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In order to study the current situation of wild woody vine resources in Qiannan of Guizhou Province through field investigation and specimen identification, the species composition, life form, flora distribution, ornamental characteristics, such as diversity of lianas has been systematically studied. The results showed that: there are 478 wild woody vine species (including 32 varieties) in total, belonging to 118 genera, and 45 families, in Qiannan of Guizhou Province. Dicotyledonous lianas dominate, and they belong to 41 families, 111 genera, and 447 species. Monocotyledonous lianas belonged to 3 families,6 genera and 28 species, and gymnosperm lianas consisted of 1 species of a single genus, However, pteridophyte lianas are absent from this area. In a family and genus hierarchy composition, the family with the 2~10 species are the most, and the genera of single species and 2~5 species are more. In terms of lifeform, phanerophyte lianas predominate, accounting for 89.12% of the total number of lianas. In the climbing style, the minorities include hooking, curling, and adhering lianas, whereas the majority are twining lianas, accounting for 46.23% of the total number of species studied. The dominant living habit is of the deciduous type, accounting for 74.06% of the total number of species studied, whereas the evergreen and semievergreen types constitute a lower proportion. The initial flowering period is mainly concentrated in the spring, showing a trend of decreasing the spring, summer, autumn and winter season.The geographical elements are complex and diverse. Tropical lianas belonged to 87 generas, accounting for 73.72% of the total genera. The geographical distribution in tropical Asia was the most common, followed by the pantropical distribution, indicating that the have a tropical origin. In addition, most lianas have important ornamental characteristics, ecological, economic, and medicinal value, and development and utilization potential in the area.
The terrain in Qilian Binggou Basin is relatively complex, the snow depth is generally thin and snow distribution is fragmentized. Aiming at the problem of poor monitoring accuracy of MODIS snow products in this area, This study explored the influence of spectral characteristic of thin snow on the retrieval accuracy of MODIS data based on thin snow spectral characteristic analysis and combined with field survey experience; Then three MODIS fractional snow cover retrieval models are constructed through linear regression, linear mixed pixel unmixing and artificial neural network, and the snow map retrieved from Landsat 8 OLI image is taken as the ground truth to validate the three models’ accuracy respectively. The results show that: 1) The spectral reflectance of thin snow almost has no effect on MODIS snow retrieval accuracy based on the NDSI threshold method in the area. The poor accuracy of MODIS retrieval from thin snow is mainly due to the fragmentation of snow distribution caused by the complex terrain in the area, that is, the existence of a quantity of mixed pixels. 2) The best input parameters combination of BP artificial neural network model for MODIS fractional snow cover retrieval is(ρ1~ρ7)+NDSI+DEM. 3) The linear mixed pixel unmixing model has the lowest accuracy and the BP artificial neural network model has the best accuracy in terms of snow cover extraction in the study area. 4) Multi-factor model (BP artificial neural network) has better accuracy and stability of snow coverage extraction compared with the single factor model (unary linear regression model) in complex terrain, it is an ideal method for the retrieval of fractional snow cover in the study area.
