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2018 Vol.35(1)

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2018, 12(1): -.
[Abstract](649) [PDF 1111KB](365)
2018, 12(1): 1-1.
[Abstract](614) [PDF 135KB](188)
Effect of mixed sewage sludge and garden waste composts on potting soil amendment
Li-qing Si, Li-min Chen, Jing-ming Zheng, Jin-xing Zhou, Xia-wei Peng
2018, 12(1): 1-9. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0119
[Abstract](1038) [FullText HTML] (125) [PDF 1579KB](211)
To study the effects of sewage sludge and garden waste composts on soil amelioration and plant growth, pot experiments were carried out based on sewage sludge and garden waste in Beijing. The experiment consisted of four types of mixture of the two composts as modified substrate (volume ratios 1:0, 1:3, 1:1, and 0:1), at five concentration levels [0 (soil as control), 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% compost mixture]. The results showed that the pH value of the 1:1 mixture increased significantly compared to that of the control. Soil electrical conductivity increased at the beginning of the modified substrate addition, and then dropped to the normal range after four months. Meanwhile, additions also significantly increased the organic matter, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. Soil available phosphorus was greatly increased, indicating enhanced soil phosphorus activity. Although the soil used in the pot experiment had relatively high amount of heavy metals, adding modified substrate could reduce their concentrations. After planting Festuca arundinacea, concentrations of heavy metals decreased significantly. For the four heavy metals studied, Pb had the strongest migration to plants, followed by Zn and Cr, while Cu was the weakest. Germinations of tall fescue were closely related to Cr, and the growth was related to the nitrogen content of the soil. In summary, tall fescue, as a common lawn grass, has a strong adsorption of heavy metals, and thus can be used to amend contaminated land. Although mixing sludge compost with garden waste does not reduce the total amount of heavy metals, it may affect the form of heavy metals, and promote their absorption and degradation by plants and microorganisms in soils.
Effect of livestock exclusion duration years on plant and soil properties in a Tibetan alpine meadow
Tarchen Tenzin, Gaweng Baima, Dunzhu Duoji, Laba
2018, 12(1): 10-17. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0366
[Abstract](840) [FullText HTML] (70) [PDF 1278KB](158)
Livestock exclosure is widely used to restore alpine grasslands, though there is still dispute regarding the optimal duration. In the present study, we investigated how exclosure duration affected plant species biodiversity, vegetation biomass, and soil properties in an alpine meadow, by surveying grazing exclosure in sites exclosed for 5, 7, and 11 years in the central Tibetan Plateau. Our results showed that all exclosure treatments consistently and significantly enhanced the species richness, biodiversity, vegetation coverage ratio, and aboveground biomass of the plant community. Among these treatments, the highest species richness and biodiversity were observed in the 7-year exclosure treatment, and a significant difference was found between the that in the 5-year and 11-year treatments. With respect to soil properties, all livestock exclosure treatments consistently reduced soil bulk density and enhanced soil organic content as compared with those of the grazing treatment. Livestock exclosure treatments also significantly enhanced soil total nitrogen and phosphorus content, though there was no difference between the treatments. In general, our study suggests that livestock exclosure could be effective for plant and soil restoration in alpine meadows, and 5-year and 7-year exclosure are better choices from an ecological perspective.
Effect of yak grazing intensity on characteristics of plant communities and forage quality in Gannan alpine meadow
Lin-rong Chai, Yi Sun, Hong Wang, Sheng-hua Chang, Fu-jiang Hou, Yun-xiang Cheng
2018, 12(1): 18-26. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0113
[Abstract](1025) [FullText HTML] (106) [PDF 1311KB](191)
To study the effects of the intensity of yak grazing on the characteristics of plant communities and forage quality in alpine meadows under the effect of long-term yak grazing in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (Maqu County, Gansu Province), this study analyzed aboveground and belowground biomass, species richness, density of plant communities, surface soil water content at a depth of 0-10 cm, soil temperature, nutritive quality of forage, and correlation among other aspects. The results showed that: 1) Yak grazing significantly (P<0.01) affected above- and belowground biomass. Aboveground biomass was the highest in the non-grazed area (418.15 g·m-2 ); contrastingly, belowground biomass was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the farm with high-intensity grazing compared with the other area. 2) The density of plant communities and proportion of the biomass of edible grass were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by grazing, while species richness was significantly reduced in the farms with moderate and high-intensity grazing compared with the non-grazed area. Moreover, surface soil water content at a depth of 0-10 cm was significantly (P<0.05) lower in the farm with high-grazing intensity compared with the non-grazed area, and contrastingly soil temperature was significantly higher. 3) The intensity of yak grazing similarly affected forage quality; however, the difference was not significant (P<0.05) under the effect of long-term yak grazing. Therefore, yak grazing with moderate intensity may effectively promote the growth of underground biomass, which potentially affects different economic groups, biomass proportion, and forage quality, and maintains the health of the ecosystem.
