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2018 Vol.35(3)

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2018, 12(3): 0-.
[Abstract](547) [PDF 1216KB](138)
Abstract:
Root characteristics of Cynodon dactylis and Trifolium repens and their effect on shear performance of purple soilin barren hillside
Tao Zhou, Xiao-hong Liu, Yun Chen, Run-ze Wang, Tie Li, Ting-ting Zhai, Chen Wu, Yong-qing Zong
2018, 12(3): 463-471. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0349
[Abstract](1129) [FullText HTML] (116) [PDF 598KB](269)
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To investigate the soil reinforcement of grass roots on purple soil on barren hillsides and the factors affecting it, purple soil under the environment was assessed via an experiment with three treatments: A blank control and soil under Cynodon dactylon and Trifolium repens. After eight months, basic physical and chemical properties, root parameters, and soil shear strength were measured by conventional methods, the root analysis system (WinRHIZO(Pro. 2004c)) and strain controlled direct shear apparatus. The root parameters of C. dactylon were better than those of T. repens; root diameter of C. dactylon was significantly higher than that of T. repens (d≤0.2 mm; P<0.05). C. dactylon was more effective than T. repens in improving soil physical and chemical properties. Both kinds of grass effectively improved the shear performance of the root-soil system. Compared with the blank control, the internal friction angle (φ) and cohesion (c) of soil under C. dactylon and T. repens were higher by 10.37%, 66.36%, and 1.14%, 34.22%, respectively, and the shear performance of soil under C. dactylon was better than that of soil under T. repens. Soil bulk density, total porosity, capillary porosity, and root length density (RLD) were the key indexes affecting the shear performance of the root-soil system, and d ≤ 0.2 mm was the critical diameter class affecting shear performance.
Relationships between soil factors and grassland degradation on an alpine grassland based on redundancy analysis
Wei-dong Wei, Yu-hong Liu, Hui Ma, Ji-lan Li
2018, 12(3): 472-481. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0324
[Abstract](1011) [FullText HTML] (212) [PDF 585KB](190)
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Based on research sample plots on a degraded alpine grassland, we observed plant community characteristics, collected soil samples, and analyzed soil physical and chemical properties according to the basic principles of quantitative ecology, the relationships between a degraded grassland and soil factors in an alpine grassland were discussed. The first sorting axis of the redundancy analysis ordination diagram showed the distribution of the degree of degradation in the grassland. The grassland plant community was negatively correlated with the first sorting axis, followed by vegetation coverage, aboveground biomass, and underground biomass. The first and second sorting axes explained 97.1% of the relationships between grassland degradation and soil factors. Sand and pH were positively correlated with the first sorting axis. Soil organic carbon, soil water content, bulk density, total nitrogen, and available nitrogen were negatively correlated with the first sorting axis. The relationship between soil factors and grassland degradation varied and was highly significant in all sorting axes (P<0.01). The relationship between soil organic carbon (r=-0.890), soil water content (r=-0.864), bulk density (r=-0.847), total nitrogen (r=-0.836), and available nitrogen (r=-0.821) with alpine meadow degradation were highly significantly correlated (P<0.01). Redundancy analysis of degraded grassland community characteristics and the soil factor data matrix reflected the relationship between soil factors and grassland degradation and the degree of correlation between soil organic carbon, soil water content, bulk density, total nitrogen, and available nitrogen were the main factors affecting grassland degradation of the alpine grassland.
Effect of straw and biochar on soil organic carbon and carbon pool management index in purple soil under rape-maize rotation
Chang Lu, Chang Xu, Rong Huang, Dong Tian, Ming Gao
2018, 12(3): 482-490. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0345
[Abstract](684) [FullText HTML] (37) [PDF 569KB](139)
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In order to reveal the response of the organic carbon pool of purple soil to straw and biochar application in Southwest China, this experiment quantified the content of various forms of organic carbon and the carbon pool management index in rape-maize rotation systems in the national monitoring station for soil fertility and fertilizer efficiency of purple soils. There were five treatments, including no organic material (CK), straw (CS), biochar (BC), 50% straw+50% biochar (CS+BC), and straw+microorganisms (CS+D), which were repeated three times. The results showed that straw and biochar addition increased soil total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, particulate organic carbon, mineral-associated organic carbon, labile organic carbon, and carbon pool management index as compared with those of the CK treatment. The highest content of microbial biomass carbon, coarse particulate organic carbon, and soil microbial entropy were found in the CS+D treatment, with increases of 104.17%, 248.57%, and 66.61%, respectively. The content of microbial biomass carbon, coarse particulate organic carbon, and soil microbial entropy increased by 75.25%, 211.43%, and 51.38%, respectively, in the CS treatment. As compared with the CK treatment, carbon pool management index increased by 87.42 and 70.95 in the CS+D and CS treatments, respectively. The highest content of mineral-associated organic carbon was 13.14 g·kg-1 in the BC treatment. Overall, the activity and quality of soil organic carbon improved by the addition of straw and straw + microorganism, whereas the stability of soil organic carbon was improved by the addition of biochar, which is beneficial for the long-term stable fixation of soil organic carbon.