Field Spec4 portable spectrometer (ASD Company) was used to measure the spectral curves of typical vegetation on the sand dunes of Horqin Desert. The spectrum was extracted and analysed. The results revealed that: 1) spectral morphologies of five typical species (Salix gordejevii, Artemisia frigida, Herbal ephedrae, Artemisia halodendron, Caragana microphylla) were similar. The descending order of seeking “red-edge slope” was A. frigida (0.99%) C. microphylla (0.68%) S. gordejevii (0.59%) H. ephedrae (0.58%) A. halodendron (0.56%). However, the vegetation types can be distinguished according to the spectral differences and the parameters of the multiple spectral features. 2) Spectral reflectance characteristics of A. halodendron in different seasons changed with vegetation growth stages. Although this species showed “twin peaks” and “red shift”, these phenomena were not clearly observed. Because the study area appeared to be persistently exposed to drought in July, water shortage in vegetation was severe, which led to the reduction of ‘red edge position’ of A. halodendron to tiny dots on July 6 that appeared as two ‘red edge platforms’. 3) The analysis of spectral characteristics of A. halodendron at different coverage revealed that the derivative spectra represented ‘twin peaks’. Moreover, when the coverage was more than 40%, the ‘red-edge position’ and the coverage were not directly linked, but the canopy coverage was proportional to the ‘red-edge slope’. Removal of the visible band revealed an increase in absorption depth and decrease in absorption peak area of A. halodendron with increasing coverage. A comparison of coverage-sensitive parameters indicated that the area of the absorption peak was the preferred parameter for studying coverage variation of A. halodendron in this region. Therefore, analysis of vegetation hyperspectral characteristics provide an important reference value for the application of remote sensing-based monitoring of vegetation characteristics, such as growth, vegetation classification, and vegetation cover.
The characteristics of climate changes in Yuzhong was analyzed with the methods of the linear regression method, cumulative anomaly method, Mann-Kendall test method and Morlet wavelets analysis method based on daily average air temperature data observed at Yuzhong meteorological station from 1971 to 2012. The authors analyzed the climate changing characteristics and abrupt changes over the last 42 years in the area. The results showed that the climate in this region showed a warming trend, the annual mean temperature varied between 5.73 and 8.04 ℃, and the annual temperature has increased by 0.26 ℃·10 a-1 in recent 42 years, and an abrupt change occurred in 1995-1996.In addition, the seasonal temperature showed the same trend, and the increase of temperature in winter were higher (0.28 ℃·10 a-1) than in the spring (0.25 ℃·10 a-1). The climate change interval analysis that the annual mean temperature fluctuated significantly with the interval of 28 years,14 years and 6 years. There is an upward trend of temperatures in Yuzhong, with a certain period and the regularity of variation.
Potentilla sericea was employed as an experimental material in a pot experiment to study leaf ultrastructure and physiological characteristics under different gradients of lead stress. The results showed that the chlorophyll content under low concentration (600 mg·kg-1) of Pb stress first increased, and then decreased, with the increase in duration of treatment time, whereas high concentrations (600 mg·kg-1) of Pb stress showed a declining trend. The content of soluble protein was decreased. The MDA and free proline content all significantly increased. SOD activities first decreased, and then increased. With the increase of stress, the toxicity of lead to P. sericea seedlings increased. Under high Pb concentration (2 000 mg·kg-1), part of the cell membrane disappeared, the double membrane system of chloroplasts was destroyed, granum lamella was dissolved, mitochondrial vacuolization was serious, and the crest disappeared. These results showed that P. sericea is tolerant to lead up to concentrations of 600 mg·kg-1.
This study aimed to elucidate the effects of yak (Bos grunniens) grazing intensity on aboveground biomass and identify the optimum grazing intensity of alpine meadow in northwest Sichuan area. Three grazing intensities were considered, namely light grazing (0.71 yak·ha-1), moderate grazing (1.19 yak·ha-1), and heavy grazing (1.60 yak·ha-1), which were selected based on the food intake of the yaks and the average annual biomass of the meadow. The grazing experiment lasted for 3 years. The species richness of the plants and the aboveground biomass were determined. The results showed that the species richness tended to decrease as the grazing intensity increased. In the third year of grazing, the annual aboveground biomass of the meadow under moderate grazing was the highest, followed by that of the meadow under light grazing, and that of the meadow under heavy grazing was the lowest. In the third year, compared with the first year, there was a decrease in the proportion of forbs and an increase in that of grass among the annual biomass in the meadows under light and moderate grazing. In contrast, there was no change in the proportion of forbs and a decrease in that of grass in the meadow under heavy grazing. Meanwhile, the proportion of sedge increased in all meadows irrespective of the grazing intensity. In conclusion, moderate grazing (1.19 yak·ha-1) is best due to its beneficial effects on yield and the growth of grass and sedge.
