent and indoor simulation of different levels of drought stress (0, -0.10, -0.20, -0.40, -0.80, and -1.60 MPa) and temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 ℃) to study the seed germination characteristics of Leymus secalinus from Baingoin County of Xizang. The results showed that L. secalinus seeds can germinate in constant or variable (alternating) temperatures in the range of 10~30 ℃. A constant temperature of 15 ℃ and alternating temperatures of 20/30 ℃ had significant effects on seed germination, while constant temperatures 10 ℃ and 30 ℃ had extremely significant effects on germination percentage; seed germination was best at 25 ℃. With increasing PEG osmotic potential, the germination rate, germination index, vigor index, and plumule length showed different downward trends, while the radicle length first increased and then decreased. The germination rate of wild L. secalinus was the best (84%) under culture conditions involving 25 ℃ temperature and distilled water, among all the different temperatures and PEG osmotic potentials. At 25 ℃ and -0.10 to 0 MPa osmotic potential, the radicle growth of L. secalinus was better than that of the plumule.
Effect of planting density on yield and related traits of silage maize with different plant types
De-hua Yu, Xiao-fang Chen, Yun-xia Bi, Qiu-ling Shao
2018, 12(6): 1465-1471. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0399
[Abstract](770) [FullText HTML] (71) [PDF 492KB](31)
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The effects of planting density on silage maize yield and related traits of different plant types were studied using Yayu Silage 8 with horizontal leaves, Jingke silage 516 with semi compact form, and Limin 518 with upright leaves in four planting densities. The results showed that the optimum densities for fresh grass yield and grain yield of silage maize are different, and that the optimum density of the former is higher than that of the latter. With an increasing population density, the number of green leaves, fresh weight per plant, ear length, ear diameter, ear row number, and grain number per ear decreased. Bald length, plant height, ear height, empty bar rate, lodging (fold) rate, and gall and smut incidence rates increased gradually. The thousand-grain weight decreased under high density. Silage growth period was slightly prolonged. Limin 518 can be adapted to high density planting. Jingke silage 516 is the most intolerant to close planting, while there was a strong edge advantage.
Production performance and nutritional value of 12 alfalfa cultivars in a semi-arid zone
De-ming Li, Shao-ping Zhang, Xiao-li Geng, Rong Zhang, Qian Liu
2018, 12(6): 1472-1479. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0320
[Abstract](893) [FullText HTML] (87) [PDF 495KB](27)
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In order to determine the yield and nutritional value of different alfalfa cultivars in semi-arid areas, we evaluated 12 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) varieties in the National Regional Test Station in Lanzhou using a completely randomized block design. According to the theory of grey system correlation degree, the comprehensive evaluation of eight nutritional indexes (crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, crude fiber, crude fiber, water content, nitrogen free extract, calcium, and phosphorus) of different alfalfa cultivars was carried out. The results showed that the plant height and hay yield were significantly different among different alfalfa varieties (P<0.05). During the two years of study, hay yield decreased from the first to the third harvest. The Average heights of Zhongmu No.3, Gannong No.3, Gannong No.5, Zhongmu No.5, and Kangsai were higher than that of the other varieties tested. Hay yield of Gannong 5, Gannong 3, and Adina were higher than that of the other varieties tested. There were additional differences in the nutritional quality of different alfalfa varieties and the quality of Gannong No.5 and Zhongmu No.3 were the best, followed by that of Gannong No. 3, Zhongmu No. 5, and Kang Sai. Based on the production performance and nutritional value, Gannong No. 5, Zhongmu No. 3, Gannong No. 3, Zhongmu No. 5, and Kangsai had excellent production performance, high nutritional value, and outstanding comprehensive traits, and these five cultivars are suitable for cultivation in the alfalfa hay production areas in the semi-arid regions of the Loess Plateau.
