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Based on the Landsat 8 remote sensing image data,a transect of alpine steppe from Shigatse City through Nanmulin County to Shenzha County in Tibet was selected as the research area. Four commonly used vegetation indices were used in this study, including the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI), and transformational soil-adjusted vegetation index (TSAVI), which is sensitive to vegetation information with low coverage in semi-arid areas. Furthermore, the study improved the bare soil index (BI) and the shadow index (SI) using surface reflectance to construct the vegetation bare shadow index (VBSI) suitable for areas of low vegetation coverage. Then, based on the above vegetation indices, the quantitative inversion of vegetation coverage of the alpine steppe was conducted by the dimidiate pixel model. Finally, the inversion accuracy was analysed using the field vegetation coverage data by the grid method. The results showed that the inversion accuracy of VBSI (TSAVI) was the highest among the eight vegetation indices used, and the inversion accuracy was 85.66%. It was demonstrated that the dimidiate pixel model constructed by TSAVI based on the soil spectrum obtained by field collection has a certain practicality for the inversion of vegetation coverage of alpine steppe. The BI and SI of the improved FCD model can significantly reduce the influence of soil and shade on vegetation information. The constructed composite vegetation index is of great practical significance to extract the vegetation coverage information of sparse alpine steppe.
To explore the effects of different grazing exclusion lengths on soil organic nitrogen, we studied total soil nitrogen, particulate organic nitrogen, light fraction organic nitrogen, soil microbial biomass nitrogen and their distribution ratios in a moderately degraded Seriphidium transiliense desert. The influence of different grazing exclusion lengths on the percentage of soil organic nitrogen was researched using a control, one grazing-exclusion year, four grazing-exclusion years and eleven grazing-exclusion years. Compared with the control, the content of total soil nitrogen significantly decreased in 5-10, 10-20 and 30-50 cm of soil depth and the content of total nitrogen in 0-50 cm of soil depth appeared first to decrease then increased with the increase in grazing-exclusion years. The particulate organic nitrogen was highest in 0-5 cm of soil depth after eleven grazing-exclusion years, with a significant increase in the accumulation of particulate organic nitrogen distribution ratios in soil depths of 5-10 and 20-30 cm. Light fraction organic nitrogen significantly increased in 0-20 and 0-5 cm of soil depth, while it reached the highest after four grazing-exclusion years. The soil microbial biomass nitrogen appeared first to decrease then increased in 0-50 cm of soil depth. Comparing four grazing-exclusion years with the control and one grazing-exclusion year, soil microbial biomass nitrogen distribution ratio significantly increased in 5-10 cm and 20-30 cm of soil depth. Correlation among grazing-exclusion years with light fraction organic nitrogen in 0-10 cm of soil depth and light fraction organic nitrogen distribution ratio in 0-50 cm of soil depth was significantly positive. In conclusion, the content of total soil nitrogen was not recovered, but light fraction organic nitrogen, particulate organic nitrogen, soil microbial biomass nitrogen and their distribution ratios increased after short-term grazing exclusion (1~11 a) in moderately degraded S. transiliense desert.
To explore the adaptive mechanisms of bryophyte plants in Baotianman Nature Reserve, our research determined the photosynthetic characteristics of Thuidium cymbifolium and Mnium immarginatum and revealed a trend of variation with light gradients. Our results showed that M. immarginatum had lower apparent quantum efficiency (AQY), light saturation point (LSP), and light compensation point (LCP) values than T. cymbifolium, indicating that M. immarginatum has a greater ability to adapt to low-light conditions; however, the maximum net photosynthetic rate (Amax) value for T. cymbifolium suggested that it may employ a unique light adaptation strategy. When considering the photosynthetic characteristics of these two species, T. cymbifolium exhibited higher values of water use efficiency (WUE) and stomatal conductance (Gs), which were quite different from intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and transpiration rate (Tr). Overall, the results confirmed the hypothesis that a difference in Gs between these two species resulted in adaptation to the environment and represents a survival strategy.
Biological soil crusts are widely distributed in arid and semiarid regions, occupy approximately 40% of the total land area, and determine the main biological surface characteristics of the ecological system, thereby playing an important role in improving the ecological environment and the meadow soil nutrient regulation. Since 1960, many experts worked a lot on its ecological functions at the domestic and international levels, but soil nutrients variation characteristics and microenvironmental processes of biological soil crust development remain unclear. Therefore, this paper which based on the domestic and international research progress and achievements in this field over 50 years, had detailed a lot. In order to provide a comprehensive understanding of biological soil crusts development on the cycling process of soil fertility; further, it provides suggestions for ecosystem restoration in the degraded grasslands of the Loess Plateau, China.
