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2017 Vol.34(8)

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2017, 11(8): 0-.
[Abstract](606) [PDF 1588KB](171)
Abstract:
Soil respiration in three types of seasonal pastures in summer on the northern slope of Qilian Mountains
2017, 11(8): 1561-1570. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0454
[Abstract](877) [FullText HTML] (76) [PDF 685KB](232)
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To facilitate the management of carbon sink, soil respiration and factors affecting it were measured and analysed in summer pasture, winter pasture, and spring-autumn pasture on the northern slope of Qilian Mountains in summer. Daily soil respiration (Rs) was 0.24, 0.19, and 0.26 μmol·(m2·s)-1 in the winter pasture, spring-autumn pasture, and summer pasture, respectively. With increase in stocking rate, Rs decreased in winter pasture, whereas that in the spring-autumn pasture and summer pasture revealed the opposite trend. In winter pasture, Rs was significantly positively correlated with soil moisture (SM) and significantly negatively correlated with stocking rate (SR) and soil temperature (Ts) (P<0.05). However, in spring-autumn pasture, Rs was significantly positively correlated with SR, photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), and SM (P<0.05), but significantly negatively correlated with soil temperature (Ts) and community coverage (C) (P<0.05). A structural model revealed that the indirect negative effect of SR by Ts on Rs was higher than the direct positive effect of SM in winter pasture. The direct negative effect of C on Rs was higher than the direct positive effect of SR in spring-autumn pasture. In winter pasture, Rs can be estimated better by Ts and SM, Rs=0.436-0.012ST+0.018SM (R2=0.775, P=0.037). In spring-autumn pasture, Rs can be estimated better by PAR and C, Rs=-0.239+0.003PAR-0.001C (R2=0.979,P=0.004).
Influences of thermoperiod and salinity on Tamarix gracilis seed germination
2017, 11(8): 1571-1575. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0541
[Abstract](833) [FullText HTML] (95) [PDF 533KB](132)
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In order to reveal the seed germination characteristics of Tamarix gracilis in the Turpan Desert Botanical Garden, Xinjiang, seeds of the species were germinated in incubators with 4 photoperiods and 10 NaCl salinities. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of thermoperiod and NaCl on seed germination. The results showed that 1) seeds can germinate quickly and reach a high germination percentage in a range of temperatures, from 5 ℃/15 ℃ to 25 ℃/35 ℃ in dark/light = 12 h/12 h. The higher the temperature, the faster the germination. 2) The higher the NaCl salinity, the lower the percentage of germination. Germination was not affected by NaCl at concentrations below 0.4 mol·L-1, while germination at higher concentrations (0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 mol·L-1) were significantly lower than that of the control. 3) After transferring to distilled water, un-germinated seeds incubated in NaCl showed a low germination recovery rate. Low germination recovery (2.1%34.5%) was noted at concentrations of 0.61.2 mol·L-1. No germination recovery was noted when NaCl concentration was more than 1.2 mol·L-1. This shows that 1.2 mol·L-1 NaCl is the largest concentration of salt tolerance of T. gracilis.
Evaluation and exploitation of resources of wild ornamental grass in Pingtan Island
Zeng-ke Zhang, Qi Wang, Li-li Lin, Shi-qiang Shi, Xing-zhao Liu, Jia-ling Zhang, Liu-jing Huang
2017, 11(8): 1576-1590. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0224
[Abstract](1193) [FullText HTML] (103) [PDF 2012KB](173)
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Ornamental grass, because of itsexcellent ecological and ornamental values, has become an important landscaping material in recent years. In this study, Greycorrelation analysis was used to evaluate the comprehensive value of wild ornamental grass in Pingtan Island. The results were as follows: 1) There were 77 species in total, belonging to 49 genera and five families. 2) Theseornamental grasseswere widespread in Pingtan Island, especially in hillside grassland and prairie shrubland, where they accounted for 55.84%. The species’ resistance was strong; in total resistance indices, desiccation-tolerant species accounted for 45.45%, water-resistant species accounted for 31.17%, while the rest consisted ofsaline tolerance and wind-resistant. Meanwhile, these ornamental grasses possessed a higher ornamental value (evaluation score≥2.3). The comprehensive evaluation results showed that the degree of correlation with theideal species,in 66 of the 77 ornamental grasses, was higher than 0.6, which shows potential for development and utilization. 19 species showed a degree of correlation with theideal species higher than 0.7, which had higher ornamental value and adaptability. Moreover, five species showed a degree of correlation with the ideal species higher than 0.8, such as Miscanthus sinensis, Miscanthusfloridulus, Saccharum spontaneum, Lilium brownie and Ophiopogon intermedius, which could be used for landscaping directly.