Study on fertilizer effects of techniques of whole-plastic-film mulching on microridges and planting in catchment furrows of arid-land soybeans
Shu-zhen Chen, Guang-cai Liu, De-lu Zhou, Cheng-de Li, Xi-ping Wang, Yao-hui Li
2018, 12(6): 1480-1488. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0401
[Abstract](665) [FullText HTML] (74) [PDF 549KB](11)
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The techniques of whole-film mulching on microridges and planting in catchment furrows (WFMR) were new cultivation techniques for drought resistance and high yield for arid-land soybeans (Glycine max) in north China. Extensive extension of the techniques has important strategic significance to improve soybean yield and ensure food and oil sufficiency in China. Field plot experiments were employed to investigate fertilizer effects for the techniques of whole-plastic-film mulching on microridges and planting in catchment furrows of arid-land soybeans. The results showed that, compared with no-mulching cultivation (CK), the techniques of WFMR could increase fertilizer use rate remarkably, leading to average N, P, and K fertilizer use rates of 41.1%, 25.0%, and 23.9%, respectively, representing an increase by 7.3, 6.7, and 4.9 percentage points compared with CK. The techniques of WFMR could also increase soybean fertilizer use efficiency remarkably leading to average N, P, and K fertilizer use efficiency of 4.7, 11.9, and 6.8 kg·kg-1, respectively, an increase of 20.5%, 36.8%, and 23.6% compared with CK. The techniques of WFMR could improve the absorbing ability of soybeans to soil nutrients and increase the relative yield remarkably in nutritional deficiency zones, thus reducing the fertilization adherence of soybeans. Under the mode of WFMR, the average relative yield reached 79.1%, 47.3%, and 88.7% for N, P, and K fertilizer, respectively, being 4.6%, 4.3%, and 1.9% higher compared with CK. Under the treatment of WFMR, the average adherence degree was 20.9%, 52.7%, and 11.3%, respectively, for N, P, and K fertilizer decreased of 18.0%, 7.5%, and 14.4%, respectively, compared with CK. Therefore, it made a key breakthrough for highly efficient fertilizer use techniques in arid-land soybean.
Comparison of yield and nutritional quality of two oat (Avena sativa) varieties grown in the alpine pastoral region of China
Xiong-xiong Cui, Fu-jiang Hou, Sheng-hua Chang, Zhao-feng Wang
2018, 12(6): 1489-1495. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0306
[Abstract](1027) [FullText HTML] (102) [PDF 631KB](33)
Abstract:
Oat (Avena sativa) is one of the main crops grown in pasture in the alpine pastoral regions of China. However, the yield and nutritional quality of most of the current local varieties are not optimum. High quality oat varieties are necessary to meet the local demand and to improve the productivity of oat cultivations in alpine pastures. In this study, we investigated agronomic traits and nutritional qualities of a local oat variety, Longyan 1, and a new improved oat variety, LENA, in the alpine pastoral region of Luqu County in the Qinghai Tibet plateau from 2013 to 2016. We found shorter plant growth period and faster maturation of the LENA oat variety compared with that of the local oat variety. The yield of fresh biomass and hay were 41 and 38% higher (P<0.05) in the LENA variety than the local variety, respectively. The crude protein (CP), calcium (Ca), and phosphorous (P) content of the LENA variety were likewise higher, but not significantly (P>0.05). The ether extract (EE) content of the LENA variety was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of the local variety. In contrast, acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content were lower in the LENA variety than in the local variety, but only the NDF content was significantly different. Our results indicate that, in general, the productivity and nutritional quality of the LENA oat variety were better than that of the local oat variety. Therefore, we propose that LENA oat variety has a greater prospect to be used as high-quality oat variety in the alpine pastoral areas. Further research in wider alpine pasture regions is warranted to expand upon our findings.