To understand how to effectively manage a desert steppe environment during a period of warming and nitrogen deposition, the effects of nitrogen (N) addition and warming on the community structure and diversity of cultivatable fungi were studied. The dilution plate method was used together with the molecular analysis of 18S rRNA after the application of infrared radiation to simulate global warming and fungi were artificially fertilised for 6 years in a desert steppe with the dominant species of Stipa breviflora in Inner Mongolia. The results indicated that 17 fungal genera were isolated from the desert soil. N addition alone or with simulated warming led to a significant (P0.05) increase in the total number of cultivatable fungi from 6.70×105 colony-forming units·g-1 in the untreated control to 1.45×106 or 1.92×106 colony-forming units·g-1, respectively. Moreover, the community composition and dominant species changed with N addition. With N addition alone, the dominant fungal genera Aspergillus, Hypocrea, and Cladosporium were replaced by Fusarium, Alternaria, and Pseudogymnoascus, and the species richness, evenness, and diversity significantly increased. The effect of N addition with simulated warming increased the abundance of the dominant fungal genera Penicillium and Aspergillus, and another three dominant fungal genera were replaced by Fusarium, Alternaria, and Chromocleista. Combining N addition with simulated warming had no significant effects on the species richness, evenness, and diversity of cultivable fungi, compared with N addition alone.
This study focused on the artificial grasslands established with three different plant species Elymus dahuricus (Ely), Puccinellia distans (Puc) and Poa annua (Poa) for five years to control desertification to the east of Qinghai Lake. To assess the effects of these three artificial grasslands on sand soil nutrient content, soil enzyme activities and their relationships, we analysed soil nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium) and organic matter contents, as well as the activities of three soil enzymes, namely, urease, catalase, and invertase. The results showed that: 1) soil nutrient and soil enzyme activity were significantly improved after the grasses were planted. 2) Compared with the other two treatments, Poa had significant effects on improving soil organic matter, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, total potassium, and available potassium. The soil nutrient content had a significant positive relationship with soil urease activity. 3) Soil urease activity was much greater in the Ely and Poa treatments, and the activities in all the three treatments were higher than the control in the surface soil layer. In the 0-20 cm soil layer, the activities of soil catalase in the three treatments were higher than that in the control, with Poa showing the highest activity. All three treatments showed no significant effect on the activity of soil invertase. 4) The activities of soil urease and catalase both had a general significant relationship with soil nutrient content, which could be taken as the effective index for the measurement of desertification control process.
After the initial discovery of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue lead poisoning of farm animals, the responsible endophytic fungi in the grass was identified; further study confirmed the presence of endophytic fungi not only led to livestock poisoning, but significantly improved the competitive ability of the host in the community. The ecological and physiological functions of grass endophytic fungi have established this field as a popular research topic worldwide, which has provided opportunities for the development of endophytic fungi detection technology. Generally, well-established detection methods for pathogenic fungi have been used for the detection grass endophytic fungi, such as microscopic detection with staining. However, the accuracy of results was easily influenced by different host species, phenophases, and tissues. The rapid development and application of molecular biology, genetics, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time PCR methods, and other modern molecular techniques has enabled the continuous improvement of the detection methods of endophytic fungi, which can compensate for the shortage of traditional methods. The rapid and efficient determination of the existence, distribution, classification, and position of the endophytic fungi, requires an accurate and reasonable selection of specific detection methods, such as qualitative or quantitative detection combined with classical microscopy staining to determine the endophytic fungi. In this paper, we reported recent research on the detection methods of endophytic fungi and also discuss the development of classical detection method of other microbes, which are important for the development of specific detection technologies for endophytic fungi and can quantitatively determine the existence and the activity of endophytic fungi. Specific endophytic fungi detection technologies, which are no longer limited to only the identification of the presence of endophytic fungi, but can simultaneous quantify the activity of endophytic fungi detection, are an important focus for the technological development.