Effect of biosolid on turf grass stress physiology
Ming-juan1 Shang, Jun2 Cao, Zhi-hui1 Chang
2017, 11(8): 1591-1600. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0591
[Abstract](838) [FullText HTML] (81) [PDF 593KB](201)
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The disposal of biosolids has drawn significant attention. Applying biosolids to lawn grass plantings is considered to be one of the possible ways of sludge resource utilization. This review summarizes overall research results about the effect of biosolids on the physiological growth of turf grass in response to stress. It showed that applying an appropriate amount of biosolid to turfgrass could benefit turfgrass chlorophyll and photosynthesis values, mineral nutrition content, osmotic adjustment and antioxidant enzyme systems activity, resulting in the enhanced adaptability of turfgrass to stress conditions. Moreover, the proper amount of biosolid to apply depends on the turfgrass species, and overuse of biosolids could lead to negative effects on turfgrass growth. The positive effects of biosolid on turfgrass may be partially, but not completely, due to the abundant nutrients and bioactive substances in biosolids. The underlying mechanism remains to be investigated further.
Review of stress resistance and application of the pioneer plant Neyraudia reynaudiana
2017, 11(8): 1601-1610. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0515
[Abstract](1477) [FullText HTML] (111) [PDF 2158KB](169)
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The gramineous plant, Neyraudia reynaudiana, is known for its strong stress resistance, wide ecological amplitude and other superior traits. These characteristics led to its broad application in southern China as a restoration pioneer plant. This paper discusses the distribution, biological characteristics, and drought, barren and heavy-metal pollution resistant qualities of N. reynaudiana. We discuss how N. reynaudiana uses morphological and physiological strategies, such as reducing root diameter, extending root length and range, to improve water and nutrient use efficiency. We also analyse the mechanism of heavy metal accumulation and tolerance. This paper reviewed the application of soil and water conservation, slope management and ecological restoration of N. reynaudiana, pointing out that the molecular and regulatory mechanisms of stress resistance and the survival mechanism under resistance need to be further studied. To provide a reference for further research on vegetation restoration and provide a theoretical basis for ecological application of N. reynaudiana, this paper summarized the reason for survival and the mechanisms that N. reynaudiana uses to adapt to stress resistance.
Characteristics of species diversity of gramineous plants of West Kunlun Mountains in Xinjiang
Zhi-gang Tan, Ping Yan, Li-jun Zhang, Gang Huang, Zhen-zhu Du
2017, 11(8): 1611-1616. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0537
[Abstract](900) [FullText HTML] (104) [PDF 443KB](156)
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The characteristics of species diversity of gramineous plants of West Kunlun Mountains in Xinjiang were studied by field investigation, collection and identification of plant specimens, and by referring to relevant literature. The research shows that gramineous plants of West Kunlun Mountains in Xinjiang included 37 genera, and 137 species, which accounts for 52.11 and 42.55% of genera and species, respectively, of Gramineae in Xinjiang. Gramineae species richness is relatively high in Xinjiang; and six novel species were discovered. The endemism of gramineous plants is not obvious in this area, the composition of the genus is dominated by single species (17 genera and 17 species) and few species genera (13 genera and 35 species), which have totally 30 genera and 52 species, respectively accounted for 81.08% and 37.96% of genera and species. Seven genera consisting of 85 species, which were moderately (4 genera and 32 species) or largely dominant (3 genera and 53 species), accounted for 18.92 and 62.04% of the total number genera and species, respectively, which are major components of the flora. The geographical elements of the flora are divided into six types and four variants, which exhibit temperate distribution and its variants. The dominant life form is perennial herbs (116 species, accounted for 84.67%), followed by annual herb (21 species, accounted for 15.33%). The ecotype is dominated by mesophytes (63 species, accounted for 45.99%), xerophytes (61 species, accounted for 44.53%) and a small number of hygrophytes (13 species, accounted for 9.49%), showing close relationship with grassland and meadow. These results indicated that this region was more suitable for the growth of perennial xerophytes and mesophytes of Gramineae, and the geographical distribution type of gramineous plants in this area was in agreement with the geographical location of the area.