Effect of simulated drought stress and salt stress on seed germination of Scutellaria barbata
Xing-suo Zhao, Hai-bo Sun, Yi-xin Liu, Jian-yun He, Jiao Dong, Xiu-yun Yang
2018, 12(6): 1496-1502. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0203
[Abstract](759) [FullText HTML] (85) [PDF 473KB](28)
Abstract:
Scutellaria barbata seeds were used as an experimental model to study the effects of drought and salt stress on seed germination and seedling growth. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used to simulate drought stress, and mixed solutions of NaCl, Na2SO4, MgCl2, and (2 NaCl+Na2SO4) was used to simulate salt stress. The results show that: 1) Draught stress induced by 5% and 10% PEG solutions did not cause an effect on seed germination and seedling growth, but the 15% and 20% PEG solutions had significant inhibitory effects on seed germination and seedling growth (P<0.05), and the seeds did not germinate under stress induced by 25% PEG treatment. 2) Under salt stress, with increasing concentrations of Na2SO4 the germination rate and germination index showed a “fall-rise-fall” trend. With NaCl+MgCl2 salt stress, germination rate and germination index were negatively correlated with salt concentration. With NaCl salt stress, seedings did not grow. The seedling leaf area showed a negative correlation with the concentration of a Na2SO4+MgCl2 composite salt solution. A 0.3% concentration of Na2SO4, MgCl2, and compound salt showed a germination promoting effect, while concentrations higher than 0.6% had an inhibitory effect. Radicle length under the Na2SO4, MgCl2 salt stress, reduced with the increase of concentration; with the increase of composite salt concentration radicle length presented a “rise-fall” trend. These indicators of S. barbata seed germination and seedling growth showed different effects of drought and salt stress on seed germination and seedling growth.
Comprehensive evaluation of production characteristics of annual forage crops based on principal component analysis:A case study of Zhuanglang in Gansu
Yan-zhong Yang, Wen-qi Zhou, Xiao-rong Lian, Si-rong Kou
2018, 12(6): 1503-1509. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0284
[Abstract](704) [FullText HTML] (52) [PDF 488KB](23)
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Annual forage crop is an important source of forage supply during spring and winter in the Loess Plateau of Gansu Province. However the optimal choice of annual forage crops has become a bottle-neck in the establishment and development of annual pastures in this area. Accordingly, dry matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, digestible dry matter, digestible dry matter intake, relative feed value, and water use efficiency were used as indicators in a model, which was then subjected to principal component analysis to comprehensively evaluate the production characteristics of annual forage crops in the Loess Plateau in Gansu Province. These results showed that the dry matter yield of Sudan grass was the highest, followed by that of oats, while that of millet was the lowest. This study demonstated that Sudan grass(Sorghum sudanense)could be planted in large scale on the Loess Plateau of Zhuanglang in Gansu Province.
Effect of root pruning radius and time on root biomass and horizontal distribution in Helianthus tuberosus
Tie-xia Zhu, Kai Gao, Lin Wang, Yang Gao
2018, 12(6): 1510-1516. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0397
[Abstract](685) [FullText HTML] (39) [PDF 459KB](12)
Abstract:
Studying the effects of the root pruning radius and time on root biomass and horizontal distribution in Helianthus tuberosus clarified the influence mechanism of cutting the roots regarding tuber yield from the change in root biomass and horizontal distribution under different cutting root treatments. The results showed that the biomasses of the main root, root, primary root, rhizome, and fibrous root were significantly higher than that of the root that was not cut (P<0.05), and the biomasses of the main root, root, primary root, rhizome, and fibrous root showed a decreasing trend with an increase in the root cutting radius. The root, main root, primary root, rhizome, and fibrous root biomass showed first an increase and then a decrease that was aligned with the cutting root time delay. The root, main root, primary root, rhizome, and fibrous root biomasses decreased gradually with an increase in the distance from the main root center under the root cutting treatments. The effect of root pruning time and radius on the root, main root, primary root, rhizome, and fibrous root biomasses decreased as the distance from the main root center.
Advances in the understanding of mechanisms underlying the effects of aluminum stress on herbaceous plant physiology
Yu-ting Huang, Ya Wu, Da-lin Liu, Wei-hong Zhang
2018, 12(6): 1517-1527. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0557
[Abstract](995) [FullText HTML] (129) [PDF 632KB](18)
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Aluminum toxicity is a major factor limiting the growth of herbaceous plants in areas with acidic soils. Global soil acidification further intensifies aluminum stress-induced damage to plants. In this paper, we review the effects of aluminum stress on herbaceous plants, including the effects on agronomic traits, photosynthetic respiration, active oxygen and antioxidant enzymes, osmotic adjustment substances, root activity, and secondary metabolites. We mainly focus on the various hazards of aluminum stress with respect to herbaceous plants, but also briefly describe how low concentrations of aluminum can have a promoting effect on certain indicators of herbaceous plant growth. Aluminum stress has toxic effects on both the above- and below-ground parts of plants, causing decreases in chlorophyll content, reduced stomatal conductance, inhibition of respiration, increases in active oxygen concentrations, decreases in antioxidant enzyme activity, perturbation of osmotic adjustment, reduced root activity, and disruption of secondary metabolism. We also discuss methods that can be employed to alleviate aluminum toxicity and propose future research directions.