Research progress on the mechanism of AM fungi for improving plant stress resistance
Wei-zhen Zhang, Li-jun Gu, Ting-yu Duan
2018, 12(3): 491-507. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0169
[Abstract](1115) [FullText HTML] (132) [PDF 760KB](187)
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Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) fungi could increase plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.AM fungi could improve plant resistance to abiotic stresses, including drought, high or low temperature, heavy metal, and salt. The mechanism includes improving plant nutrient absorption, the accumulation of osmotic adjustment substances and activities of antioxidative enzymes, strengthening the effects of osmotic adjustment and maintaining the balance of plant hormones, and increasing auxin synthesis, and regulating carbon and nitrogen metabolism. AM fungi could also induce plant defense gene expression and enhance the capacity of plant roots and mycelium to hold heavy metal. The mechanism of AM fungi for defense against plant disease and insects may include building the mycelium network that can form mechanical barriers for the pathogen that is invading, enhancing the activities of resistance-related enzymes, synthesizing secondary metabolites associated with disease and insect resistance, promoting the expression of genes related to diseases and pests, and transmission by mycelium of the signal of insect resistance defense to improve the insect resistance of adjacent plants. We summarize the effects of AM fungi on plant stress resistance and the mechanisms found both at home and abroad in recent years.
Spatiotemporal dynamics of grassland degradation in Yili Valley of Xinjiang over the last 15 years
Jun-jie Yan, Hai-jun Liu, Dong Cui, Chen Chen
2018, 12(3): 508-520. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0476
[Abstract](1098) [FullText HTML] (77) [PDF 2443KB](140)
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Based on data of fractional coverage extracted from MODIS NDVI data and a dimidiate pixel model, and with the assistance of digital elevation model data and Getis-Ord cold/hot spot analysis method, spatiotemporal variations of grassland degradation during the 2001-2015 period in Yili Valley were investigated. The results showed: 1) Affected by persistent overgrazing and variation in climatic conditions, grassland degeneration in Yili Valley exhibited a steady declining trend from 2001 to 2015. The proportion of degraded grassland rose to 46.18% within 15 years, but was primarily lightly degraded. 2) Spatially, degraded grassland expanded to the high-altitude area gradually, where the expansion of the degraded grassland located in the middle and sub-high mountain areas within 1 500-3 000 m above sea level was the most obvious. 3) The policies of ecological conservation implemented in the grassland slowed down the rate of grassland degradation. Spatial differences between degraded grassland and improved grassland became distinct gradually, hence the trends in grassland dynamics caused by degradation were altered. 4) The method of evaluating grassland degradation by utilizing vegetation coverage inversed from NDVI suffered from weak sensitivity to grassland degradation in high vegetation coverage areas.
Comparison of spatial interpolation methods for precipitation distribution in Xinjiang region
Ren-ping Zhang, Yun-ling Zhang, Jing Guo, Qi-sheng Feng, Tian-gang Liang
2018, 12(3): 521-529. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0608
[Abstract](1171) [FullText HTML] (138) [PDF 1984KB](159)
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Based on the data from 154 meteorological stations in Xinjiang district and surrounding areas, five interpolation methods [inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary Kriging (Kriging), Collaborative Kriging (Cokriging), Empirical Bayesian (EBK) and ANUSPLIN spatial interpolation] were implemented for simulation and cross examination of monthly average precipitation from 1995 to 2004. The test results showed that the interpolation accuracy, from most to least accurate, was ANUSPLIN, Cokriging, EBK, Kriging and IDW. Accuracy varied between months. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) showed lower value in winter and spring than in summer and autumn; the Mean Relative Error (MRE) was higher in spring and autumn. While comparing precipitation distribution in Xinjiang, ANUSPLIN considered both the accuracy and smoothness of the interpolation surface, which more precisely reflected the spatial distribution of precipitation. Interpolation results from the EBK method were much higher than the actual precipitation distribution in April and July, while the interpolation was better in January and October. Cokriging interpolation results were uneven and did not accurately reflect spatial distribution. Interpolation using the Kriging method was better in October, but less so for the other three months (January, April and July). The maximum or minimum value of the IDW method was mainly distributed around the station and differed with the actual precipitation distribution.
Establishment of plant tissue culture system and preliminary study on genetic transformation of Lvzhou No. 3
Lan Mei, Zhao-zhao Song, Bo Liu, Zhi-kui Lin, Zhan-xi Lin
2018, 12(3): 530-541. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0426
[Abstract](1247) [FullText HTML] (156) [PDF 2006KB](132)
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The calli derived from Lvzhou No. 3 (Arundo)were used as experimental material to induce adventitious buds and roots and conduct apot experiment. The calli were then used as receptors to examine the genetic transformation of Lvzhou No. 3. The results demonstrated that the most effective formula for adventitious bud induction was MS+1.0 mg·L-1 6-BA+0.1 mg·L-1 NAA, which exhibited an adventitious bud induction rate of 100%. The best formula for root induction was MS; the induction rate was 100%. Among nine different transplanting media, the rate of living seedling was 100% after being transplanted in peaty soil. The results showed that calli of Lvzhou No. 3(Arundo)that were precultured for 3 d, inoculated for 10 minutes, OD600=0.1, and cocultured for 1 d with 300 μmol·L-1AS are adapted for genetic transformation. The GUS expression rate might reach 1.5%.