Effect of different enclosure durations on aboveground vegetation in typical steppe on Loess Plateau
Ling-ping Zhao, Xin Bai, Shi-tu Tan, Wen-na Fan, Zhan-bin Wang, Qing-Yi Wang
2018, 12(1): 27-35. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0111
[Abstract](893) [FullText HTML] (74) [PDF 1386KB](148)
In this study, we analyzed community structure, species diversity, and succession dynamics of the aboveground vegetation in different enclosure durations of a typical steppe on the Loess Plateau. We conducted field surveys and laboratory analyses to disclose the dynamic variation of aboveground vegetation during the natural restoration process. The results showed that both the biomass and thickness of litter increased, the total community increased initially and then gradually decreased, and the community density decreased with increasing fencing years. The total aboveground biomass and grass biomass both increased initially and then gradually decreased, and were the highest in grasslands with 32 years grazing exclusion. Species richness increased first and then decreased after the grasslands were fenced. There was no significant effect of fencing year on the Simpson diversity and Pielou evenness indices (P>0.05). The natural restoration under fencing management followed a general pattern, in which 1) forbs dominated in the early succession stage, 2) Stipa bungeana gradually became dominant, and 3) the development of S. bungeana stabilized.
Effect of water and nitrogen interaction on plant species diversity and biomass in a desert grassland
Hai-yan Gao, Mei Hong, Li-xia Huo, Peng-fei Liu, Fei Chang
2018, 12(1): 36-45. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0167
[Abstract](987) [FullText HTML] (111) [PDF 1323KB](170)
To demonstrate the effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and precipitation on species diversity and biomass in desert grassland, we examined water and nitrogen interactions, using three levels of water treatment [natural precipitation (CK), increased precipitation 30% (W) and reduced precipitation 30% (R)] and four nitrogen (NH4NO3) levels: 0 (N0), 30 (N30), 50 (N50), and 100 (N100) kg·(hm2·a)-1 (which does not include atmospheric nitrogen deposition). The following results were obtained: 1) The species diversity of desert grassland under CK×N and R×N treatments increased with an increase in nitrogen application rate, showing an initial increase trend and a subsequent decrease, with maximum diversity being attained with the N30 treatment. Under the W×N treatment, the species diversity was significantly reduced (P<0.05) with an increase of nitrogen application rate. 2) The aboveground biomass obtained with CK×N0 and R×N0 treatments was significantly increased (P<0.05) compared with the W×N0 treatment. Under the water and nitrogen interaction, the aboveground biomass of CK×N and W×N treatments was significantly increased (P<0.05) with an increase in nitrogen application rate. The water and nitrogen interaction had a significant effect on annual and biennial plants. The overall aboveground biomass trend was as follows: (W×N) > (CK×N) > (R×N). 3) Under the water and nitrogen interactions, the underground biomass decreased gradually with the depth of soil, and was mainly concentrated in the 0-30 cm. The W×N treatment promoted root extension into deeper soil. The biomass of desert grassland under CK×N and R×N treatments showed an initial increase trend and then a subsequent decrease with an increase of nitrogen application rate, and the underground biomass obtained with the W×N treatment showed a significant increase (P<0.05). 4) The treatments of CK×N30 and R×N30 significantly reduced the root/shoot ratio (P<0.05). Collectively, the results of this study showed that the plant species diversity and biomass in desert grassland are closely related to water and nutrients.
Alpine grassland soil moisture variation characteristics and its relationship with climate factors in Three River Source
Lian-yun Guo
2018, 12(1): 46-53. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0153
[Abstract](747) [FullText HTML] (35) [PDF 1543KB](168)
The data supporting this study were collected during 1999-2016 from the pastureland weather station of Xinghai County, Qinghai Province, at the Three River Source. They included soil moisture content and herbage growth period. We analyzed the changes of alpine meadow soil moisture characteristics, the soil moisture change characteristics at different stages, and their relationship with the herbage growth period. The results showed that the soil moisture content in each layer increased from 0-50 cm in the alpine grassland, the soil moisture was significantly increased trend of each layer in spring 0 to 40 cm, the soil moisture increase rate decrease with the increase of soil depth. Soil moisture content during growing seasons increased significantly from 1999-2016, and it correlated significantly with precipitations during the growing seasons. At the flowering stages, soil moisture content was significantly positively correlated with atmospheric temperature. Moreover, at the heading stages and throughout the whole growing season, they were significantly negatively correlated with atmospheric temperatures. The increase of soil moisture content in alpine meadow growth season is beneficial for grassland vegetation growth.