Melilotus is one of the most important legume forages, however, the lack of molecular markers has limited the development and utilization of Melilotus germplasm resources in breeding programs. In this study, 18 182 EST-SSR primers were developed and screened based on transcriptome data from M. albus. A total of 206 primer pairs from M. albus were found to be polymorphic from a total of 550 pairs of EST-SSR primers screened. A total of 679 alleles were detected with an average of 2.888 alleles per locus. The polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.239 to 0.855, with an average of 0.468. Nei’s gene diversity and Shannon’s information index for 206 pairs of polymorphic primers were 0.169, and 0.239, respectively. The EST-SSRs developed in this study enriches the EST-SSR molecular markers of Melilotus, which will serve as the foundation for exploring the genetic diversity of germplasm resources for marker-assisted breeding.
In order to test the transferability of orchardgrass EST-SSR in several grass species in Gramineae and select some reliable markers used in followed-up studies, 40 orchardgrass EST-SSR, which can amplify products successfully in orchardgrass, were analysed to determine the transferability, genetic diversity and relationship of 18 materials including 6 Lolium multiflorum, 6 Festuca arundinacea, 3 Hemarthria compressa and H. altissima. The cross-transferability of these markers was found to be 60% in L. multiflorum and F. arundinacea, while 50% in H. compressa and H. altissima. Together, the 25 EST-SSRs detected 128 bands. In these 128 bands, 121 were polymorphic (94.53%) and the average number was 4.92 per primer, and the polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.75 to 1 with an average of 0.952. The similarity coefficient of the 18 materials ranged from 0.208 to 0.974, with an average of 0.490, and UPGMA cluster analysis grouped them into four groups at the similarity level of 0.68. This study confirmed that it was feasible that the EST-SSRs developed from orchardgrass EST sequences can cross to some related species. Those transferable markers will give some reference to breeding work in Gramineae.
Numerous studies have shown that transcription factors are important in regulating plant development and responses to various biotic/abiotic stressors. Low temperature stress could result in lowered production, reduced overwintering rate and a decrease in sustainability. In the present study, the identification and gene expression model of the transcription factors in alfalfa under low temperature stress (4 ℃) were analysed by the high-through put RNA-Seq technology. The results showed that a total of 78 925 Unigene sequences and 3 448 differently expressed genes were produced in our study. There were 43 transcription factor families, and a total of 251 genes were identified from all differently expressed genes. The expression model of these differently expressed transcription factor genes was different. This study facilitates the understanding of the expression model and verifies the related function of these low temperature response transcription factor genes in alfalfa.
Glyphosate-resistant transgenic maize can significantly improve the efficiency of weed control. In previous studies, the newly glyphosate-tolerant gene G10evo was integrated into the genome of maize named Hi-Ⅱ by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and different glyphosate-tolerant maize events were obtained. In the study, transgenic maize AG16 was selected for molecular characterization by PCR, Western blot, Southern blot and ELISA. Southern blot analysis using probe for G10evo showed that T-DNA was integrated in a single site in the maize genome. Western blot analysis showed that G10evo protein was expressed in leaf, stem and root of AG16. ELISA assay showed that the expression level of G10evo protein in the young stem reached 9.975 μg·g-1 before glyphosate spraying. Glyphosate spray assay in the greenhouse showed that the AG16 is tolerant to glyphosate at concentrations up to 4 times of recommended field application level. Therefore, the transgenic maize AG16 has the potential of field application, which is expected to become completely independent research and independent intellectual property rights of domestic glyphosate-resistant corn.