In vitro tissue culture and plant regeneration of Clematis florida ‘Blekitny Aniol’
Xin Huang, Yan-ni Zhang
2018, 12(3): 542-550. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0337
[Abstract](796) [FullText HTML] (110) [PDF 995KB](119)
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In this study, aseptic Clematis florida‘Blekitny Aniol’ seedlings were obtained from stem segments with axillary buds, and callus induction and differentiation of leaves and stem segments were analyzed. The regeneration system of ‘Blekitny Aniol’ was established. The results showed that the optimal medium for the induction of axillary buds from the stem segments with axillary buds was MS+1 mg·L-16-BA+0.05 mg·L-1NAA, and the germination rate of axillary buds was 100.0%. The optimal medium for callus induction from stem segments was MS+2 mg·L-16-BA+0.01 mg·L-1NAA with a callus induction rate of 78.3%. The optimal medium for callus induction from leaf blades was MS+1 mg·L-16-BA+0.1 mg·L-1NAA with the highest callus induction rate of 81.7%. The optimal medium for callus differentiation was 1/2MS+1 mg·L-16-BA+0.05 mg·L-1NAA, and the callus differentiation rate was 25.0%. The optimal medium for adventitious budproliferation was 1/2MS+3 mg·L-16-BA+0.1 mg·L-1NAA, and the highest proliferation times was 4.94. Rooting rate of regenerated plants reached up to 70.2% on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.05 mg·L-1NAA.
Effect of soil extract from an apple orchard on ryegrass and alfalfa seed germination and seedling growth in eastern Gansu
Ya-ya Wang, Mei Yang, Jiao-yun Lu, Hui-min Yang
2018, 12(3): 551-557. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0187
[Abstract](841) [FullText HTML] (56) [PDF 580KB](130)
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Inclusion of grass into fruit-tree orchards, is a new strategy of soil management. Successful grassland establishment is essential for the construction of this model. However, the specificity of soils in apple orchards may affect grass seed germination and seedling growth; thereby, affecting grassland establishment. The effect of soil extract on ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seed germination and seedling growth was studied in an apple orchard. Soil extract increased the number of germinated ryegrass seeds, but decreased the number of germinated alfalfa seeds. There was no effect of soil extract on seed germination rate of either species. Compared with no leaves remaining on the soil, extract from the soil with leaves accelerated the germination of the two grassseeds and tended to increase the germination rate. The soil extract from the apple orchard inhibited root growth and reduced seedling fresh weight of ryegrass and alfalfa seedlings. The root growth of alfalfa and ryegrass was inhibited by the falling leaves remaining on the soil. Therefore, in apple orchards, the effect of the soil on grassland development may be attributed mainly to the inhibition of seedling growth of grass species, rather than to the inhibition of seed germination. Falling leaves from apple trees may enhance such inhibition. Compared with the herbaceous species, the leguminous species was more susceptible to the inhibition observed.
Exogenous ascorbic acid priming promoted oats seedling growth under Na2SO4 stress
Qiu-li Dong, Fang-shan Xia, He-xing Ding, Ming-ya Wang, Hui-sen Zhu, Kuan-hu Dong, Xiang Zhao, Li-xia Du
2018, 12(3): 558-565. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0305
[Abstract](835) [FullText HTML] (43) [PDF 523KB](109)
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This study aimed to explore the effect of exogenous ascorbic acid on oats seedling growth under Na2SO4 stress. Oats (Avena sativa) seeds were primed by incubation in different concentrations of ascorbic acid (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mmol·L-1), prior to germination under increasing concentrations of Na2SO4 (0, 50 and 100 mmol·L-1). Changes in shoot length (SL), root length (RL), shoot fresh weight (SFW), root fresh weight (RFW), and seedling vigor index (SVI), were analyzed. Results showed that SL, RL, SFW and SVI of oats seedlings significantly (P<0.05) decreased with increasing Na2SO4 stress. On the other hand, RFW first increased and then decreased. Nevertheless, all variables increased upon AsA priming; this indicated that oats seedling growth was improved by AsA priming prior to Na2SO4 stress. The effects of Na2SO4 and AsA concentration, as well as their interaction (except for SVI), on all parameters under study were highly significant (P<0.01). This indicated that the effects of AsA priming were closely related to the concentrations of AsA and Na2SO4, and their interaction. In this study, priming with AsA at 1.5 mmol·L-1 effectively promoted oats seedling growth under Na2SO4 stress.