Evaluation of trampling resistance of two superior cultivars of warm-season turfgrasses
Xiang-yang Yang, Dan-dan Li, Jian-xiu Liu, Ai-gui Guo, Hai-lin Guo
2018, 12(1): 54-62. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0129
[Abstract](1127) [FullText HTML] (87) [PDF 1465KB](160)
In this study, the wear tolerance of eight Bermudagrass and four zoysiagrass cultivars were evaluated with an imitated trampling method. The results showed that the growth characteristics of all the tested materials were influenced significantly (P<0.05). After trampling, the leaf width, leaf thickness, turf density, ground cover, uniformity, and leaf color of all the samples decreased, while the bounce rate increased. Trampling treatment for one to two months had little effect on the upright growth of the test material, and the turf height decreased significantly after three months. There were significant differences in the resistance to trampling of different materials. Among eight Bermudangrass cultivars, the turf quality of the Yangjiang Bermudagrass and C29100M1 were significantly better than those of other materials under short-term trampling conditions, while the Suzhi No.2 hybrid Bermudagrass was most valuable in terms of long-term trampling under processing. Among four zoysiagrass cultivars, Suzhi No.1 hybrid zoysiagrass had the highest comprehensive turf quality as a sport turfgrass. The results of this study will provide a basis for the exploitation and application of these tested turfgrass cultivars
Influence of different planting methods on‘Lanyin No.Ⅲ' zoysiagrass soilless sod quality
Hua-wei Song, Ming Deng, Ying Liu, Ju-ming Zhang
2018, 12(1): 63-68. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0147
[Abstract](895) [FullText HTML] (39) [PDF 1214KB](147)
The experiment to produce soilless sod of Lanyin No. Ⅲ zoysia grass was carried out using four planting methods, including stolonizing + topdressing, stolonizing in-furrow, sprigging, and stolonizing + rolling. The sod quality with different planting methods was studied by investigating turf characteristics during the sod establishment so as to provide the technical reference for the soilless sod production of Lanyin No. Ⅲ zoysia grass. The results showed that coverage, density, uniformity, color, growth speed, and clipping biomass with the method of stolonizing + topdressing were 93.67%, 9 844 plants·m-2, 8.17, 7.6, 4.63 mm·d-1, and 38.91 g·m-2, respectively, which were higher than those of the other three planting methods. The overall sod quality was ranked as stolonizing + topdressing > sprigging > stolonizing + rolling > stolonizing in-furrow. Based on comprehensive analysis of the results, it was considered that stolonizing + topdressing was a suitable planting method for the soilless sod production of Lanyin No.Ⅲ zoysia grass, whereas stolonizing in-furrow was not good due to the slower growth speed, lower coverage, and poor uniformity during the establishment of sod.
Control effects of nine herbicides on Kummerowia striata in Cynodon dactylon lawn
Yun Wang, Wei Wang, Zi-jiang Yang
2018, 12(1): 69-75. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0120
[Abstract](2535) [FullText HTML] (155) [PDF 1388KB](140)
The control effects of nine herbicides (72% 2,4-D butylate EC, 40% Ethachlor + atrazine SC, 40% Bensulfuron-methyl+quinclorac SP, 56% MCPA-Na SP, 40% Asulam AS, 41% Glyphosate isopropamide AS, Benazolin-ethyl AS, Warm-season Turfgrasses Herbicides SP, and Worst broad leaf herbicides EC) on Kummerowia striata in Cynodon dactylon lawn were assessed. The efficacy indices and the control effects of the plant were recorded after 3, 6, 12, 20, and 30 days, the control effects of fresh weight were recorded after 30 days, and the influence on the growth of C. dactylon was observed on 3, 6, 12, 20, 30, and 45 days after the herbicide application. The results showed that Worst broad leaf herbicides EC and Warm-season Turfgrasses Herbicides SP resulted in the highest efficacy index, the greatest control effect on the plant, and the greatest control effect on the fresh weight of K. striata in C. dactylon lawn (efficacy indices, 99.07%+0.09% and 98.77%+0.15%; control effects of the plant, 93.50% and 91.50%; control effects on the fresh weight, 86.61% and 85.78%, respectively). No injury to the growth of C. dactylon was observed after treatment with Worst broad leaf herbicides EC, but the others caused “Minimal injury” or “Slight injury” or “Visible injury” to the lawn. It was concluded that Worst broad leaf herbicides EC could be used to control K. striata in C. dactylon lawns.
Comparison of chemical and biological methods to measure humic acid content in Pennisetum sp.
Xiao-lan Shang, Hong-yu Li, Yi-ting Yang, Jing-jing Liang
2018, 12(1): 76-84. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0190
[Abstract](897) [FullText HTML] (109) [PDF 1437KB](120)
The humic and fulvic acids in Pennisetum sp. were compared with chemical and biological methods. Cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were degraded to produce humic acid and fulvic acid with nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, oxalic acid, and ammonia. The humic acid content was the highest when using 10.0% ammonia, followed by 37.5% nitric acid and 37.5% hydrochloric acid, while oxalic acid and acetic acid were the lowest. Bacillus subtilis, Mucor, Rhizopus, and Penicillium played a positive role in the formation of humic and fulvic acids. The degradation degree of lignin was the highest when using Rhizopus. The total humic acid contents were 1.45 and 1.29 times that of 10.0% ammonia under Rhizopus and Mucor fermentation, respectively, while the total humic acid contents were less than 10.0% ammonia under both B. subtilis and Penicillium fermentation. The content of fulvic acid using 37.5% nitric acid was 1.79 times that of Mucor fermentation, and the content of fulvic acid using 22.5% hydrochloric acid was 1.98 times that of Mucor fermentation.