In order to study the effects of exogenous hormones on breaking seed dormancy, and seedling growth of buffalo grass, seeds were soaked in three concentrations of gibberellic acid(GA3) and auxin(IAA) separately. After soaking, seed germination, seedling growth, non-structural carbohydrates, and endogenous hormone levels were measured. Our results showed: 1) Seed germination GA3 increased germination vigor and increased germination, germination rate, germination index and seed vigour index. Based on the treatment effects, gibberellin at 2 000 mg·L-1 had the most significant impact. Auxin also effectively enhanced the viability of the seeds, of which 450 mg·L-1 auxin yielded the best results. 2) Seedling growth GA3 treatment promoted the growth of aerial parts. IAA effectively increased buffalo grass seedling root length and root to bud ratio, at a low concentration of 250 mg·L-1, which yielded the best results. 3) Seedling non-structural carbohydrates-optimal GA3 concentration was 1 500 mg·L-1 while for IAA it was 450 mg·L-1, which could effectively increase the content of soluble sugars and starch in buffalo grass seedlings. 4) Seedling endogenous hormones ——IAA, GA3 and ABA, all increased with the treatment with exogenous gibberellin and auxin, of which GA3 at 2 000 mg·L-1 and IAA at 450 mg·L-1 provided best results. In summary, the best phytochemical to break dormancy in buffalo grass seeds and promote the growth of seedlings, buds and endogenous gibberellin is GA3 at a concentration of 2 000 mg·L-1. The best reagent to enhance soluble sugars and starch content in buffalo grass seedlings is also GA3 at a concentration of 1 500 mg·L-1. The best reagent to promote the growth of the buffalo grass seedlings and shoot growth is IAA, when applied at a concentration of 250 mg·L-1. Auxin at a concentration of 450 mg·L-1 was found to be the best hormone to increase endogenous IAA and ABA levels in buffalo grass.
In order to understand the endogenous hormonal differences in Buchloe dactyloides connected ramets under different photoperiods, the levels of four endogenous hormones [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA) and zeatin (ZR)] in buffalo grass leaves were determined using ELISA. The results indicated that IAA, GA, ABA and ZR levels of buffalo grass reveal rhythmic variations on a daily basis, while the endogenous hormone levels of buffalo grass ramets tend to be synchronized even under different photoperiods. After one week of different photoperiod treatments, under continuous light conditions, IAA, GA, ABA and ZR content in disconnected ramets of buffalo grass leaves basically showed the opposite trend within 24 h, however, IAA, GA, ABA and ZR content in connected ramets of buffalo grass leaves were synchronization trend within 24 h.
In order to explore the physiological changes in Karelinia caspia during seed germination and seedling development under drought and salt stress, we used different concentrations of PEG-6000 or NaCl to simulate drought and salt stress, respectively. Germination rate, protective enzyme activity, relative conductivity and the Malondialdehyde (MDA)content during seed germination and in the seedling of K. caspia under stress (drought and salinity) were determined. The results show that: 1) With increasing amounts of PEG and NaCl, a gradual decrease in germination was observed, while there were no significant differences between the seeds treated with 15% PEG and 50 mmol·L-1 NaCl when compared to control. However, when PEG was above 20%, or when NaCl concentration was increased above 100 mmol·L-1, we observed significant differences between treated samples and control. 2) In the range of 5%~20% PEG or 200~400 mmol·L-1 NaCl, with a concentration gradient and increasing stress duration, a corresponding increase in MDA content, and elevated enzymatic activities for POD, SOD and CAT were observed. When plants were treated with 25% PEG and 500 mmol·L-1 NaCl, the relative conductivity and MDA content increased significantly with prolonged stress periods. Enzyme activities for POD, SOD and CAT also increased initially with prolonged stress before decreasing to normal levels. These preliminary results reveal that K. caspia Less has huge potential to adapt to adverse environmental conditions. Also, our study revealed that the drought threshold was equivalent to the PEG 25%, while the salinity threshold was the equivalent of 300 mmol·L-1 NaCl.