Effect of plateau pika disturbance on reproductive allocation of Kobresia pygmaea
Hong-yan Zhang, Qian Wang, Cheng Yu, Xiao-pan Pang, Shao-hong Jin, Zheng-gang Guo
2018, 12(3): 566-573. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0272
[Abstract](856) [FullText HTML] (73) [PDF 792KB](148)
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Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) disturbance induces the alteration of Kobresia pygmaea habitats in alpine meadows, and reproductive allocation is a main strategy for plants to adapt to altered habitats. A field survey was carried out to determine the effects of plateau pika disturbance on the reproductive allocation of K. pygmaea. This study showed that plateau pika disturbance significantly increased the total biomass, underground biomass, reproductive shoot-vegetative shoot ratio, and root-shoot ratio of K. pygmaea (P<0.05), while it decreased its aboveground biomass (P<0.05). In the disturbed areas, the total biomass and aboveground biomass of K. pygmaea increased initially, and then decreased with increasing intensity of disturbance. The reproductive shoot-vegetative shoot ratio of K. pygmaea decreased initially, and then increased, indicating that K. pygmaea allocated more resources to vegetative growth, to expand its population, when disturbance intensity increased from low disturbance to the appropriate disturbance intensity threshold. However, it allocated more resources to reproductive growth, to ensure population survival, when disturbance intensity was greater than the appropriate disturbance intensity threshold.
Effect of substrates on Aronia melanocarpa seedling growth
Cheng-xia Zhang, Yan Sun, Can Cai, Xiang-gang Wang, Hong Wu
2018, 12(3): 574-580. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0259
[Abstract](790) [FullText HTML] (40) [PDF 629KB](109)
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To determine the most appropriate medium for growing Aronia melanocarpa in nursery containers, seeds were cultivated in container matrices that consisted of varying ratios of garden soil, peat soil, perlite, and sand. The results demonstrated that the type of medium had a significant effect on seedling emergence rate, seedling height, basal diameter, taproot length, number of lateral roots, root activity, soluble sugar, starch, and protein. A comprehensive analysis and evaluation of the indices of the container seedlings showed that the most optimal matrices for seedling cultivation were, from most effective to least effective: 40% garden soil + 30% peat soil + 30% sand; 40% garden soil + 30% perlite + 30% sand; 40% garden soil + 30% peat soil + 30% perlite, and 60% garden soil + 20% peat soil + 20% sand.
Physiological study of drought-tolerant Nassella tenuissima under water
Dong-wei Niu, Nan Ma, Zhuo-yan Fang, Yan-hui Li
2018, 12(3): 581-589. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0279
[Abstract](1216) [FullText HTML] (186) [PDF 761KB](113)
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We measured some of the physiological markers of the annual grass species Nassella tenuissima during a period of water stress imposed by potted water control to provide a theoretical basis for conservation management and rational use of this grass in the garden. Results showed that growth rate, in terms of plant height, and leaf relative water content of plants treated with 20%, 40% and 60% (D20, D40, and D60 treatments) of soil maximum water-holding capacity decreased significantly with duration of the drought stress. After rewatering, the difference in leaf relative water content between D20, D40 and D60 treatments, relative to the controls (80% of soil maximum water-holding capacity) was 7.11%, 2.68% and 0.80%, respectively. Plants under treatment 20 did not return to the control level, and the difference between the two was highly significant (P<0.01). Relative electric conductivity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased gradually with increasing duration of water stress. After rewatering, relative electric conductivity of each treatment increased by 12.1%, 5.92%, and 2.42% over the mean control value, respectively. MDA contents were 152.18%, 151.92%, and 133.97% relative to the control, respectively, and the difference was highly significant (P<0.01). Under water stress, superoxide dimutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities increased first and then decreased. After rewatering, SOD activity of D20, D40, and D60 treatments returned to 82.65%, 90.68% and 97.13% of the control level, respectively. Again, plants under treatment D20 were significantly different(P<0.05)with respect to the control, while the rest of the treatments returned to control level. POD activity in D20, D40, and D60 plants was 7.54%, 5.55% and 11.73%, respectively, compared with control. D20 and A40 treatments were significantly different(P<0.05)from controls. Based on these observations, we conclude that N. tenuissima is characterized by a remarkable drought resistance; it can adapt to 40% of soil maximum water-holding capacity, and, furthermore, it was an excellent garden ground-cover plant in arid areas.
Analysis of the canopy spectrum and water content of desert plants
Huai-dong Wei, Fang Chen, Bo Zhang, Lan-ping Zhou, Ya Li, Xue-mei Yang
2018, 12(3): 590-596. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0262
[Abstract](829) [FullText HTML] (38) [PDF 705KB](115)
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Plant water is one of the main factors affecting plant photosynthesis, respiration, biomass, and other physiological and biochemical indices. Investigation of the water content of plants is an important part in vegetation research. Study of the relationship between water content and canopy spectrum of typical desert plants is of considerable significance to remote sensing monitoring of vegetation in desert areas. In this study, the canopy spectral curves of 10 desert plants were determined using ASD portable terrestrial spectrometers. Correlation coefficient and vegetation index methods were used to analyze the spectral characteristics of different desert plants and their relationship with canopy water content. The following results were obtained, 1) The reflectance spectrum of desert plants had the general characteristics of green plants in the visible-near infrared band, and had an obvious “green peak” and “red-edge effect.” 2) The three bands of 954-973, 1 184-1 198, and 1 440-1 462 nm showed an obvious water absorption valley in desert plants. In the 1440-1462 nm band, the spectral reflectance and water content correlation coefficient is greater than 0.8, and the two parameters showed a strong linear correlation. 3) There was significant correlations between water band index, normalized difference water index, normalized difference infrared index, moisture stress index, and plant water content (P<0.05), and the canopy water content index was consistent with the measured value of vegetation water, which could reflect changes in the water content of desert vegetation.