Occurrence and impact of Apocynum venetum rust (Melampsora apocyni) in Altay, Xinjiang
Yan-ru Lan, Peng Gao, Qi-tang Liu, Jing-feng Huang, Ting-yu Duan
2018, 12(1): 85-92. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0078
[Abstract](866) [FullText HTML] (99) [PDF 1335KB](118)
The rust caused by Melampsora apocyni is one of the main factors limiting Apocynum venetum industrialization. We investigated the occurrence of A. venetum rust in two wild (Yanhu, Honggou) and two cultivated (the sixth and seventh years) sites in 2016 and analyzed the correlation between the disease and meteorological factors and habitat. The results showed that the severity of rust disease increased gradually with the length of the plant growing season. The incidence of rust disease on A. venetum in Yanhu and Honggou reached a peak on July 18 and August 3, with a disease incidence was 86.47% and 87.60%, respectively. At the end of the growing season, the disease incidence decreased gradually to 75.97% and 53.78%, respectively. In the cultivated population, the incidence of rust disease on A. venetum in the sixth and seventh years reached a peak on August 7 and July 23, with a disease incidence of 25.52% and 31.49%, respectively. The disease index in the wild A. venetum population was 31.39~46.18, which was 6.51~6.95 times that in cultivated A. venetum. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) in the wild A. venetum population was 651.74~1 522.31, which was 4.37~9.69 times that in cultivated A. venetum. The occurrence of rust disease in wild A. venetum was significantly positively correlated with rainfall and total vegetation coverage and negatively correlated with plant diversity (P<0.05). The occurrence of rust disease in cultivated A. venetum was significantly positively correlated with A. venetum coverage and negatively correlated with plant diversity (P<0.05).
Current status and research progress of development and tankmix application of herbicides
Wen-guan Zhou, Yong-jie Meng, Feng Chen, Hai-wei Shuai, Jian-wei Liu, Xiao-feng Luo, Wen-yu Yang, Kai Shu
2018, 12(1): 93-105. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0046
[Abstract](1430) [FullText HTML] (212) [PDF 1379KB](193)
Herbicides are a group of chemical or biological agents that effectively eliminate or inhibit the growth of weeds in the field. In recent years, increases in the types of chemical herbicides and the optimization of weeding technology have greatly improved the traditional mode of labor production, and have promoted the development of agricultural modernization. However, the abuse of chemical herbicides leads to various serious problems, such as the destruction of the ecological environment and risks to food security. Reducing environmental pollution and further improving the efficiency of herbicides are hotspots in herbicides research. The urgent problems currently occurring in the sustainable development of agriculture will be solved by the development of novel green herbicides; biological herbicides have attracted much attention because of their low pollution and residue levels. The use of these herbicides or the allelochemicals in different crops to control and inhibit the growth of weeds have also become hotspots in current research. This updated review summarizes the progress of current research and the current situation regarding the use of chemical and biological herbicides, and describes the problems caused by the irrational usage of herbicides. The important roles of different herbicides or adjuvants in agricultural production, environmental protection, and ecological balance were also focused upon; based on this, we discussed probable directions for future research on herbicides.
Variations in seed germination and salicylic acid protective effect between two cultivars of Astragalus membranaceus under drought and salt stress
Nan Wang, Jing Gao, Wen-jing Huang, Bo Li, Zhi-shu Tang, Zhong-xing Song
2018, 12(1): 106-114. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0172
[Abstract](825) [FullText HTML] (74) [PDF 1360KB](153)
To study the variations in seed germination between Astragalus membranaceus and A. membranaceus var. mongholicus under polyethylene glycol (PEG) and NaCl stresses, and to explore the differences in protective effects of salicylic acid (SA) for the two cultivars of A. membranaceus under severe PEG and NaCl stresses, we measured (1) the total germination percentage (TGP), germination energy (GE), vigor index (VI), shoot length (SL), root length (RL), shoot dry weight (SDW), and root dry weight (RDW) of two cultivars of A. membranaceus under gradually enhanced PEG and NaCl stresses; and (2) the differences in TGP of the two cultivars between application methods and concentrations of SA under severe PEG and NaCl stresses. Our results showed that all measurements of the two cultivars decreased with increasing stress intensity. Both low concentrations of PEG and NaCl can enhance seed germination in A. membranaceus. The VI in A. membranaceus var. mongholicus was higher than in A. membranaceus at -0.5 MPa PEG and -0.7 MPa NaCl stress levels (P<0.05). Soaking seeds with SA can enhance the TGP of of A. membranaceus. and A. membranaceus var. mongholicas The stress tolerance of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus was stronger than A. membranaceus. There were significant differences in seed performances between the two cultivars treated with SA. Soaking seeds with SA is was more effective than mixing seeds with SA.
Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus on growth and physiological properties of alfalfa seedlings under drought stress
Zi-ran Lin, Ying-jun Zhang
2018, 12(1): 115-122. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0158
[Abstract](773) [FullText HTML] (114) [PDF 1380KB](195)
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are soil microorganisms that play important roles in the ecosystem. AMF have been widely used for drought resistance in plants. The alfalfa cultivar WL 168 was used to examine the effect of AMF and P on plant biomass and plant growth, proline, MDA, and other physiological and biochemical properties under drought stress. The results demonstrated that the change in P concentration had no significant effect on the growth of alfalfa, but the drought resistance of alfalfa could be significantly improved after the use of AMF. Alfalfa growth was best in the presence of sufficient water content (75%~80%). As water content decreased, the biomass and plant height of alfalfa decreased significantly, proline and malondialdehyde content increased, and SOD activity decreased. Inoculation with AMF on alfalfa growth status and related physiological and biochemical indicators were significantly improved. The results of AMF and P treatment showed that the drought resistance of Hogland (KH2PO4: 0.25 mmol·L-1) nutrient solution and AMF was the best, which indicated that, under drought stress, AMF applied at the same time to use a certain level of P can effectively improve the drought resistance of alfalfa.