Impacts of climate change on the phenological phases of five main shrub species in the desert region
Dan1 Li, Fang1 Han, Yun-yun2 Chen, Li-ping1 Yang, Su-hua1 Chen
2017, 11(8): 1617-1626. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0644
[Abstract](891) [FullText HTML] (91) [PDF 656KB](189)
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Phenology is often used as a reliable indicator of climate change. Based on the analysis of phenological data, the effects of climate change on the phenological phases of five main shrub species in desert region were found. The findings are significant in clarifying the carbon cycle of the desert ecosystem. A study was performed on the phenological and corresponding meteorological data of five shrub species in the desert area of the Alashan Left Banner league of Inner Mongolia in the past 30 years by using simple linear regression and correlation analysis. The results indicate 1) from 1983 to 2012, the temperature increases obviously in the study area, and its climatic tendency is 0.43 ℃·10 a-1. No significant change in precipitation was found. The climate shows a warm and dry trend in the data. 2) The spring phenophase of the five shrub species is shorten. The withering stage showed either a significant advance or no obvious backward trend, and the growing season has extended. 3) The mean temperature in March, April, and October have significant effects on the phenological phases of five shrub species. There is significant or extremely significant correlation between the monthly precipitation and the spring phenophase of Nitraria tangutorum.
Effect of Epichloë gansuensis on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spore diversity in rhizosphere soil of drunken horse grass under different growth conditions
Rui Zhong, Xiao-rong Zhou, Zhi-qin Zhang, Chao Xia, Na-na Li, Xing-xu Zhang
2017, 11(8): 1627-1634. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0067
[Abstract](855) [FullText HTML] (62) [PDF 850KB](187)
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The present study was conducted to measure the colonisation rate of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), soil spore density, and AMF diversity under different growth conditions, based on root staining and morphological identification of spores. The results indicated that AMF colonisation rate of cultivated roots were significantly higher than that in wild roots (P<0.05) under cultivated conditions, and that endophytes significantly increased the AMF colonisation rate (P<0.05). Spore density in wild soil was significantly higher than that in cultivated soil (P<0.05). Under cultivated conditions, endophytes significantly enhanced the spore density (P<0.05). Under cultivated conditions, three genera and nine AMF species were detected, including seven Glomus, one Gigaspora, and one Scutellospora species. Endophyte-infected roots (E+) contained six Glomus and one Gigaspora species; endophyte-free roots (E-) contained three Glomus, one Gigaspora, and one Scutellospora species. Two genera, including nine AMF species (eight Glomus and one Gigaspora species) were found under wild conditions. Glomus was the most abundant AMF species. The AMF species richness of wild soil was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that under cultivated conditions. However, endophytes had no significant effect (P>0.05) on AMF species richness. These results demonstrated that endophyte infection and growth conditions might change AMF community structure.