To explore the optimal reference genes in different tissues of Leymus chinensis for a quantitative real-time PCR experiment, eight general housekeeping genes including TUA, TUB, 18S rRNA, EF-1α, APRT, CYP, Actin and CBP20 were selected as candidate reference genes. Using roots, stems, leaves, and spikes of L. chinensis, we analyzed the 8 candidate reference gene expressions using qRT-PCR and evaluated their expression stability using geNorm and NormFinder software. The results showed that stability differed significantly among the eight candidate reference genes in different tissues. The most stable reference gene was Actin in leaves, EF-1a in stems, APRT and 18S rRNA in root and TUB in spikes. The present study has provided an important reference for analysis the expression of functional genes in L. chinensis.
Tall fescue(Festuca arundinacea) frequently grows in saline soil, or in soil with a high potential for salinization due to long-term and frequent irrigation. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Si on seed germination, biomass, and photosynthetic characteristics in stage two tall fescue seedlings under different salinization conditions. The results showed that seed germination, biomass, and photosynthetic characteristics of the seedlings was significantly affected by salt concentration, variety, silicon supply, interactions between salinization conditions and species, and interactions between silicon supply and salt concentrations. The seedling rate, the seedling survival rate, biomass, photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs), and stomatal limitation percentage (Ls) of K31 and XD tended to decrease with increase in salinity. Intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) tended to increase with increase in salinity. Silicon significantly increased the seedling rate of XD and K31 and seedling survival rate and seedling biomass. Pn, Gs, and Ls decreased Ci and Tr under salinization conditions (P＜0.05). The sensitivity of XD and K31 to silicon differed under the same salinization conditions. This indicated that the effects of silicon supply on tall fescue growth in saline conditions are closely related to resistance.
To examine germination characteristics of the common weed Euphorbia hirta in tropical farmland and forest land, we studied the effects of temperature, light and water conditions on germination and seedling growth of E. hirta using petri-dish and pot-culture methods. The results showed that E. hirta seeds germinated between 20~40 ℃; the optimum germination temperature was 30 ℃, where germination rate and germination index were the highest. The optimum temperature for seedling growth was 25 ℃, where the root∶shoot ratio was 1.03∶1. Under constant temperature (25 ℃), there was no significant difference among seed germination rates with light length of 8-24 h (the average value was 94.07%); germination rate was reduced to 52% at 0 h/24 h (light/dark, L/D). The germination index first increased and then declined with shortened light length, with a maximal value of 93.93 at 16 h/8 h (L/D) and minimal value of 30.59 at 0 h/24 h (L/D). Seedling root lengths were markedly longer than shoot lengths with light and the opposite without light (P＜0.05). Under fluctuating temperature conditions (L/D:35 ℃/25 ℃), seed germination rate and seedling shoot length had no significant change (P＞0.05), but germination index and seedling root length were significantly decreased with shortened light length (P＜0.05). We concluded that light length of 12-16 h was the optimum light condition. Optimum seed germination and seedling growth of E. hirta occurred when soil moisture was 60% of the maximum water-holding capacity at 25 ℃ with 12 h/12 h (L/D), where emergence rate and root:shoot ratio were 39.38% and 1.10∶1, respectively.