Comparison of the photosynthetic characteristics of old world bluestem at different stages of growth
Shi-jie Han, Kuan-hu Dong, Peng Wang
2018, 12(3): 597-605. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0301
[Abstract](770) [FullText HTML] (48) [PDF 569KB](109)
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In order to compare the photosynthetic characteristics of old world bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum) populations at different stages of growth, populations with good photosynthetic characteristics and their best utilization periods were chosen. In this study, the Li-6400 photosynthesis system was used to measure the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), water use efficiency (WUE), and other parameters of old world bluestems belonging to the Pinglu, Pingding, Dai County, and Taigu populations, at different stages of growth. The photosynthetic indices of the four different old world bluestem populations at five different growth stages were analyzed and evaluated comprehensively by the grey correlative system. The results showed that the values of Pn, Tr, and Gs significantly differed among the Pinglu, Pingding, Dai County, and Taigu populations at different stages of growth (P<0.05). The Ci and Gs of the Taigu population were higher than those of the other three populations at the five growth stages, with the exception of Gs at the ripening stage. The average values of Pn, Tr, Gs, Ci, and WUE at each stage were the highest in the Taigu population. Additionally, among the four populations of old world bluestem, the poorest photosynthetic characteristics were observed for the Pingding population at anthesis and ripening stages, while the Pingding and Dai County populations showed the poorest characteristics at the booting stage. The best photosynthetic characteristics were observed for the Taigu population at the anthesis stage; all stages of the Pinglu population exhibited medium photosynthetic characteristics. With respect to the growth stages, old world bluestem had good photosynthetic characteristics at the heading stage (0.6000< Δi<0.7000).
Responses of leaf morphology and PSⅡ chlorophyll fluorescence in leaves of Alhagi sparsifolia growing in soils with varying depths to the groundwater table
Bo Wang, Fan-jiang Zeng, Bo Zhang, Huan-huan Gao, Ling Zhang, Mei-mei Li, Han-lin Luo, Shi-min Li
2018, 12(3): 606-613. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0313
[Abstract](776) [FullText HTML] (61) [PDF 580KB](105)
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Here we report our study of the responses of leaf morphology, pigment content, and chlorophyll fluorescence in A. sparsifolia shrubs growing in soils where the groundwater table is found at 2.5, 4.5 or 11.0 m deep into the soil profile, in a natural arid environment in northwest China. The results showed that at 4.5 m groundwater table depth, leaf area, specific leaf area, and chlorophyll (Chl) b were 22%, 15% and 14% greater than at 2.5 m groundwater table depth, respectively; whereas, leaf thickness was 18% thinner. Additionally, leaf area, leaf thickness, Chl a, Chl b, Chl (a+b), maximum fluorescence yield (Fm), potential activity of PSⅡ (Fv/Fo), and maximum photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ (Fv/Fm) at 11.0 m groundwater table depth were greater by 14%, 15%, 17%, 32%, 21%, 14%, 24% and 9%, respectively, relative to 4.5 m depth to the groundwater table; whereas, specific leaf area was 12% smaller. This research provides a sound theoretical basis to better protect and restore A. sparsifolia in the Cele oasis-desert transitional zone in northwest China.
Effect of arsenic on the absorption of arsenic and antioxidant enzyme activity in three parts (roots, stems, leaves) of Elymus sibiricus and Vetiveria zizanioides
Dong-ying Han, Shi-gang Li, Gui-long Song, Xue-hua Puyang, Yin-rui-zhi Li
2018, 12(3): 614-623. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0487
[Abstract](800) [FullText HTML] (109) [PDF 686KB](122)
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The effect of arsenic (As) stress (10,100 mg·kg-1) on the activity of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), as well as cell membrane permeability and arsenic content in three parts (roots, stems, leaves) of Elymus sibiricus and Vetiveria zizanioides were evaluated by pot experiments. The results showed that low concentrations of arsenic had no significant inhibition on plant height and biomass of E. sibiricus and V. zizanioides, but they were significantly inhibited at high concentrations (P<0.05). Compared with E. sibiricus, V. zizanioides exhibited better resistance to arsenic stress. The contents of arsenic in both plants increased significantly with the increase of the concentration of arsenic applied, except for that in the leaves of E. sibiricus. The accumulation of arsenic in the aerial parts of E. sibiricus decreased significantly with the increase of its concentration, whereas that of the V. zizanioides showed the opposite trend; overall, the accumulation of arsenic in the aerial parts of V. zizanioides was higher than that of E. sibiricus at high concentrations. The membrane permeability of roots, stems, and leaves of E. sibiricus all showed a significant increase with the increase of arsenic concentration, and the roots and leaves of V. zizanioides showed the same trend, although the stems of V. zizanioides did not exhibit a significant difference. Arsenic stress caused a significant increase in CAT, SOD, and APX activity in roots, stems, and leaves of E. sibiricus, whereas the activities of three enzymes in V. zizanioides could be maintained between As10 and As 100, but the arsenic stress caused the POD activity in stems and leaves to decrease and to increase in the root system. Taken together, V. zizanioides had better resistance and greater enrichment capacity to the heavy metal arsenic. SOD and POD may play important roles in the antioxidative system.