Soil nematode community response to warming in alpine meadows of northern Tibet
Xue-xia Wang, Qing-zhu Gao, Ganjurjav Hasbagan, Guo-zheng Hu, Wen-han Li
2018, 12(6): 1528-1538. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0346
[Abstract](666) [FullText HTML] (38) [PDF 790KB](22)
Abstract:
To understand the effect of warming on soil nematode communities in alpine meadows, soil nematode communities were compared in short-term and long-term warming by OTC (open top chamber)simulation in northern Tibet. The results showed that the community composition of soil nematodes was changed and the abundance of Ditylenchus and Acrobeles were increased by short-term and long-term warming. The abundance of fungivores (Fu) was increased significantly by long-term warming; however, the abundance of bacterivores (Ba), plant-parasites (Pp), predators/omnivores (Om), and cp1-5 groups was not significantly different among the treatments studied. The diversity and evenness of soil nematodes were reduced by both short-term and long-term warming. The diversity of soil nematodes in 2015 was significantly reduced in the short-term warming treatment. As compared with the control, the number of soil nematodes in the short-term and long-term treatments was significantly decreased in 2015 and 2016. The values were decreased by 34.45% and 32.09% in 2015 and 25.34% and 22.66% in 2016, respectively. The effect of warming on MI, NCR, PPI, and WI index were not significant in the study treatments, and WI > 1, NCR > 0.5, showed that warming had a little effect on the health of alpine meadows. Moreover, the decomposition of organic matter depended mainly on Fu and Ba in this study. The correlations among environmental factors and the number soil nematodes were analyzed by redundancy analysis. The results showed that the total plant cover, Cyperaceae cover, soil temperature and moisture, and number of bacteria and fungi were important factors affecting the number of total nematodes, Ba, Fu, Pp, and Om. Therefore, certain changes in nematode community structure and composition have taken place due to the plants, soil, physical, and chemical properties, and the number of microbes were changed by raising temperature in alpine meadows.
Species diversity of bumblebees from the eastern Qinghai Province
Lei Wang, Fang Zhao, Zhen-hua Chen, Jun-dong Yang, Jian-ping Su, Tong-zuo Zhang, Gong-hua Lin
2018, 12(6): 1539-1547. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0565
[Abstract](885) [FullText HTML] (77) [PDF 755KB](17)
Abstract:
Using morphological characteristics and mitochondrial 16S rDNA barcoding, we identified bumblebee (Bombus spp.) samples collected from 20 counties of eastern Qinghai Province, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). We also investigated the species composition of bumblebees in each sampling site and analyzed the relationship between species diversity and related environmental factors. A total of 3 195 specimens was collected from 20 sampling sites, of which 23 species belonging to 10 subgenera were identified. The total Shannon-Wiener diversity was 2.67 and Pielou evenness index was 0.85, showing a high level of species diversity. Five species (B. lantschouensis, B. patagiatus, B. lucorum, B. pyrosoma, and B. melanurus) possibly have the potential for economic development, comprising 17.9% of the total sample. The results of Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis showed that the annual temperature was the key factor influencing species diversity, and as the temperature decreased, species richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity, and Pielou evenness all significantly decreased (P<0.05). Our research provides fundamental information for the understanding, utilization, and conservation of bumblebee diversity in the QTP.