In order to investigate the Loess plateau high sugar ryegrass CP, EE, NDF, ADF, Ash, WSC and other forage quality index and the relationship between growth time, plant height, tiller density; usingthe method of field experiment combined with the prediction model, in simulated grazing and hay harvest two utilization mode of forage yield and quality of forage composition could be predicted, with the growth time, plant height, tiller density on high sugar ryegrass. The results show that in hay harvest the growth time, plant height and tiller density of ryegrass were significantly correlated with each nutrient index of Aberavon, Aberstar, Premium and Abermagic (P<0.05); Simulation grazing of Aberavon, Aberstar, Premium and Abermagic of ryegrass plant height and other nutrition indexes were not correlated (P>0.05). Expect CP and Ash, the other quality indexes of ryegrass were significantly related with tiller density and growth time (P<0.05). By usingthe growth time, plant height, tiller density, a single regression prediction model and a multiple regression prediction model were established for the yield and forage composition of 4 ryegrass cultivars, which were considerably accurate while being compared with the observed values. It can provide a scientific basis for the cultivation and utilization of high sugar ryegrass in the L. plateau
The effects of drought stress on the characteristics of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence of four species of Cassia were studied by conducting a water control experiment (mild drought, severe drought, and normal irrigation) using four Cassia species (C. obtusifolia, C. occidentalis, C. corymbosa, C. bicapsularis). The results showed that 1) drought stress resulted in a decline in the chlorophyll content in all four species of Cassia, and the stress degree of C. occidentalis was the lowest, meaning that C. occidentalis maintains the highest photosynthetic capacity under low moisture conditions. The chlorophyll content of C. corymbosa was the highest in all three treatments, indicating that the light energy absorption and transformation capacity of C. corymbosa are stronger than those of the other three species. 2) Drought stress resulted in all four species of Cassia displaying reduced stomatal conductance (Gs), while the stomatal limitation (Ls) value increased, which was accompanied by a decrease in intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and a decline in the rate of photosynthesis (Pn), indicating that drought stress affects stomatal factors. The exception to this was C. obtusifolia, which showed an increase in Ci and decrease in Ls, indicating that the results are because of non-stomatal factors. Under drought stress, C. occidentalis showed a higher photosynthetic rate, and C. corymbosa showed a relatively high degree of stomatal opening. 3) Drought stress led to a decrease in Fm and Fv/Fm, and an increase in Fo among the four species of Cassia, indicating that damage to photosystem Ⅱ(PSⅡ) or heat dissipation. The qP and ETR values decreased, while the NPQ value increased, indicating damage to PSⅡ by drought stress, but effectively avoiding or reducing photoinhibition and light oxidation, which is caused by PSⅡ absorbing excess light energy. C. occidentalis showed the most stable performance, which means that C. occidentalis has a higher drought resistance
Salinized land is one of the important land resources for planting alfalfa (Medicago sativa). This field study was conducted to determine the effects of seeding rate on the planting, biomass and stem-leaf ratio of alfalfa under different soil salt concentrations. The results showed that the seed germination rate, survival rate, and wintering rate of alfalfa did not significantly change when the salt concentration increased from 0.3% to 0.5%; however, the seed germination rate, survival rate and wintering rate of alfalfa significantly decreased when the soil salt content was over 0.7%. With the increase of soil salt content, plant density, plant height, and aboveground biomass of alfalfa significantly decreased, while the stem-leaf ratio of alfalfa increased. With the increase of seeding rate of alfalfa, plant density, and aboveground biomass of alfalfa also increased, while the stem-leaf ratio and plant density of alfalfa did not significantly change. The change in aboveground biomass showed a downwardly opening “Turtle Back” under the interaction between seeding rate and soil salt content. All the above results suggest that the salinized land could be used for planting alfalfa when soil salinity was less than 0.5%, and that a seeding rate which was more than the common seeding rate (26.25 kg·ha-1) used by local farmers was required to improve the aboveground biomass of alfalfa.
This report describes the effects of seed sowing rate and row spacing on yield, stem∶leaf ratio and nutrient composition of Medicago sativa cv. Gannong No. 3 grown in the arid desert region of Gansu. Total yield was the highest when row spacing was 20 cm, which was significantly higher than other spacing of 15, 10 cm, and two kinds of wide and narrow row spacing of planting rows. Total yield was also significantly higher at a seeding rate of 16 kg·ha-1 compared to other seeding rates of 20, 24 and 12 kg·ha-1. Crude protein, crude fat, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, calcium, and phosphorus contents were 21.89%, 3.59%, 33.69%, 30.98%, 1.34%, and 0.11% at early flowering stage, respectively. Total yield was 3.28 t·ha-1 and the total crude protein content was 21.89%, and both these were significantly higher at 16 kg·ha-1 seeding rate and 20 cm row spacing compared to all other treatments. Therefore, this may be the optimal combination, as it scored the highest in grey relational analysis on the comprehensive evaluation of major nutrients. These results offer valuable guidance for cultivation and management of alfalfa.