Dynamic simulation of the dry weight of soybean stems in intercropping systems
Yong-li Du, Tao Zhou, Huan Yang, Ting Liu, Si-cheng Guan, Yu-chuan Deng, Wei-guo Liu, Wen-yu Yang
2018, 12(3): 624-634. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0310
[Abstract](964) [FullText HTML] (46) [PDF 661KB](128)
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The intercropping of maize and soybean is practiced in several parts of the world. Using models for forecasting soybean growth is a good cropping technique; however, few research models are available that predict soybean growth in monocropping and intercropping practices. This study was based on the systematic observations of Nandou 032-4, Jiuyuehuang, and Nandou 12. The growth of soybean stems can be quantitatively simulated by the patterns of growth in monocropping and intercropping cultivation modes. A dynamic model was established using Richards equation for model building, where the time step was represented by the physiological development time (PDT), describing the elongation of soybean stem internodes and the enlargement of the dynamic processes at the internodes, in monocropping and intercropping practices. In the dynamic model, the time step was estimated by the growth and development taking place on the actual number of days by logistic equations, for predicting the dry weight of the soybean stem in monocropping and intercropping cultivation practices. From the model, the potential length and thickness of the internodes gradually increased as the number of soybean internodes increased and reached a maximum at the ninth and seventh internodes, respectively, and then gradually decreased. Therefore, the potential length of the ninth internode and the potential thickness of the seventh internode were identified as the potential genetic parameters that can be used to calculate the potential length and thickness of other internodes. At the same time, the potential dry weight of the stem was used to determine the potential dry weight of other stems. The inspection results showed that different varieties of soybean have different cultivation patterns. The model reflected a satisfactory prediction rate. This model, developed using soybean varieties having different modes of cultivation, internode lengths, internode thicknesses, physiological development times, and dry weights of the stem, has good predictability and reliability, and the stem growth dynamics predicted by the model conformed well to the biological rules of stem growth, highlighting the biological significance of the model.
Prospect of use and status of research on hexaploid Triticale
Ying Guo, Fang-ping Yang
2018, 12(3): 635-644. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0204
[Abstract](1070) [FullText HTML] (100) [PDF 637KB](138)
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This study analyzed the breeding history, morphological features, forage yield, nutritional quality, stress resistance, production status, and form of use of hexaploid Triticale (×Triticale Wittmack). It showed that Triticale has a high yield, high levels of protein, lysine, and crude fat, and low ash, low nitrogen-free extract, low neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and low acid detergent fiber (ADF) in the stem and leaves; the forage quality of Triticale is higher than that of wheat (Triticum aestivum), maize (Zea mays), oat (Avena sativa), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and it has greater economic benefits regarding grain and forage, high resistance, and wide adaptability. Triticale is highly valued in animal husbandry as forage. We should increase the necessity and urgency of research and development on Triticale in alpine pastoral regions.
Sampling of visceral tissues from Bovines in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and techniques of their RNA preservation
Ming-jie Hou, Xia Zhang, Fu-yu Shi, Hu-cheng Wang
2018, 12(3): 645-653. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0116
[Abstract](970) [FullText HTML] (63) [PDF 1065KB](111)
Abstract:
The habitat and biological behavior of yaks are considerably different from those of indigenous cattle. It is not easy to obtain samples, in particular. The preservation method of the hard-won samples for long periods is important. Yaks and indigenous cattle served as tissue donors for developing an effective method for the storage and quality monitoring of RNA. Three yaks and cattle each, were slaughtered to obtain samples of gastrointestinal, liver, and kidney tissues, and RNA were extracted using a TRizol Kit; additionally, RNA concentration and the degree of RNA degradation were analyzed as per the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations with Gel-pro Analyzer after the RNA samples were stored for 1 and 23 months at -80 ℃, respectively. The results indicated that after 23 months, RNA concentration increased in all the yak gastric tissue samples; however, it decreased in the rumina and omasa of the cattle. RNA was relatively stable in jejunal and ileal tissues of the yaks and cattle. There were significant differences in RNA concentration in the large intestine between the yaks and cattle(P<0.05). Gel-pro Analyzer results indicated that 5S bands were clear; however, 28S and 18S bands were vague in all the gastric, liver, and kidney tissues. The 28S:18S ratio ranged from 0.34 to 0.72 for the gastric, liver, and kidney tissues: however, it ranged from 0.43 to 2.15 for intestinal tissues after storing for 23 months at -80 ℃. It was feasible to obtain RNA of high quality from the gastrointestinal samples of ruminants in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. However, the RNA samples were degraded during storage by the conventional method. Additionally, the degradation degree was affected by several factors, such as genotype and tissue type.