Effect of low temperature stress on the cold-resistance physiological indexes of 10 germplasm resources of Roegneria in Qinghai
Chang-hui Li, Shu-juan Li, Yan-xia Liu, Tian-cai Dong, Ke Jia, De-fei Liang
2018, 12(1): 123-132. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0391
[Abstract](784) [FullText HTML] (64) [PDF 1520KB](159)
In order to study the effect of low temperature on the physiological indexes of 10 populations of six wild species belonging to the Roegneria genus in the Three Rivers region of Qinghai, seedlings with four to five leaf stages were used as experimental materials, and the leaf chlorophyll (Chl), soluble sugar (SS), malondialdehyde (MDA) , free proline (Pro) , catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities, and cell membrane permeability were measured under low temperature stress of between -25 and 5 ℃. The results showed that the cold resistance indexes of plant materials, such as Chl content, MDA, SS content, Pro content, and CAT and POD activity were significantly different under low temperature stress compared to the control. Different materials have different change ranges, and present different change rules, that is electrolyte permeability continues increasing by increasing the size of the S curve. The MDA content of the all experimental materials tended to remain consistent first increase, and then decrease. The contents of SS and Pro presented as an inverted V-shape, increasing first and then decreasing. The Chl content of nine materials continued to decrease. Membership function analysis showed the order of cold resistance of the 10 Roegneria germplasms is: Roegneria yushuensis (Maduo) > R. yushuensis (Tiebujia) > R. yushuensis (Xinhai) > R. stricta (Tongren) > R. abolinii var. divaricans(Huangyuan) > R. abolinii var. divaricans (Zeku) > R. brevipes (Qumalai) > R. purpurascens (Maixiu ) > R. brevipes (Zeku) > R. trichospicula (Zeku), in order from the strongest to weakest.
Influence of cultivation practices on licorice seedling quality
Jin-ming Wang, Shu-qin Gu
2018, 12(1): 133-139. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0112
[Abstract](839) [FullText HTML] (84) [PDF 1288KB](125)
In order to improve seedling efficiency and quality in licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis), the influence of cultivation practices,such as seed pot sowing, seed bed sowing or open field sowing on emergence rate, transplanting survival rate and some morphological indicators were studied. These analyses identified the following 1) At 20 d after sowing, the emergence rate was 54.8% and 53.8% under seed pot sowing and seed bed sowing respectively, but only 31.4% under open field sowing. 2) At 60 d after sowing, the transplanting survival rates were 92.3%, 91.1% and 93.5%, respectively, these differences were not significant. 3)Morphological indicators showed greater devellopment in plants in the open field compared to the greenhouse, the most obvious two indexes were average number of leaves and total fresh weight. Our analyses, therefore indicate that licorice showed better morphological indicators, higher survival rate, and a longer nursery period (nearly one year) in open field sowing, but a higher emergence rate and a shorter nursery time (two months) in the greenhouse. We suggest that the use of a greenhouse for sowing licorice seeds could be combined with transplantation of seedlings with green leaves into the field, this combination would improve licorice seedling efficiency and quality, and reduce the nursery cost with respect to time and land in licorice production.
Effect of Helianthus tuberosus late growth stage of on biological yield and nutritional value
Zai-bin Yang, Li-jie Yang, Shu-zhen Jiang, Feng Xue, Chun-xia Yang
2018, 12(1): 140-145. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0118
[Abstract](1195) [FullText HTML] (207) [PDF 1509KB](143)
This study aimed to the right time for harvesting Helianthus tuberosus in an area of 667 hm2. According to the different growth periods, the time of harvest was allocated to six sampling points before tuber harvest (i.e., 10, 8, 6, 4, 2, 0 weeks). Based on the topography and soil texture, five different plots were selected for each sampling, and each plot was selected by 1 m2 to allow harvest of the aboveground and underground parts. Plant aboveground parts (lower one-third, middle one-third, and upper 1/3), tuber yields, nutrient components, and gross energy were measured. The results showed that the yield of fresh, air-dried H. tuberosus and its dry matter content in the late growth stages, the yield of different aboveground parts, and underground parts, and whole plants, and the proportion of aboveground and underground changed significantly (P<0.01). The crude protein yield of underground parts was the highest (P<0.01) at the first incidence of frost. The crude protein yield of aboveground parts and whole plant was the highest (P<0.01) at 2 weeks before the first frost. The gross energy yield of aboveground and whole plant was the highest (P<0.01) at 2 weeks before the first frost. However, the yield of underground parts was the highest (P<0.05) at the first frost. The crude protein yield of Helianthus tuberosus was 3 206 kg·ha-1, which was 2% higher than the total protein yield of maize and wheat (3 146 kg·ha-1). The gross energy yield of H. tuberosus was 8.33×105 MJ·ha-1, which was 37% higher than the total protein yield of maize and wheat (6.06×105 MJ·ha-1). Judged from the perspective of feed production, the biological yield of H. tuberosus was the maximum; in addition, the most suitable harvest period for feed was 2 weeks before the first frost. The biological yield of H. tuberosus was better than the total of corn and wheat. H. tuberosus' cultivation is one of the important ways of mitigating bioenergy shortages.