The aim of this study was to clarify the physiological regulatory function of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) during Astragalus adsurgens seed germination and seedling growth. A. adsurgens was treated with different concentrations of sodium nitroprusside SNP solution as an NO donor under 0.3% NaCl stress and physiological indexes of seed germination and seedling growth were tested. The results showed that under the NaCl stress condition, SNP promoted seed germination and relieved damage at the seedling stage, at concentrations up to 200 μmoL·L-1. However, at the higher concentration of 300 μmoL·L-1, SNP inhibited seed germination and seedling growth. Damage to A. adsurgens seeds caused by 0.3% NaCl stress was significantly alleviated in the presence of 60 μmol·L-1 SNP. With SNP treatment under NaCl stress, the seed germination percentage, germination potential, germination index, vigour index, and radicle length were 22.6%, 54.5%, 58.20%, 112.00%, and 43.70%, respectively, as compared with controls subjected to NaCl stress without SNP treatment. These values were close to or slightly higher than those of untreated controls (without NaCl stress or SNP). Treatment with 120 μmol·L-1SNP significantly reduced the damage to the A. adsurgens seedlings under 0.3% NaCl stress. The chlorophyll content, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase activities of A. adsurgens seedling leaves increased by 208.91%, 117.57%, 40.24%, and 89.95%, respectively, while the concentration of malondialdehyde decreased by 32.55%. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrated that an appropriate concentration of exogenous NO could improve seed germination, promote the synthesis of chlorophyll by seedlings, reduce the malondialdehyde content, relieve lipid peroxidation and protect the integrity of the chloroplast membrane, increase superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase activities, inhibit the accumulation of free radicals and peroxides, and accelerate the growth of seedlings. These physiological processes lowered the harm to A. adsurgens seedlings under salt stress conditions
To study the regrowth of alfalfa under high temperature and the effect of different cultivars on yield and quality of regrowth, five alfalfa cultivarsin the Dongting Lake Area were harvested under high temperature; yield wasmeasuredon August 1st,which is the fifth cutting of the plant’s first year. The sixth cutting was on September 21st. The results showed that plant regrowth and fresh grass yield of WL656 and WL903 (high fall dormancy grade) were better than that of WL363 (low fall dormancy grade) on the fifth cutting(P0.05). The fresh grass yield of WL903 was significantly higher than that of other cultivars on the sixth cutting. The proportionsof crude protein, neutral detergent fiberandacid detergent fiber were significantly different among cultivars, but the contents themselves did not apparently change among cultivars. The comprehensive performance of WL903 and WL712 (both high fall dormancy grades) was better than the others. Cultivars WL903 and WL712 were candidate cultivars with heat resistance that warrants further study.
Uneven soil depth and karst drought are key ecological factors affecting plant survival, growth, and reproduction in karst regions. The change in global precipitation patterns will exacerbate the frequency and intensity of karst drought. The amount of water and nutrients absorbed and transported to the aboveground parts by roots systems can affect plant photosynthesis. Shallow-rooted plants mainly use water and nutrients from the top layers of the soil, whereas deep-rooted plants can use water and nutrients from the deeper soil layers. Therefore, when deep-rooted plants and shallow-rooted plants coexist, they might alleviate the inhibitory effect of resource limitation on plant photosynthesis because of their complementary root niche. We grew Festuca arundinacea (deep-rooted) and Lolium perenne (shallow-rooted) under normal versus shallow soil depth and well watered versus drought treatments in a block design, and studied the effect of the decline in soil depth, water availability, and both these resources (soil depth plus water availability) on the photosynthesis of two grasses under mixed plantation by controlled experiment. The results showed that: 1) at high resource levels, no significant difference occurred in net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), and water use efficiency (WUE) of F. arundinacea between mixed plantation and in monoculture (P0.05); Pn, Gs, and Tr of L. perenne was lower in mixed plantations than in monoculture, whereas WUE was significantly higher in mixed plantations than in monoculture (P0.05). 2) Overall, Pn, Gs, and Tr of F. arundinacea and L. perenne decreased and WUE of L. perenne increased with the decline of resources (soil depth, water, and soil depth plus water) either in mixture or in monoculture. Moreover, the range of decrease or increase was lower in mixed plantations than in monoculture; WUE of F. arundinacea increased in monoculture but decreased in mixed plantations. 3) At low resource levels, Pn, Gs, and Tr of F. arundinacea was higher in mixed plantations than in monoculture, whereas WUE was lower in mixed plantations than in monoculture. No significant difference was found in Pn, Gs, and Tr of L. perenne between mixed plantations and monoculture, whereas WUE was higher in mixed plantations than in monoculture. Our results showed that owing to the complementary niche and hydraulic lift of deep-rooted plants, the inhibitory effect of resource limitation on photosynthesis of the deep-rooted and shallow-rooted plants are alleviated when they are planted together, but at the expense of WUE. Therefore, in karst regions, mixed planting with plant of different root depth systems may be an effective method of resolving the increasing drought and poor soil conditions.