Effect of different temperatures on the growth and development of sorghum aphid (Melanaphis sacchari)
De-gong Wu, Qing Chen, Qiu-wen Zhan, Bao-hong Huang, Jun-li Du, Wei-dong Huang, Ying-jie Shu, Zeng-xia Wang
2018, 12(6): 1548-1555. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0358
[Abstract](701) [FullText HTML] (50) [PDF 604KB](13)
Abstract:
This study examined the effects of different temperatures on the development and fecundity of the sorghum aphid (Melanaphis sacchari). The growth and development, fecundity, and life table parameters of sorghum aphids were studied at 15~30 ℃. The results indicate that the mortality of sorghum aphids is higher at 30 ℃; so no specific data could be generated at this temperature. The growth period of the sorghum aphids were markedly shortened when the temperature increased. Within the range of 15 to 28 ℃, the growth period of the sorghum aphids was between 5.63~12.13 d and the survival rate was between 88%~94%. The survival rate of the nymphs was the highest at 15 ℃ and the lowest at 28 ℃. The weight of the adult aphids and that of the F1 progeny decreased with increasing temperature. The longevity of the sorghum aphids ranged from 11.76 to 48.47 d. The reproductive rate was positively correlated with temperature. In the range of 15~28 ℃, the net reproductive rate of the population ranged from 42.60 to 80.56, with the highest rate recorded at 24 ℃ (80.56) and the lowest at 28 ℃ (42.60). The average generation time decreased with increasing temperature. The intrinsic rate of increase of the sorghum aphids ranged between 0.160~0.339, with the highest value recorded at 24 ℃. In the range of 15~28 ℃, the intrinsic growth rate significantly increased with increasing temperature. Using an equation relating the net reproductive rate, the intrinsic rate of increase and temperature, the optimal temperature for the growth and reproduction of the sorghum aphids was determined to be between 20.34~26.85 ℃. The above results indicate that the growth and development of the sorghum aphids occur optimally at 24 ℃. The population of the sorghum aphids increase when the temperature ranges between 20.34~26.85 ℃ Therefore, within this temperature range the population dynamics of the sorghum aphids can be predicted, which provides the foundation for strategies to prevent the spread of the sorghum aphids.
Feeding value of woody forage in pig production and treatment technology of anti-nutritional factors
Hong-hui Shi, Jia-ming Liao, Yue Li, Lin Guo, Cheng Wang, Zhong-tong Peng, Wei Zhou, Qing Zhang, Xiao-yang Chen
2018, 12(6): 1556-1567. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0645
[Abstract](793) [FullText HTML] (130) [PDF 674KB](24)
Abstract:
Woody forage generally refers to the leaves, buds, and seeds of woody plants for feeding and processed wood, sawdust, shavings and other by-products. As this constitutes a novel protein raw material to be exploited, this article summarizes the nutritional value and anti-nutritional factors of woody plants including Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Broussonetia papyrifera. Furthermore, progress in the application of pig production and current anti-nutritional factors are discussed. Woody forage has a high protein content and is rich in minerals and vitamins. Anti-nutritional factors, such as tannins, phytic acid, and saponin are higher, while the levels of other compounds including trypsin inhibitor and cyanide are lower. Concerning the use of woody forage as feed in pig production, the main ways to reduce anti-nutritional factors are physical, chemical, and biological fermentation methods. The article aims to provide reference data for the rational development and utilization of woody forage for pig production.
Evaluation of the nutritional value of silage from stems and leaves of different Jerusalem artichoke varieties in an alpine region
Qi Yan, Shi-ting Zhang, Chang-ming Zhao, Pei-pei Liu, Jiao-jiao Zhang, Yue-hua Wang, Hai-yan Wei, Xian-ju Wang, Shi-qi Lyu, Lu-ming Ding
2018, 12(6): 1568-1573. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0312
[Abstract](978) [FullText HTML] (69) [PDF 509KB](18)
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The objective of the present study was to select Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) varieties with high yields and nutrition in an alpine area. Three varieties (17, 47, and 119) were planted and harvested at the bud stage to make silage from stems and leaves. The results were as follows: 1) There were significant differences in plant height and biomass (P<0.01) among the three varieties, with variety 119 having the highest plant height and biomass. 2) The pH and organic acid content of the silage showed significant differences among the three varieties (P<0.01). Variety 17 silage had the highest pH and lowest lactic acid content, whereas the other two varieties did not show significant differences (P>0.05). Variety 119 silage had the highest acetic acid and propionic acid content (0.71% and 0.60%, respectively). 3) The content of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), crude ash (Ash), and relative feeding value (RFV) were significantly different among the three varieties (P<0.05). The DM of variety 119 was higher than that of varieties 17 and 47. The lowest content of CP and Ash was found in variety 47, and there were no significant differences in CP and Ash between variety 17 and variety 119 (P>0.05). The NDF and ADF content of variety 119 was significantly lower than those of varieties 47 and 17. The RFV of variety 119 was significantly higher than that of varieties 17 and 47. In conclusion, variety 119 showed the best nutritional feed value and productivity in an alpine area in the present study.