Judicious fertilization is one of the main measures to improve Avena sativa yield. This study aimed to provide a practical, scientific basis for A. sativa fertilization in Qinghai. We used “Qingyin No. 1” as the experimental material in our research. From 2012 to 2014, we applied the “3414” fertilizing scheme to observe A. sativa yield under the influence of different allocations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, as well as the related economic efficiency. The results showed that yield and economic efficiency were always higher with, rather than without, fertilizer treatment. The treatment of N2P2K0 reached the highest output, up to 4 785.22 kg·ha-1, and increased by 1 488.91 kg·ha-1 compared with those without fertilizer treatment; the treatment of N2P2K0 increased by 3 324.71 CNY·ha-1,showing the most significant economic effect. In general, both treatments interact with each other; the effects on A. sativa yield are NP>NK>PK. The results of the quadratic equations between A. sativa fertilizer quantity and its yield were typical, which helps explain the relationship between fertilizer quantity of A. sativa and its yield. However, with a medium fertilizer rate of nitrogen and phosphorus and an increase in potassium, the yield of A. sativa began to decrease. From the above experiment, we conclude that it is possible to omit potassium fertilizer when growing A. sativa in Qinghai Area. Moreover, it can be inferred from the binary quadratic equations of nitrogen and phosphorus that, to obtain the highest yield of A. sativa, the best fertilizer scheme should be nitrogen 118.55 kg·ha-1, phosphorus 176.96 kg·ha-1, up to 4 867.43 kg·ha-1,with net income 12 930.94 CNY·ha-1; the best economic fertilizer scheme should be nitrogen 102.18 kg·ha-2, phosphorus 102.04 kg·ha-1, up to 4 731.25 kg·ha-1,with a net income of 13 111.63 CNY·ha-1.
In order to select the suitable silage Zea mays varieties for popularisation in the dry land of Qinghai, we introduced three varieties and conducted comparative experiments at an altitude of 2 040 m in the dry land of Qinghai. The results showed that the comprehensive characters of Yuyu 22 were outstanding, with a plant height of 314.80 cm, single plant fresh weight of 1 148.67 g, single plant dry weight of 257.96 g, green leaf number of 13.60, and fresh yield of 121 066.95 kg·ha-1. The fresh yield increased by 44.70% than that of Jinsui 3, and by 6.74% than that of Jinkai 3, and the hay yield increased by 11.42% and 11.09% than that of Jinsui 3 and Jinkai 3, respectively. The crude protein content of hay was 6.94%, the crude fat content was 13.87 g·kg-1, and the calcium content was 3.82 g·kg-1. Yuyu 22 can promote cultivation at the dry land of Qinghai.
The nutritive value of 61 lotus (Lotus corniculatus) germplasm material introduced from Russia were comprehensively evaluated in this study in the oasis in Northwest China based on the variability analysis and grey relational grade analysis. Leo (Lotus corniculatus CV. Leo), Mirabal (L. corniculatus cv. Mirabal) and Georgia (L. corniculatus cv. Georgia) were used as control materials. Our results revealed the following: Crude protein content varied significantly (13.569%), variation coefficients of phosphorus, calcium, and relative feed value were 13.187%, 12.044%, and 11.537%, respectively. The coefficient of variation of acid detergent fiber, ether extract and neutral detergent fiber were 9.763%, 8.559%, and 8.533%, respectively. Dry matter variation was small and insignificant (0.609%). According to the grey relational degree weighted analysis, the weighted grey correlative degree of Zxy08p-4687, Zxy09p-5647, Zxy09p-6485 was 0.748, 0.733, 0.713, respectively, which had the highest nutritive value. The higher nutritive value of germplasm materials (0.604≤γ≤0.682) included were Zxy08p-5070, Zxy09p-5583, Zxy08p-4892, Zxy09p-5642, Zxy06p-1775, Zxy09p-5591, Zxy08p-4916, Zxy09p-5809, Zxy08p-4645, and Zxy09p-5694. Georgia (0.505≤γi≤0.587), and 27 germplasm accessions had intermediate nutritive value, which indicated that of the total germplasm accessions only 44.262%, including Zxy09p-5591, Zxy08p-4768, Zxy08p-4589, Zxy06p-2666, Zxy06p-2663. The low nutritive value group contained 21 germplasm accessions, Mirabal, and Leo(0.423≤γi≤0.499), which were about 34.426% of the total, including, Zxy06p-2376, Zxy09p-6358, Zxy08p-5393, Zxy08p-4528, and Zxy09p-6300.
This experiment aims to study the effect of grassland plant additives on beef cattle growth performance, to determine the best additive formula and the most appropriate and best way of fattening beef cattle based on daily weight gain and slaughter rates, as well as net meat percentage, quality, and flavour using grass plants additives. The results show that grass plant additives promoted the rapid growth of beef cattle and improved their daily weight gain, and the most effective were the grass plant additives C3(44% pine needles+24% Artemisia argyi+12% garlic+12% Astragalus+8% microelement)(P<0.01), S3(48% pine needles+16% Artemisia argyi+8% garlic+10% Astragalus+18% microelement) (P<0.01) and B3(36% pine needles+14% Artemisia argyi+10% garlic+12% Astragalus+28% microelement), store cattle (S) and based cows (B). Furthermore, the experiment on proper additive screening showed that the added amount of additives accounted for 3.5% of the diet fattening effect, which was most obvious (P<0.01) for all ages of beef cattle while the best fattening method was yard feeding in the north cold seasons. According the above results, the most obvious effect on fattening was observed with the grassland plant additive combined with yard feeding of beef cattle, and was the third class accounting for 3.5% of the diet (C3, S3, and B3) in the north cold seasons.