The identification, evolutionary characterization and expression analysis of the bZIP transcription factor family in Medicago sativa
2017, 11(8): 1635-1648. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0520
[Abstract](1041) [FullText HTML] (84) [PDF 8173KB](208)
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Basic leucine zipper transcription factors are one of the most extensive and conserved transcription factors in the eukaryote proteins. Currently, several bZIP transcription factors have been identified in many plants. bZIP transcription factors participate extensively in the regulation of seed storage gene expression, development, photomorphogenesis, pathogen defense, biotic and abiotic stress responses, ABA signalling, and more. In this study, 138 bZIP transcription factor-encoding genes were identified by a comprehensive computational analysis of the Medicago sativa transcriptome databases. Phylogenetic analysis of the bZIP protein sequences permits classification of the genes into 10 groups in M. sativa. The codon bias results showed that the alfalfa MsbZIP gene was biased toward the synonymous codons with A and T. Moreover, the gene ontology (GO) term annotations of the 138 MsbZIP were annotated and classified into 23 categories according to biological processes and molecular function. The co-expression relationship between MsbZIP genes showed that significant correlations existed between 372 pairs of MsbZIP genes at the 0.01 level. These results will be important for the functional characterization of bZIP transcription factors in M. sativa, and facilitate further research on the bZIP gene family regarding their evolutionary history and biological functions.
Optimisation and establishment of a high frequency regeneration system for Lolium multiflorum‘Tetragold’ and L. perenne ‘Four seasons’
Qing-fei Zeng, Xin Wei, Xi Chen, Guang-jie Chen, Pei-jie Ma, Jia-hai Wu, Xiao-li Wang
2017, 11(8): 1649-1660. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0531
[Abstract](889) [FullText HTML] (58) [PDF 1161KB](169)
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Using mature seeds of the major ryegrass cultivars in Guizhou Province, annual ryegrass Tetragold and perennial ryegrass Four seasons, as explants, experiments on callus induction and plantlet regeneration were carried out. The results indicated that by peeling off the glume of mature seeds, resecting one-third of the endosperm end, and putting the treated explants of annual ryegrass Tetragold on a medium of CC+7 mg·L-1 2,4-D+0.5 mg·L-1 6-BA and those of perennial ryegrass Four seasons on a medium of CC+5 mg·L-1 2,4-D+0.5 mg·L-1 6-BA, the contamination rates of the tissue cultures were significantly decreased, and the highest callus induction rates occurred (65.52% for annual ryegrass Tetragold and 63.55% for perennial ryegrass Four seasons). Transferring the callus induced in the two cultivars on a subculture medium of MS+0.5 mg·L-1 2,4-D+0.5 mg·L-1 6-BA+1.25 mg·L-1 CuSO4+1.0 g·L-1 CH promoted the formation of type Ⅱ embryogenic callus with better quality. The plant expression vector pCAMBIA 1300 would be used in the subsequent experiment on transformation, and hygromycin was chosen as the best antibiotic selective agent (appropriate critical concentration 30 to 40 mg·L-1). On a medium of MS+2.0 mg·L-1 6-BA+0.5 mg·L-1 NAA+0.1 mg·L-1 TDZ, the highest differentiation rate was 86.37% for embryogenic callus of annual ryegrass Tetragold, and on a medium of MS+6.0 mg·L-1 6-BA+0.3 mg·L-1 NAA+5.0 mg·L-1 KT, the embryogenic callus of perennial ryegrass Four seasons produced the highest differentiation rate of 85.40%. On a rooting culture medium of 1/2MS+0.5 mg·L-1 NAA+0.5 mg·L-1 IAA, the adventitious buds of both the cultivars attained a rooting rate of 100%; thus, a large number of plantlets were produced by tissue culture. The nutrition soil which was composed of the same proportion of humus, vermiculite, and sandy loam ensured a survival rate of more than 99%. In the present study, the high frequency regeneration systems for annual ryegrass Tetragold and perennial ryegrass Four seasons were optimised and established, which would lay a reliable foundation for their genetic transformation.