Effect of different harvesting periods on grain yield and stalk silage quality of maize
Hong Wang, Hao Guan, Ming Chen, An-qi Peng, Xiao-mei Li, Chang-hua Li, Xiao-ling Li, Wei-guo Liu, Ping Fang, Yan-hong Yan
2018, 12(6): 1574-1581. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0410
[Abstract](737) [FullText HTML] (40) [PDF 528KB](30)
Abstract:
The influence of the harvesting date of maize (CK: mid dough stage, harvesting on traditional date; S1: Late dough stage, harvesting delayed one week; S2: Early full ripening stage, harvesting delayed two weeks; S3: Mid full ripening stage, harvesting delayed three weeks; and S4: Late full ripening stage, harvesting delayed four weeks) on grain yield, and the nutritional value of straw and silage was investigated to determine the optimum harvesting date with a “Maize-Soybean” relay intercropping system in southwestern China. The results showed that the grain yield first increased together with increasing harvesting date until it reached a plateau. Grain yield was the highest at S2 being 9.47% higher than that of CK. The dry matter content (DM), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) of straw gradually increased together with the harvesting date. The ADF and NDF of CK, S1, and S2 were not statistically different; however, they were significantly lower than those of S3 and S4. The soluble carbohydrate content significantly decreased with the increasing harvesting date, but it was greater than 8% of that of DM. The pH values of silage significantly increased with the increasing harvesting date but were lower than 4.2, whereas the lactic acid content decreased (P<0.05). Propionic acid and butyric acid were not detected in all treatments. Ammonia nitrogen/total nitrogen in each treatment increased but was less than 5% of that of DM as harvesting date increased. In conclusion, the optimum harvesting date of corn was at the late dough stage to early full ripening stage in the southwest region, which guaranteed the highest grain yield and nutritional value.
Analysis of alfalfa import price fluctuation based on an HP filter model
Ning Dong, Wei Zhao
2018, 12(6): 1582-1586. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0356
[Abstract](626) [FullText HTML] (44) [PDF 632KB](12)
Abstract:
This study analyzed alfalfa (Medicago sativa) import price features based on data from January 2008 to December 2017. First, we analyzed the main characteristics of price fluctuation. Then, a seasonal adjustment model of Census X12 was used to eliminate the influence of seasonal factors and irregular factors. An HP filter decomposition model was further used to breakdown the price series into trend series and fluctuation series. Finally, the fluctuation period was divided. This study allows us to take advantage of the fluctuation and cyclical changes in alfalfa import price to guide enterprises in trade, so as to reduce the negative effects of price fluctuation.
Development and prospects of forage reserves in Chinese pastoral farming
Yu-shan Jia, Shuai Du, Ying-hao Liu, Gegentu
2018, 12(6): 1587-1592. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0629
[Abstract](757) [FullText HTML] (83) [PDF 942KB](39)
Abstract:
With the increasing population and corresponding food consumption in China, the demand for animal products such as meat, eggs, and milk has increased drastically. The direction of animal husbandry has largely depended on the demand. Currently, traditional methods of animal husbandry has shifted to more modern means of animal husbandry. However, grazing is a major concern in food production. It is essential for healthy and stable development of animal husbandry to ensure a sustainable food supply. This article examines the problem of forage-grass reserve balance in China, expounds on the necessity of forage-grass reserve construction, and puts forward several suggestions: 1) The current state of infrastructure construction is weak, meaning that the ability to resist damage caused by natural disasters is insufficient, and an increase in infrastructure spending is urgently needed. 2) Reduction in the cost of transport of forage-grass products is needed, through expanding trade and transportation. 3) To speed up the legislative process, improvement in the legal system regulating the use of forage-grass products is needed. 4) Establishment of supporting policies governing the processing and management of forage-grass production is required to allow for social and financial improvements in forage-grass production. These changes will improve forage-grass product reserve and management and play a guiding role for stabilizing forage sustainability.