In this study, we examined sex-specific differences in leaf area, gas exchange parameters, leaf water potential and chlorophyll fluorescence of male and female seedlings of Humulus scandens under NaCl stress (0, 100, 200 and 300 mmol·L-1 NaCl). Under the effects of NaCl, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr), leaf water potential (ψw), catalase (CAT), limiting value of stomata(Ls) and malondialdehyde (MDA) of male and female seedlings increased gradually. The leaf area of single leaves increased first and then decreased. The maximum fluorescence (Fm), the variable fluorescence (Fv), the potential activity of PSⅡ (Fv/Fo) and the non-photochemical quenching coefficient (qN) of the females gradually increased with the increase of NaCl stress. The photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) and chlorophyll content decreased by degrees. Overall, the ETR, Fv, Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo of the males showed an increasing trend, but qN and qP decreased, while chlorophyll content increased first and then decreased. Therefore, the physiological and biochemical characteristics such as single leaf area, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange, and CAT and MDA contents in male and female seedlings of H. scandens were affected by NaCl stress. There were significant gender differences in the response of male and female seedlings to NaCl stress. Compared to the males, the females had greater resistance against NaCl stress.
In this study, we examined the effects of drought and shade on wild Arthraxon hispidus. We set up 20 treatments using interactive combinations with five shade gradients (0, 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70%) and four drought gradients . The purpose was to analyze the synergistic effect of shade and drought on component form and biomass accumulation and allocation of A. hispidus. The results showed that shade, drought and their interaction all had significant effects on component form(P0.05). Drought had greater effects on roots than on stems and leaves, but shade had the opposite effect. Their interaction had greater effects on leaves than on roots and stems. Under the condition of moderate or severe drought (W2 or W3), leaf traits, internode lengths and number of branches was significantly reduced (P＜0.05). Root length significantly increased but the number of aerial roots decreased. Shade ≥10% decreased leaf number per plant, number of nodes, root length and the number of aerial roots but plant height increased. The interactive effect of W1×70% shade decreased leaf number by 66.94%, and increased plant height and internodes length by 86.11% and 46.17%. The interactive effect of W3×70% shade decreased node number, primary branch number and root number by 62.43%, 76.47% and 54.55%, respectively; no aerial roots were found. Shade, drought and their interaction all had significant effects on biomass accumulation and allocation (P0.05). Drought significantly reduced biomass per plant, stem and leaf biomass and allocation ratio of biomass. Under W3, biomass per plant and component biomass all decreased by about 50%, in which stem biomass increased to escape from severe drought. Shade ≥30% significantly increased leaf biomass but decreased root biomass. Under the condition of 50% shade, the distribution ratios of root and root∶shoot decreased by 81.48% and 86.79%, respectively. The interactive effect of drought and shade could offset or delay unbalanced growth caused by drought or shade. A. hispidus might adjust growth strategies by changing the quantity and quality traits of components and biomass allocation under drought or shade conditions. The synergistic effect of drought and shade enhanced resistance and adaptability of A. hispidus.