Effect of salt stress on growth, ion accumulation, and distribution in sainfoins seedlings
Guo-qiang1 Wu, Shu1 Jia, Hai-long1 Liu, Chun-mei2 Wang, Shan-jia1 Li
2017, 11(8): 1661-1668. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0447
[Abstract](927) [FullText HTML] (85) [PDF 737KB](195)
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In this study, we investigated the effects of different concentrations of NaCl (0, 5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mmol·L-1) over different time periods (0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 d), after 50 mmol·L-1 NaCl treatment, on growth, ion accumulation, and distribution in 3-week-old sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) seedlings. Results showed that concentrations of 5, 25, and 50 mmol·L-1 did not significantly affect plant growth, while concentrations of 100 and 200 mmol·L-1 significantly inhibited growth when compared with that in the control (0 mmol·L-1)(P<0.05). With the increase of NaCl concentrations, Na+ concentrations in both shoot and root tended to increase. Compared with the control, the addition of 50200 mmol·L-1 NaCl increased shoot Na+ concentration by 1439 times, respectively. In particular, concentrations of 200 mmol·L-1 significantly increased root Na+ net uptake rates, total Na+ amount, and relative shoot Na+ distribution by 35-fold, 93% and 45%, respectively; whereas it reduced selective transport capacity for K+ over Na+ from roots to shoots. At 50 mmol·L-1 NaCl, with increased treatment time, Na+ accumulation in both shoot and root tended to increase, but that in the roots reached a peak on the 7th day and reduced subsequently. In contrast, K+ concentrations showed a decreasing trend, to a larger degree in root than in shoot. These results indicate that under NaCl concentrations of 550 mmol·L-1, sainfoin plants could adapt to salt stress by maintaining K+ and Na+ homeostasis; while under 100 and 200 mmol·L-1, plants passively accumulated a large amount of Na+ in shoots, where ions compartmentation and selective transport capacity for K+ over Na+ were weak, thus disrupting the balance of Na+ and K+ and resulting in osmotic stress and growth inhibition.
Effect of nitrogen form on growth and nitrogen metabolism of Atropa belladonna
2017, 11(8): 1669-1676. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0543
[Abstract](805) [FullText HTML] (65) [PDF 668KB](153)
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Analysis of biomass compositions and C, N characteristics of wild jujube in different soil types
Ya-ge Li, Wei Zhao, Shuai Guo, Xin Wang, Lin Li
2017, 11(8): 1677-1685. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0144
[Abstract](963) [FullText HTML] (132) [PDF 669KB](130)
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In the warm-temperate shrub grassland of Henan Province, wild jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) is one of the most typical vegetation types in the herbaceous plant community. In this study,wild jujube was selected as the research object to discuss the effects of three soil types on the biomass composition and carbon/nitrogen content of the subjects. The results indicated that the total carbon content,total nitrogen content and C/N ratio of brown soil were significantly different from loess soil and cinnamon soil (P<0.05), which was more favourable forbiomass accumulation, especially for the older branches of wild jujube (P<0.05). The leaves of wild jujube had the lowest carbon sequestration ability, but the new branchesshowed the highest ability. In addition, the nitrogen fixation ability of the leaves was the highest when compared with other tissues, which was 2 to 3 times higher than that of new branches,old branches or roots in different depths. The total carbon and total nitrogen content of wild jujube’s leaves in brown soil were significantly higher than those of loess soil and cinnamon soil (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the new branches among all soil types (P>0.05). Therefore, in terms of biomass accumulation and carbon and nitrogen fixation, brown soil is beneficial for the growth of wild jujube, and can help wild jujube perform its corresponding ecological functions.
Effect of plant density on agronomic traits and forage quality forSorghum bicolor×S. sudanense
Yuan Li, Yong-liang You, Hai-ming Zhao, Gui-bo Liu, Rui-xin Wu, Jian-zhong Yang
2017, 11(8): 1686-1693. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0045
[Abstract](932) [FullText HTML] (94) [PDF 498KB](164)
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This study aimed to discover the differences in agronomic traits and forage quality at different plant densities of Sorghum bicolor×S. sudanense. A field small-plot experiment was conducted in the Haihe lowland plain, in which ‘Jicao 1’ and ‘Jicao 2’ were used for photoperiod insensitivity and photoperiod sensitivity of the experimental material, respectively. These correlative characteristic indexes, including the agronomic traits and forage quality, were analysed at different plant density treatments during the individual stages of heading, flowering, and milk. These results showed that the stem diameters of ‘Jicao 1’ and ‘Jicao 2’ at the low plant density (60 00075 000 plant·ha-1) were significantly higher than the high plant density (300 000375 000 plant·ha-1) from the heading to the milk stage (P<0.05), whereas there was no significant differences in the plant height, leaf number, ratio of stem∶leaf, and dry matter content (P>0.05). There was no significant differences in the dry yield of ‘Jicao 1’ under different treatments (P>0.05), but the content of crude protein and the relative feed value of ‘Jicao 1’ at the 150 000 plant·ha-1 were significantly higher than at 75 000 plant·ha-1 during the milk stage (P<0.05). The hay yield of ‘Jicao 2’ at the 300 000 plant·ha-1 was significantly higher than at 120 000 plant·ha-1 (P<0.05), but there was no significant differences between the treatment of 120 000 plant·ha-1 and other treatments on the content of forage quality for ‘Jicao 2’ during the milk stage. According to the comprehensive analysis, the suitable plant density of the photoperiod insensitive Sorghum bicolor×S. sudanense was 150 000 plant·ha-1, and the photoperiod sensitive variety was 120 000 plant·ha-1 when cutting during the milk stage in the Haihe lowland plains.