Allelopathic effects of Alternanthera philoxeroides extract on Medicago sativa, Cichorium intybus, and Avena sativa
Jie Yin, Zong-ming Sui, Li-ben Wei, Jian-guo Huang
2018, 12(1): 146-156. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0212
[Abstract](799) [FullText HTML] (62) [PDF 1360KB](157)
Alternanthera philoxeroides, a noxious weed whose removal is difficult, is widely distributed over land and water surface in more than 20 provinces (or municipalities) of China, and leads to devastating ecological disasters and considerable economical loss. Investigation of the allelopathic effects of this noxious weed on pasture grass would provide useful information on the elimination of A. philoxeroides and selection of pasture grass species for cultivation. Therefore, pure culture and greenhouse pot experiment were conducted to evaluate the allelopathic effects of extracts of both shoot regions (ESA) and roots (ERA) of A. philoxeroides on seed germination and growth of Medicago sativa, Cichorium intybus, and Avena sativa seedlings. The results showed that seed soak in ESA and ERA inhibited the hydrolysis of proteins, starch, and inositol phosphates in the endosperm, and reduced the levels of free amino acids, soluble sugars, and soluble inorganic phosphates in seeds; it even damaged the seed cell membrane. The results showed that seed germination rate, germination index, and seed vigor index were reduced by 95.66%, 96.15%, and 98.63%, respectively. Irrigation of pasture grass seedlings with A. philoxeroides extracts reduced root vigor, nitrate reductase activity, chlorophyll content, and uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, resulting in the inhibition of seedling growth. The highest rate of seedling biomass reduction ranged from 52.27% (ESA) to 63.74% (ERA). Furthermore, the allelopathic response index and allelopathic synthetic effect of A. philoxeroides on the three grasses, whose absolute values increased with increase in A. philoxeroides extract concentrations, were negative; the allelopathic inhibitory effect was stronger for Avena sativa than for Cichorium intybus and Medicago sativa, and the intensity of the allelopathic effect of ERA was higher than that of ESA. Therefore, the extracts exerted allelopathic effects on the three pasture grasses, with ERA showing a stronger effect than ESA. Seed germination and growth of A. sativa seedlings were more sensitive than those of C. intybus and M. sativa. The selection of insensitive M. sativa and C. intybus for pasture grass cultivation could reduce harm and economic loss.
Short-term effect of mowing winter pastures of Gansu wapiti on forage regeneration
Zhou-wen Ma, Hong Wang, Ying-wen Yu, Sheng-hua Chang, Qing-ping Zhou, Fu-jiang Hou
2018, 12(1): 157-164. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0095
[Abstract](794) [FullText HTML] (72) [PDF 1337KB](146)
The study investigated the short-term effect of mowing winter pastures of deer (Cervus elaphus kansuens) on pasture productivity and community characteristics during the best growth period, under different stocking rates (1.00, 1.45, 2.45, 3.45, 4.85, and 6.90 AUM·hm-2). We found that: 1) in mowed pastures, species richness increased with increasing stocking rate up to 4.85 AUM·hm-2 and mowing significantly increased the above-ground biomass. 2) In the mowed pastures, compensation index values indicated greater plant height and above-ground biomass. Highest compensation index was observed in the pastures grazed at 3.45 and 6.90 AUM·hm-2, respectively. The effects of stocking rates on compensation index varied with differences in the dominant plant species. 3) Simpson's dominance and Pielou's evenness indices for mowed pastures were generally higher in heavily grazed pastures. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index of mowed pastures increased with increasing stocking rates up to 4.85 AUM·hm-2, and the difference owing to mowing of pastures at all stocking rates, except at 4.85 AUM·hm-2, were significant. 4) We observed variation in responses among plant functional groups to pasture mowing under different stocking rates. Therefore, we suggest that stocking rates should be considered when winter pastures are mowed for maximizing production potential and maintaining the stability of community structure.
Research advances in germplasm resources and applications of Echinochloa
Wan-ru Zhang, Shu-ju Wu, Xiao-ping Wang
2018, 12(1): 165-175. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0277
[Abstract](805) [FullText HTML] (128) [PDF 1323KB](125)
Echinochloa is a herb with rapid fertility and wide adaptability, which is distributed worldwide. In the past, Echinochloa was studied as a malignant weed because of the damage caused to the growth of a variety of crops. In addition to being a weed plant, Echinochloa also has very high forage value. It is under development as a new high-quality forage for green livestock products because of its rich nutrition, soft grass quality, and good palatability. In this paper, the general situation and phylogenetic distribution of Echinochloa were summarized. The progress of research on its genetic diversity was discussed in terms of morphology, cytology, biochemistry, and molecular biology. The economic value and excellent gene utilization of Echinochloa were described. We also comprehensively analyzed the problems and prospects of the study on germplasm resources of Echinochloa in China, concluding that research should focus on the collection, classification, genetic diversity, genomics, development, and utilization of Echinochloa.