Effect of dietary concentrate to forage ratio on the fatty acid composition of the meat and fat tissues of lambs
Xue-jiao An, Yu-liang Wen, Shu-zhen Song, Yuan Cai, Jian-ping Wu, Sheng-guo Zhao
2018, 12(3): 654-662. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0370
[Abstract](918) [FullText HTML] (98) [PDF 527KB](108)
Abstract:
This study was performed to evaluate the effects of different forage to concentrate ratios on the quality of Guanghe lambs. Three 6-month-old healthy hybrid lambs (Dorset Sheep♂ × Small Tail Han Sheep♀) that were weaned and castrated were fed diets with different forage to concentrate ratios and slaughtered in the Guanghe County lamb production area. Samples of the biceps femoris, back longissimus muscle, and biceps and perirenal fat, subcutaneous fat, and tail fat were collected, and the type and content of fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography. Thirty-eight types of fatty acids were detected, of which 17 were saturated fatty acids and 21 were unsaturated fatty acids in all the tissues. The fat contents, SFA, PUFA, PUFA/SFA (P/S), PUFA of n3, PUFA of n6, linoleic acid (C18:2n6c), and α-linolenic acid (C18:3n3), were significantly higher in the lamb fed a diet with the low forage to concentrate ratio than in those fed a diet with the high forage to concentrate ratio (P<0.05). All tissues of low ratio of forage to concentrate arachidonic acid (C20:4) significantly higher than high ratio of forage to concentrate in dietary (P<0.05). A high ratio of forage to concentrate in the diet of lambs saves production costs and significantly improves and enhances the nutritional value of fatty acids than a low ratio of forage to concentrate.
Development, survival, and reproduction of avermectin-resistant Bryobia praetiosa (Acari: Tetranychidae)
Zhang-yi Liu, Meng-ting Shang, Kui Mu, Hai-yan Wen, Shuang-lin Jiang
2018, 12(3): 663-668. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0177
[Abstract](746) [FullText HTML] (51) [PDF 496KB](118)
Abstract:
We explored biological fitness variability in avermectin-resistant and -susceptible strains of Bryobia praetiosa. Our study offers a theoretical basis to delay resistance development and resistance management of B. praetiosa. Development and reproduction of the avermectin-resistant strain and the susceptible strain of B. praetiosa were evaluated at 26 ℃. The age-specific life tables of experimental populations of both strains were established. The ecological fitness of the two strains was analyzed by population life-table parameters. Results showed that the development duration of every stage, the average life span, and the number of eggs laid per female of the resistant strain were less than the susceptible strain. The average longevity and eggs laid per female of the resistant strain were 21.89 days and 28.17 eggs, respectively, but the average longevity and eggs laid per female of the susceptible strain were 27.94 days and 40.91 eggs, respectively. The analysis of the life table showed that there was a difference in the population parameters between the two strains. The net reproductive rate (R0) of the resistant strain (28.17) was obviously lower than the R0 of the susceptible strain (45.70) (P<0.05). The finite rate of increase (λ) and population doubling time (p.d.t.) of the resistant strain were 1.267 2 and 2.927 1, respectively. There were significant differences in these parameters between the resistant strain and the susceptible strain (P<0.05). The results indicated that the resistant strain was more disadvantageous in developmental and reproductive characteristics than the susceptible strain. In addition, the relative fitness value of the resistant strain was about half that of the susceptible strain, and there was also a significant degree of fitness defect. The results help to explain the fitness disadvantages of the avermectin-resistant strains of B. praetiosa, and provide reference for the management of avermectin-resistant B. praetiosa.
Hu Population Line and the transitional border between agriculture and pasture: A discussion from a new perspective
Quan-gong Chen
2018, 12(3): 669-676. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0139
[Abstract](1549) [FullText HTML] (488) [PDF 1112KB](159)
Abstract:
In this paper, the historical background and present progress of studies on the Hu Population Line is described. As a transitional border between agriculture and pasture, the Hu Population Line is considered to be diverse in connotations, non-unique in forms, and consistent in data-time series. This border has occurred since the Bronze Age, with cultural exchanges and ethnic amalgamations between agricultural and nomadic civilizations, undergoing steady developments in the Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties, and it was finally formed during the Qin and Han dynasty. The functions of such a transitioning border between agriculture and pasture are in the exchanging, coupling, and merging of energy, matter, and population; in the harmonic unity of historical opportunity, geographic advantages, and peaceful neighborhoods; in the sustainable exploitation of natural resources and the sustainable development of regional economics, politics and societies. The agricultural/pastoral transitional border is not merely a heterogeneous landscape composed of crop fields and pastures, or a mixed residency of Han and minority populations, it is the backbone of Chinese spirit, a place where the Chinese nation rises.