Review of the effects of climate change on the propagation of perennial clonal plants
Zhuo-lin Li, Chun-sheng Mu, Chun-ying Wu
2017, 11(8): 1694-1704. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0414
[Abstract](1010) [FullText HTML] (73) [PDF 1662KB](172)
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Climate change consists of many simultaneous factors which have different influences on plants, animals and microbes in various ecosystems. Clonal plants have two different modes of reproduction, sexual reproduction and vegetative propagation. Many clonal plants have abandoned or nearly abandoned sexual reproduction, owing to environmental adaptation. To some extent, their vegetative propagation ability might represent the total productivity of these plants. Therefore, the response of clonal plant propagation to climate change has becomea crucial issue. In this paper, we review the effects of the main climatic factors on clonal growth of a perennial plant. Both elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition increased the output of daughter shoots in most papers, but decreasing precipitation had adverse or noeffect. Warming time had different effects on daughter shoots. Although there is a lot of research about the effects of eachclimate change factor on clonal plants, studies showing howthe interaction of these factors affectsclonal plant propagation arescarce.To strengthen the body of research, studies about how interaction among the climatic factors affectsclonal plants areessential, because theynot only enrich knowledge of clonal plant and global change ecology, but also provide practical guidance for grassland management in the future.
Physiological response of leaves and roots of Leymus chinensis under drought and salt stress
Jiu-dao1 Li, Hua2 Jin, Shi-ling1 Piao, Ji-xiang2 Zou, Peng2 Guo, Lin-lin2 Li, Zhi3 Wang
2017, 11(8): 1705-1710. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0528
[Abstract](983) [FullText HTML] (83) [PDF 495KB](183)
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The growth of Leymus chinensis was severely restricted by the arid climate and salinized land in north of China. This test contrasts physiological responses of roots and leaves of L. chinensis under stress, to identify the effects on, and differences between, roots and leaves of L. chinensis by simulating different drought and salt conditions. The benefit of this study is to provide a theoretical basis for enhanced salt tolerance and drought tolerance in L. chinensis. Drought stress and salt stress were respectively simulated by different concentrations of PEG solution and NaCl solution. We discuss the activities of antioxidant enzymes (APX, CAT, and POD) and diversification of soluble protein content in the roots and leaves of L. chinensis. Result: Under mild salt stress (100 mmol·L-1), L. chinensis mainly eliminated the ROS through APX of the leaves, and the site of osmotic regulation is mainly in the leaves; under moderate salt stress (200, 300 mmol·L-1), the roots and leaves eliminated ROS by increasing activities of POD and CAT, and the roots mainly improved activity of POD, and the leaves mainly enhanced activity of CAT; under severe stress (400 mmol·L-1), APX of the roots was significantly increased, while the leaves were able to resist damage from ROS by increasing POD and CAT activities, and the location of osmotic regulation also changed from leaves, to roots and leaves. In the early stage of drought stress (20%), L. chinensis mainly relied on APX of roots and leaves and CAT of leaves to eliminate ROS. With the stress increase, activities of APX and CAT in roots were increased to resist the damage from ROS, and the activity of POD in roots and leaves kept decreasing, The location of osmotic adjustment was mainly in leaves.