Progress of research on buckwheat forage and its application in the livestock and poultry industries
Meng-qi Ding, Yan-min Wu, Li Wei, Yu Tang, Cheng-long Wang, Fu-yu Yang, Ji-rong Shao, Mei-liang Zhou
2018, 12(1): 176-185. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0148
[Abstract](1093) [FullText HTML] (108) [PDF 1202KB](143)
Buckwheat is native to China. The cultivated species, Common buckwheat and Tartary buckwheat, are distributed widely throughout the globe, whereas the southwest of China has an abundance of wild buckwheat species. Buckwheat has good nutritional qualities, containing not only protein, fiber, and carbohydrates, but also rutin and other antioxidant substances. The crop is highly resistant to disease, pests, and barren, with high adaptability and a short growth period; some of the wild species are especially rich in leaves and are easily recovered after clipping. Buckwheat has emerged as a forage with great potential, but its value as a food source and prospects for development are currently underexplored. In this paper, we have introduced the history and current status buckwheat forage, reviewed the applications of buckwheat in pigs, ruminants, and poultry, discussed the problems of buckwheat forage, and evaluated future research prospects.
Current situation, problems, and suggestions for forage germplasm resource conservation in China
Zhi-hong Chen, Xin-yi Li, Jun Hong
2018, 12(1): 186-191. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0155
[Abstract](2749) [FullText HTML] (535) [PDF 1217KB](185)
Forage germplasm resources are an important component of biodiversity and a significant strategic resource for China. The conservation of forage germplasm resources in China has led to achievements in the establishment of conservation systems for collection and conservation, identification and evaluation, germplasm innovation, and sharing and utilization. However, there have been some problems, such as insufficient measures for in situ conservation, the risk of extinction of rare resources, and the hysteresis of evaluation and innovation. In the future, it is imperative to protect the in situ conservation of forage germplasm resources, to enhance the protection and collection of main forage species, to reinforce the systemic evaluation and thorough exploration of resources, and to provide sufficient support for forage germplasm resources in the forage seed industry.
Effect of cotton stubble grazing on the reproductive performance and blood biochemicals of ewes
2018, 12(1): 192-198. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0326
[Abstract](863) [FullText HTML] (84) [PDF 584KB](117)
This study was conducted to determine the effects of cotton-stubble grazing on the reproductive performance, blood biochemicals, and free gossypol content of ewes. The results showed that the above-ground biomass of the cotton stubble was 6 178.6 kg·ha-1, and the proportion of edible parts was more than 65%. The average daily dry-matter intake of the ewes from the cotton stubble was 1.98 kg·(d·head)-1. Compared to the indoor feeding group, birth weight of lamb were lower than feeding group, mortality reached 12.87%, reproduction rate reduced (P<0.05). The concentration of free gossypol in the serum increased with the increase in grazing time; at the end of grazing, the concentration of free gossypol in the serum was 131.70 mg·L-1, which was significantly higher than that of the feeding group (P<0.05). The white blood cell was significantly higher than feeding group (P<0.05). The blood platelet levels, serum concentrations of total proteins and magnesium in the grazing group were significantly lower than in the feeding group (P<0.05). The serum concentrations of total proteins and magnesium were slightly higher in the grazing group than in the feeding group (P<0.05). Cotton stubble is used for grazing in the winter in Xinjiang. Grazing on cotton stubble can reduce the feeding cost of the ewes, but it affects their ability to reproduce. To consider the reproductive performance and health of ewes, we suggest appropriate supplementary feeding when the ewes graze on cotton stubble.
Substitution method for evaluating effective energy value of rice straw and wheat straw for beef cattle
Ming Wei, Zhi-qiang Chen, Zhi-hao Cui, Pei-shi Yan, Gang Wang, Guang-duo Geng
2018, 12(1): 199-207. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0130
[Abstract](1577) [FullText HTML] (79) [PDF 715KB](148)
This study aimed to estimate the effective energy value of rice straw and wheat straw for beef cattle using the substitution method, and to investigate the approximate substitution ratio. Twelve Wandong bulls with similar body weight (266±13.41) kg were used and randomly divided into three groups of four bulls each. We conducted three experiments. In Experiment Ⅰ, all animals were fed a whole-crop corn silage based diet and the effective energy value of the basal diet was determined. In Experiment Ⅱ and Experiment Ⅲ, animals were fed experimental diets consisting of the basal diet substituted with different ratios (10%, 30%, and 60%) of rice straw or wheat straw, respectively (dry matter (DM) basis). Each experiment lasted for 14 days, including a pretest period of 10 days and a test period of 4 days. A digestibility trial, integrated with a respirometry trial, was conducted to determine energy metabolism of all experimental diets for beef cattle. Compared with the basal diet group, rice straw or wheat straw substitution decreased the DM, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility of the experimental diets, decreasing gradually as the rice straw or wheat straw substitution ratio increased. There was no significant difference in gross energy (GE) intake among all the groups (P>0.05), whereas, the digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME), and net energy (NE) intake decreased as the rice straw or wheat straw substitution ratio increased (P<0.05). The GE digestibility, GE metabolized, and DE metabolized were also negatively correlated with the substitution ratio of rice straw or wheat straw. According to the regression equation between the effective energy value of different experimental diets and rice straw or wheat straw substitution ratio, the DE, ME, and NE values for rice straw were 8.51, 5.79, and 3.64 MJ·kg-1, respectively, and the corresponding values for wheat straw were 7.89, 5.08, and 3.13 MJ·kg-1. Compared with the other two substitutions, 30% rice straw or wheat straw had the least variability (P<0.05) in effective energy value. In conclusion, in determination of the effective energy value of rice straw and wheat straw using the substitution method, a significant difference was observed when the substitution proportion was different. In the current study, a rice straw or wheat straw substitution ratio of 30% was better than 10% or 60%. The combination of regression method and substitution method can improve the accuracy of the results when estimating the effective energy value of single roughage for beef cattle, and contribute to acquiring the optimal substitution ratio.