Ligularia virgaurea. is a widespread poisonous plant species growing in Gannan grassland. The ethanol extract of L. virgaurea is known to possess strong bioactivity. To evaluate the safety of ethanol extract from leaves of L. virgaurea, acute toxicity studies were conducted in mice. All of the tests were based on the 《Toxicological Test Methods of Pesticides for Registration》. The results showed that LD50 of the acute dermal toxicity was greater than 30 g·kg-1, while the LD50 of the acute oral toxicity was 6.983 1 g·kg-1. The ethanol extracts from leaves of L. virgaurea belonged to low-toxic compound, which conformed to the standards of low-toxicity pesticide registration. Based on these results, the ethanol extract may have a potential for exploitation and application as a low-toxicity pesticide.
The effects of single and mixed herbal medicine residues on the quality of whole corn silage were investigated. Corn was chopped to between 1.5~2.0 cm and then ensiled with added herbal medicine residues. After storage for 300 days, the chemical composition and fermentation quality of the corn silage were analysed. The results showed that the sensory quality of mixed herbal medicine residues was generally good, and when the level of 5% was added, crude protein (CP), ether extract content (EE), and phosphorus (P) were significantly increased (P<0.05) compared with the control group and the level of 7% and 10%. And NH3-N/TN was significantly decreased (P<0.05) compared with the control group. When the level of 5% was added lactic acid (LA) and propionic acid (PA) were significantly increased (P<0.05) compared with the level of 7% and 10%. The single medicine residues groups, Arctium lappa, Codonopsis pilosula, and Ligusticum wallichii had medicine residues with a sensory evaluation level of two or more. In the C. pilosula group, dry matter (DM) and CP were significantly increased compared with the control group(P<0.05) and in other groups, LA and PA were significantly higher (P<0.05) after the addition of 7% and 10%. Compared with the control group, the A. lappa group DM, CP, and P were significantly increased(P<0.05), NH3-N/TN and LA were significantly decreased(P<0.05) by the addition of the A. lappa medicine residues. Compared with the control group, the L. wallichii group showed a significant increase in CP, EE, and P (P<0.05) and NH3-N/TN and AA were significantly decreased(P<0.05) compared with the other groups. In conclusion, the appropriate ratio of mixedand C. pilosula medicine residueswas 5%. A. lappa and L. wallichii medicine residues offered benefits to silage at each concentration tested, but the Arctium lappa medicine residue was better for corn silage.
Precise poverty alleviation is a major measure to alleviate the comprehensive poverty and achieve the well-off society in the pastoral areas of China’s Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. This study analyzes the poverty characteristics of the pastoral areas in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and reviews the performance of the precise poverty alleviation in Bairi County. Some problems are proposed in current complement of precise poverty alleviation, including the national poverty standard being used to carry out in a doctrinaire, not enough flexibility in the rigid implementation, and the limited pattern of “blood-transfusion model”. Based on above-mentioned problems, this study puts forward suggestions of establishing the archive of poverty households based on the national poverty standard to refine the feature, investing poverty relief fund according to the requirement of alleviation poverty households, increasing the flexibility and developing the productive potent of poverty population.
AHC10 Agriculture, Horticulture and Conservation and Land Management is a set of training guidelines used in Australian agricultural vocational education and training. In this paper, its content and structure have been discussed. It has been indicated that by learning and referring to the competency standards and assessment guidelines of the AHC10 training package, the requirements for skill and knowledge on pratacultural occupations are better implemented, and occupational levels in the pratacultural industry are defined precisely, which may contribute to the finalization of the national system of vocational qualification in China. Complying with the theory of four production levels of grassland agro-ecosystem, examples of core and elective units of competency for pratacultural vocational education have been proposed, which could be referred to or even followed by the pratacultural industry as examples in the writing units of competency. Deliverance of the competency standards in pratacultural vocational education in China has been proposed. It is expected that this paper will contribute as a reference to improve pratacultural vocational education in China.