Assessment of seed shattering and analysis of agronomic traits in Elymus nutans
2017, 11(8): 1711-1720. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0073
[Abstract](959) [FullText HTML] (78) [PDF 981KB](163)
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To understand its germplasm resources and promote breeding in Elymus nutans, variation coefficient, correlation-ship, principal component and cluster analyses were carried out on 15 agronomic traits of 13 accessions from 2015 to 2016. The results showed that the value of the seed shattering rate variation coefficient was the maximal (57.43%) and ear length was the minimum (5.77%) among 15 agronomic traits. PI619516 showed the best shattering resistance (breaking tensile strength, BTS = 70.05 gf) among 13 accessions, while the shattering rate of PI639855 (BTS = 13.99 gf) was the highest. Variation analysis of BTS suggested that PI639852 had the largest variation (CV=45.09%), which indicated there was great genetic differentiation among individuals. Correlative analysis revealed high significantly positive correlation (P<0.01) between length of the second leaf from the inflorescence and flag leaf length, as well as flag leaf width; flag leaf width had a high significantly positive correlation (P<0.01) with flag leaf length. Florets per ear and ear length showed a significantly positive correlation (P<0.05), as well as stem diameter. Breaking tensile strength and ear length were significantly negatively correlated (P<0.05), as well as stem diameter, showing that the larger the ear length and stem diameter, the higher the shattering rate (BTS was smaller). Cluster analysis of BTS showed that 13 accessions were clustered into four groups. Group ⅰ showed the lowest shattering rate. Group ⅱ and ⅲ seed shattering were highest shattering rate. Group ⅳ seed shattering was medium cluster analysis for 15 agronomic traits showed that all accessions were clustered into four groups. The subordinate function analysis showed PI547396 had the best comprehensive performance with subordinate function value of 0.55. These screened materials are important for future breeding programs.
Comparison of flight muscle and energy consumption of pre- and post-flight in Calliptamus italicus(Orthoptera:Acrididae)
2017, 11(8): 1721-1726. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0066
[Abstract](849) [FullText HTML] (80) [PDF 582KB](171)
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Calliptamus italicus has the ability to fly long distance for migration, which can have negative effects in migrated areas. In this study on C. italicus, we compared the sarcomere length, myofibrils diameter, mitochondrial content, and changes in glycogen and glyceride levels during different flight distances. Our results indicate significant (P<0.05) differences between females, males, females and males of test group members and control group in the mitochondrial content. The most glycogen consumption was recorded for females flying over 2.8 km and males flying between 2.12.8 km, which were 11.15 and 16.10 mg·g-1, respectively. The most glyceride consumed for both, females and males was to fly over 2.8 km, which were 61.69 and 69.75 mg·g-1, respectively. We found that C. italicus consumed both, carbohydrates and lipid at the same time during flight. Females and males had the highest glycogen utilization efficiency when the travelling distances were over 2.8 and 2.12.8 km, respectively. Highest glyceride utilization efficiency was also observed when the travelling distance was over 2.8 km.
Biological and ecological characteristics of Acyrthosiphon pisum
2017, 11(8): 1727-1740. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0518
[Abstract](1769) [FullText HTML] (422) [PDF 2873KB](250)
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Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea, Aphididae) is an important insect pest of many crops and forage grasses. This pest not only causes serious losses to alfalfa production, but also is the vector of many plant viruses. As an ecological model insect, A. pisum fascinates many scientists due to its complex life cycle, multiple reproductive types, polymorphism and symbiotic relationship with bacteria. We summarized the research status of biological and ecological characteristics of A. pisum, especially for phenotypic polymorphisms and endosymbiotic bacteria. It is necessary to study how the biological characteristics of A. pisum respond to global climate and cropping pattern changes, and elucidate the genetic mechanisms of ecological adaptation and polymorphisms; this will be helpful for the establishment of sustainable management strategies for this pest.