An approach to C Degree Model on ecological, social and economic coupling development in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau research community
Chang-lin Cheng, Ai-sheng Ren, Yong-chun Wang, Guo-gang Wang, Wen-yan Xiu
2018, 12(3): 677-685. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0263
[Abstract](730) [FullText HTML] (83) [PDF 552KB](117)
Abstract:
To study the harmonious development animal husbandry, ecology, society, and economy in communities in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau , we established a comprehensive evaluation index system of the coordinated development of animal husbandry, based on comprehensive evaluation of the three subsystems, ecology, society, and economy; the coordinated model was established between the three subsystems in 2013-2016 to analyze the degree of the coordinated development of animal husbandry in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The results showed that the extent of coordination of ecology, society, and economy in animal husbandry in communities in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is increasing continuously, and there are certain differences among the communities. The Yambajan community has a low extent of coordinated development, and is still in an uncoordinated state, while Maizhokunggar, Xiahe and Shangri-la communities exhibit basic coordination, suggesting that coordination is ensured. Meanwhile, the extent of coupling coordination between the Hongyuan and Henan communities is the highest, and coordinated development is achieved.
Analysis of the O2O model of grassland industry under the background of “Internet +”:A case study of Inner Mongolia Caodu Agriculture Development Co., Ltd.
Cong Ge, Zhi-biao Nan
2018, 12(3): 686-694. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0184
[Abstract](1067) [FullText HTML] (57) [PDF 590KB](120)
Abstract:
As part of the “Internet + industries” trend, this work presents the online to offline (O2O) model of the grassland industry in terms of “Internet + grass industry,” which was based on extensive reading of literatureon “Internet +” and O2O pattern research, as well as field research of the situation for business operation and strategic planning in the industry by an enterprise(Inner Mongolia Caodu Agriculture Development Co., Ltd.).The O2O model of the grassland industry was introduced, based on a review of “Internet +” and O2O pattern research. All the important online and offline functions of the O2O model of the grassland industry, i.e., the trading platform, the regional operation center, the outlets of grass products, and third-party service providers, are discussed. At the end of this work, we gave some recommendations for Internet transformation of grass industry enterprise based on case analysis of Inner Mongolia Caodu agriculture development Co., LTD.
Food consumption patterns and virtual water consumption in Gansu Province
Run-tao Ju, Zeng Tang, Jing Gao
2018, 12(3): 695-702. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0114
[Abstract](770) [FullText HTML] (48) [PDF 558KB](114)
Abstract:
We calculated the virtual water consumption for food production in Gansu Province from 2000 to 2014. The results showed a growing trend in virtual water consumption per capita in Gansu Province, as animal-based product consumption increased with food consumption. The virtual water consumption for food production per capita in Gansu was 481.83 m3 in 2014, which was lower than the national average. As more animal products will be consumed with economic development and increased income of residents, the virtual water consumption for food production will increase in the future. If the 2016 daily dietary guidelines for Chinese residents were reached, virtual water consumption per capita in Gansu will increase from 133.42 m3 to 423.85 m3, which will create a water shortage and be a major challenge for Gansu. Based on the results of this study, the possible answers for water shortage in Gansu are improving the management of water resources, improving diet, and using policies such as virtual water strategy.
Condition of fermentation combined with cellulose decomposing and lactic acid bacteria based on the response surface method
Fan-fan Zhang, Fang Miao, Xu-zhe Wang, Kai-ting Tang, Chun-hui Ma
2018, 12(3): 703-711. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0267
[Abstract](961) [FullText HTML] (120) [PDF 1822KB](133)
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation dose at which the optimum fermentation amount can be met with a combination of cellulose decomposing bacteria and lactic acid bacteria, and to provide a new method for the future development of compound fermentation additives. The response surface method was used in the experiment. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and fungi were calculated as the response values, with which the maximum values of the independent variables were obtained. The independent variables included the doses and proportions of homo- and hetero-fermentative LAB and cellulose decomposing bacteria. Among them, the addition amounts of homo- (Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidilactici) and hetero-fermentative (Lactobacillus buchneri) LAB were 1×105, 3×105, and 5×105 cfu·g-1(as 5, 5.48, 5.70 lg cfu·g-1), respectively. The tested ratios of cellulose decomposing bacteria Aspergillus niger:Trichoderma viride:Bacillus subtilis were 1:1:2, 1:2:1, and 2:1:1. The amount of cellulose decomposing bacteria was 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%. The numbers of LAB and fungi were counted using the traditional bacterial count method. The results showed that the significances in the quadratic polynomial models of LAB and fungi were P<0.01 (R2=0.95) and P=0.03 (R2=0.74), respectively. The addition numbers of the homo- and hetero-fermentative LAB and their interactions had a significant effect on quantity of the affected surface of LAB (P<0.05). The addition number of fungi and the interaction of the homo- and hetero-fermentative LAB had a significant effect on the quantity of the affected surface of fungi (P<0.05). The conclusion is that the addition number of homo-fermentative LAB was 5×105 cfu·g-1(as 5.48 lg cfu·g-1), and hetero-fermentative LAB was 4.7×105 cfu·g-1(as 5.67 lg cfu·g-1), the ratio of cellulose decomposing bacteria was 2:1:1, and the addition amount was 0.3%.