In the present sandy, the optimum amount of nitrogen fertilizer was determined in the grassland of the Pearl River in Tongliao City, Inner Mongolia. The optimum amounts of fertilizer at the seedling, tillering, jointing, and heading stageswere 15%, 40%, 25%, and 20%, respectively, of the total fertilization. The number of tillers, plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, biomass, and other growth and yield indices were measured for 0 (CK), 70, 140, 210, and 280 kg·ha-1 nitrogen in an Avena sativa variety. The results indicated that topdressing 70~280 kg·ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer promoted the growth of aerial partsin sandy soil, with the best effect at 210 kg·ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer. The the yield of hay increased by 56.96%(P0.05), 74.93% (P0.05), 121.32% (P0.05), and 99.58% (P0.05) at nitrogen fertilization levels of 70, 140, 210, and 280 kg·ha-1, respectively, than that in the CK treatment. Therefore, in Tongliao City, Inner Mongolia, topdressing 210 kg·ha-1 of nitrogen fertilizer is the optimum dosage for the cultivation of oat plants.
To determine the optimal planting density for ×Triticale Wittmack and Secale cereale seed productivity in the Hebei Plain Farming Area, the effect of planting density was studied at Hujiachi Town, in Hengshui city, Hebei Province during 2014-2016. The results indicated that planting density significantly affected ×Triticale Wittmack and Secale cereale seed production in various ways: seed yield, heading rate, kernel number per spike, thousand-seed weight and susceptibility to lodging. The optimal planting density of ×Triticale Wittmack and Secale cereale was 1.1 million·ha-1 basic seedling in October on the Hebei plain, and it would be appropriate to sow less S. cereale when planted alone under the same conditions. Under optimal seeding density, the seed yield of ×Triticale Wittmack was more than 4 300 kg·ha-1 and the seed yield of S. cereale was more than 3 900 kg·ha-1; and both species showed good performance with light lodging, high thousand-seed weight, full seed, and good commodity.
Luzulaspis bisetosa is a newly recorded scale pect from China; its host plant, Carex leucochlora, is one of the most important turf grasses. In this paper, the adult female is re-described and re-illustrated, and the first-instar nymph is described and illustrated for the first time. Finally, its economic importance is also discussed.
Animal husbandry in China has developed rapidly in recent years. The number of dairy herds has increased annually due to high demand for all types of dairy products, which further promotes the development of animal husbandry in the dairy industry. Large livestock farms use corn silage to feed livestock, the supply is insufficient to meet the demand for forage caused by the rapid development of animal husbandry. Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a good forage crops after corn silage; it is a high-yielding, drought-resistant grain that can be used as feed. Additionally, the stems and leaves can be used as forage and silage, among other uses. This manuscript is a preliminary review on sweet sorghum mowing, pretreatment methods and multiple uses. To provide some technical reference for the future of animal husbandry in China using sweet sorghum-fed cows, we analysed the effect of feeding sweet sorghum to dairy cows and put forward matters needing attention.
To improve the scientificity and effectiveness of maize straw forage, we collected 18 maize cultivars which are widely grown in North China. General nutrient analysis and van Soest fiber analysis were used to evaluate their nutritional quality. We used SPSS software to perform cluster analysis for the values of comprehensive principal component of maize straw, and to study their nutritional quality with typical feeding. Comprehensive analysis results showed that the quality of 18 corn cultivars was different: the order from high to low, Longping 206 Luodan 6 Xianyu 335 Xianke 338 Huayu 14 Yangguang 99 Denghai 605 Xundan 29 Huayu 12 Xundan 26 Xundan 20 Luodan 9 Weike 702 Yangguang 98 Liyu 16 Zhengdan 958 Liyu 35 Jixiang 1. The results of cluster analysis showed Longping 206 and Jixiang 1 clustered alone. Luodan 6, Huayu 14, Xianyu 335 and Xianke 338 were clustered in a group; Yangguang 99, Denghai 605 and Xundan 29 were clustered; Liyu 16, Zhengdan 958 and Liyu 35 were clustered; and Huayu 12, Xundan 26 and others were clustered in another group.The result of principal component analysis and cluster analysis showed the nutritive value of Longping 206, Luodan 6, Xianyu 335, Huayu 14 and Xianke 338 were best. These cultivars should be taken into consideration to raise the level of feed utilization of straw and increase the value of agricultural production.