Screening of lactic acid bacteria after N+ implantation and its effects on alfalfa silage quality
Feng-yuan Yang, Yan-ping Wang, Shan-shan Zhao, Lin-na Guo, Dan Cao
2018, 12(1): 208-213. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0207
[Abstract](692) [FullText HTML] (31) [PDF 483KB](130)
Low soluble sugar content of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), which effects the acid production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) additives, is one of the important factors that influences its silage quality. In this study, cellulolytic activities of lactic acid bacteria were enhanced by N+ implantation to improve their acid production capabilities in alfalfa ensiling. Lactobacillus plantarumstrain ZZU A345 with high antimicrobial activity and good acid production ability was treated with a N+ ion beam and the mutant strains zw2-21 and zw3-57 were screened out with good degradation of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. The activity levels for alfalfa meal acidification of the two strains was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of ZZU A345, and the activity of cellulase endonuclease was also higher than that of ZZU A345, but no significant difference was found. Results for 65 d alfalfa ensiling showed that the pH of the treatment with zw2-21 decreased to 4.83, which was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of the blank control group with no LAB additive (pH 5.5). It was also lower than that of the treatment with ZZU A345 (pH 5.08), but there was no significant difference. Content of lactic acid in the treatment with zw2-21 reached 1.22%, which was one time more than the content in the treatment with ZZU A345. We concluded that N+ implantation has potential application for improving the performance of LAB in cellulose degradation and acid production in alfalfa ensiling.
Study on herders' perception of yearly precipitation patterns as a basis for their grass-animal balance decision in steppe regions of Inner Mongolia
Yan-ting Yin, Ting-ting Wang, Xiang-yang Hou, Xi-liang Li, Feng-hui Guo
2018, 12(1): 214-221. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0384
[Abstract](878) [FullText HTML] (116) [PDF 577KB](157)
Precipitation is a key natural factor that influences the rangeland productivity and carrying capacity in the steppe regions of Inner Mongolia. Herders are the direct decision-makers for livestock husbandry production, and their judgments about yearly precipitation patterns provide an important basis for their forage-animal balance decisions. Through the use of meteorological and statistical data, and other reference materials since the 1980s, this study explored the herders' yearly precipitation patterns in the meadow steppe, typical steppe, and desert steppe regions of Inner Mongolia. The results showed higher frequencies in the meadow and desert steppe regions in below-normal precipitation years, compared with normal years in the typical steppe regions. Overall, there were more wet years in the three regions. Herders had their own judgments of precipitation patterns and those precipitation patterns remained steady and unchanged, whereas the actual precipitation patterns changed frequently over time. Between 1980 and 1995, the herders' perceptions of precipitation patterns were always that these were dry years and below-normal years in the meadow steppe and desert regions, respectively, whereas dry years were the dominant precipitation pattern in the typical steppe region. Since 1996, the precipitation patterns have usually followed a 3~5 year period. This implies that herders have their own understanding and judgments of the yearly precipitation patterns, which they adjust according to natural, social, and economic changes. The yearly precipitation patterns provided an important natural basis for the herders' forage-animal balance decision making.
Research advances on the detection of aflatoxins in feed and dairy products
Jing Gao, Jian-zhen Yuan, Fu-jiang Hou, Sheng-hua Chang, Zhao-feng Wang, Hua Fu, Jing Wang
2018, 12(1): 222-231. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0034
[Abstract](6558) [FullText HTML] (115) [PDF 614KB](192)
Aflatoxins are mycotoxins that pose serious threat to animal and human health. Forage is susceptible to mildew during the course of harvest, transportation, and storage, which leads to the production of aflatoxins in feed. Forage is the major feed source for ruminants. When ruminants are fed with aflatoxin-contaminated feed, aflatoxins will be secreted in the milk. Even trace amounts of aflatoxins can be harmful to animals and human beings. Therefore, this paper summarizes the sources, perniciousness, detection techniques and preventive measures of aflatoxins in feed and dairy products, with an emphasis on detection technologies, to provide a theoretical basis and directions for accurate, fast and one-step detection of aflatoxins in production practices.