Effects of lactic acid bacteria on fermentation quality of alfalfa meal
2017, 11(8): 1741-1747. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0477
[Abstract](1008) [FullText HTML] (65) [PDF 501KB](130)
Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate the effects of lactic acid bacteria on the fermentation quality of alfalfa meal. There were four treatment groups, including a control group treated with sterile water and experimental groups treated with plant-derived Lactobacillus plantarum only, excrement-derived Enterococcus faecium only, or both of them together. Alfalfa meal samples were obtained and analysed at several time points. Each group had three replicate samples at each time point. The results showed that, compared with the control group, each treatment group had a good sensory assessment score, and all treatment groups showed an increase in total acid content (P<0.05) and a decrease in the pH of the alfalfa silage after 60 d. The dry matter content was higher in the group treated only with E. faecium than in the other groups. There were no significant differences in acid detergent fibre content among the three experimental groups (P>0.05), but all the experimental groups had a lower acid detergent fibre content than the control group. After exposing the samples to air for 7 d, we found that the pH were significantly lower in the experimental groups than in the control group, whereas the opposite pattern was observed for total acid content. Yeast and mould were only observed in the control group. In conclusion, fermentation of alfalfa meal with L. plantarum or E. faecium had positive effects on its quality, stability, and chemical composition.
Comparative analysis of nanocellulose from Humulus scandens stems using four isolation methods
Ya-ni1 Jiang, Ji-ping2 Zhou, Qi2 Zhang, Guo-qi1 Zhao, Xiao-dong1 Xu
2017, 11(8): 1748-1754. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0524
[Abstract](1148) [FullText HTML] (232) [PDF 5000KB](173)
Abstract:
Sulfuric acid-cellulose nanocrystals (S-CNC), hydrochloric acid-cellulose nanocrystals (H-CNC), ultrasound-cellulose nanofibrils (U-CNF) and stirring-cellulose nanofibrils (S-CNF) were successfully isolated from Humulus scandens stems (HSS) using sulfuric acid hydrolysis, hydrochloric acid hydrolysis, high power ultrasonic and high stirring, respectively. The morphology, chemical structure, crystal structure and thermal stability were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns and thermal gravimetric analysis. The results suggested that the S-CNC and H-CNC prepared by acid hydrolysis had short rod-like shapes, while the U-CNFs and S-CNFs had reticular shapes. The S-CNC has the highest crystallinity (70.05%) while the S-CNF had the lowest crystallinity of the four kinds of nanocellulose; all maintained cellulose Ⅰ structure. The U-CNF had the best thermal stability with initial decomposition temperature of 261.9 ℃, but the S-CNC was the worst with the initial decomposition temperature of 217.8 ℃.
Effects of enzyme and fermented green juice on silage quality of Pennisetum sp.
Shi Zhang, Zhi Lin, Hao-chuang Yu, Zong-zhi Luo, Yi-fen Zhuang
2017, 11(8): 1755-1761. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0526
[Abstract](942) [FullText HTML] (86) [PDF 531KB](169)
Abstract:
To develop Pennisetum sp. for large-scale use, Pennisetum sp. silage samples were assigned to six experimental groups: control (CK), fermented green juice group (FGJ), cellulose group (CEL), fermented green juice+cellulase (Complex 1) group, xylanase (XYL) group, and fermented green juice+xylanase (Complex 2) group. Each treatment was applied to 3 replicate samples. The samples were ensiled at room temperature and opened 60 days later, after which their fermentation quality and chemical composition were analysed. The results showed that, compared with CK, the HC decreased and the DMR increased in CEL; the LA, AA, PA, and WSC of XYL decreased; the pH, GLR, and AN of FGJ decreased; the LA, DMR, and WSC of FGJ increased; the LA and PA of Complex 1 increased; the pH, GLR, AA, PA, and AN of Complex 2 decreased; and the LA of Complex 2 increased. Compared with FGJ1 and CEL, the silage quality of Complex 1 was better. Compared with FGJ2 and XYL, the silage quality of Complex 2 was better. Collectively, the results indicated that Pennisetum sp. is suitable for ensiling.