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Improvement of salinized soil is necessary for solving current environmental problems, reasonable selection of soil conditioners and improved methods areimportant for the development and utilization of saline-alkali land. We performed pot experiments using heavy saline-alkali soil of Lanzhou New Area. Kentucky bluegrass(Poa pratensis) was subjected to ten treatments consisting of film-bottomed tillage combined with different soil conditioners, film-bottomed tillage without soil conditioners, and the first soil conditioner but without film-bottomed tillage. We measured basic physiochemical properties of soil, including soil pH, before adding the soil conditioners. Total salt contentand growth index of Kentucky bluegrass after applying soil conditioners were measured in order to compare the effect of different soil conditioners, and choose the most effective soil conditioner and soil improvement method. The results revealed that after applying soil conditioners, the soil pH and total salt content were lower and the height, density, and coverage of Kentucky bluegrass were better than that in the treatment without soil conditioners. The most effective soil conditioner of all the selected conditioners was the first soil conditioner. After applying soil conditioners, the soil pH and total salt content were 7.37 and 0.28%, respectively, with a reduction of 1.09 and 0.32%. The height, density, and coverage of Kentucky bluegrass and Lawn chlorophyll content were 9.68 cm, 2.09 plant·cm-2, 99%, 3.13 mg·g-1. The first soil conditioner was more suitable than inorganic amendmen to rorganic fertilizer addition. Film-bottomed tillage was better than the no film-bottomed tillage treatment. The soil pH and total salt content, and the height anddensity of Kentucky bluegrass of film-bottomed tillage treatment were significantly different from that in the treatment with no film-bottomed tillage.
To explore the spatial distribution characteristics of soil physical and chemical properties on the south slope of Mt. Tuomuer,the physio-chemical properties of soil at different altitudes in Tailan River Valley were analyzed. The results showed that: 1)The grain size of the soil tended to be more refined as altitude increased; there was a significant difference in the soil moisture content in different vegetation types, anda positive correlation with altitude. 2)The coefficient of variation of in grassland soil was due to strong variation with the CV>1.0, and the coefficient of variation of the total salt in forest soils showed a weak variation with the CV≤0.1. In addition to, the coefficient of variation of other salt ions showed medium variation with the 0.1≤CV≤1.0.There was a very significant negative correlation between NaCl and K++Na+ in shrub land, and Cl- and SO42- in forest land and at altitude (P<0.01). 3)There was a significant negative correlation between soil pH and altitude. The orderofthe content of surface soil organic matter in the study area was forest>grassland>shrub, the content of total P with forest>shrub>grassland, the content of total N with grass>forest>shrub, and the order of C/N with forest>shrub>grassland. Organic matter, total N, and C/N showed medium variation, whereas total P showed weak variation. There were highly significant or significant correlations between soil nutrient indexes and altitude, except for the grassland soilsamples’ C/N, as well as the forest soil’s C/N and total P. Therefore, a reasonable management model should be used to improve the ecological environment based on both vegetation types and soil properties in Tuomuer Nature Reserve at different altitudes.
The effects of stocking rates on spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture in a Stipa breviflora desert steppe ecosystem were investigated. Both classical statistics and geo-statistical methods were adopted to generate descriptive statistics, semi-variogram analysis, and spatial interpolation methods for soil moisture in four types of sample plots. The results indicated: 1) The mean value of soil moisture in all different sample plots increased with increase in stocking rates, the coefficient of variation (CV) in each sample plot changed within the range of 7.29% to 9.79%, presenting weak variability. 2) The semi-variogram analysis indicated that the content of soil moisture in each sample plot was found to be in line with the exponential model, the structural variation ratio of non-grazing was 74.4%, its value was less than 75%, which corresponded to moderate variability. The C/(C0 + C) values of lightly, moderately and heavily grazed areas were 94.4%, 91.2%, and 96.0%, respectively; all values were larger than 75%, which corresponded to strong spatial auto-correlation. 3) The Kriging interpolation method was used to deal with interpolative analysis for unknown sampling points of each sample plot, and the results showed that the spatial variability of soil moisture for heavily grazed area was largest, while that for non-grazing was lowest. Our analyses showed that different stocking rates had different impacts on spatial patterns of soil moisture.
The normalized difference vegetation indexes (NDVI) for different years (1998, 2007, 2011, 2014) were extracted through a dimidiate pixel model for The Ebinur Lake Wetland, and combined with high accuracy field investigation data analysis. By using the NDVI index to calculate vegetation cover conditions in the study area, we analyzed temporal and spatial characteristics and the causes of variation, and established a linear regression model between vegetation and climate change. The results showed that: 1) In the spatial analysis, the highest level of vegetation cover was in the southwest of the alluvial plain, the level of vegetation coverage in the northeast was slightly lower than that in the southwest, and no coverage and low coverage grade areas were distributed the most widely. In the temporal analysis, no coverage areas were in a downward trend, low coverage and middle coverage areas increased, and higher coverage and high coverage areas were in a downward trend; 2) In response to climate change, there were certain differences in different vegetation coverage levels. The degree of reaction of vegetation coverage to rainfall is the strongest, with hysteresis, at certain times, and showed no obvious response to air temperature. Between humidity and vegetation coverage level there was a completely concat relationship.
Chinese golf has evolved from disorder to the stage of ecological constraints. Through the investigation of literature research and logical analysis, this thesis elaborated on the necessity of the development of ecological golf from the perspectives of economic ecology, ethical ecology, and environmental ecology, analysed the connotations of ecological golf, and proposed countermeasures to accelerate the development of ecological golf in China. These included: the reinforcement of the construction of a standard golf system; the construction of the golf course following the principles of naturalism and the coordination with local economic development; practical and simple supporting facilities in golf clubs; the application of modern scientific technologies and management methods of turf management; the management of environmental protection; the development of lawn management training for employees; the extensive development of diversified golf; alteration of the ideas of consumption and low-carbon consumption; the development of enterprises with a strong sense of social responsibility; the execution of industrial self-governance.
A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of silicon supply on the biomass and the root features of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) seedlings under different salinity conditions. This study showed that the root dry biomass, total surface of roots, root bulk, total length of roots,and average root diameter were decreased, but the root to shoot ratio of tall fescue seedling initially increased and then decreased with an increase in the salt concentration from 0 to 300 mmol·L-1. The contribution of the silicon supply to root biomass and root features was closely related to the salt concentration: the silicon supply significantly increased the root biomass, the total surface of roots, and the total length of roots (P<0.05) when the salt concentration was ≤150 mmol·L-1. These results suggested that silicon supply could improve the adaptation ability of tall fescue in different salinity conditions by the alteration of the root biomass and root features.
Paclobutrazol(PP333) can control the morphological and physiological characteristics of plants, and make them adapt to the sterile soil conditions of slopes. Therefore, it can be used for vegetation restoration. The dynamic variation rule of PP333 in the coil-plant system and its effects on plants were studied by model tests, which provide a reference for the application of PP333 in the vegetation restoration project. PP333 content in the vegetation coil and Amorpha fruticosa morphological index was determined to explore the dynamic changes of PP333 in vegetation coil and its effect on A. fruticosa growth. The results showed that: 1) the half-life of PP333 in different concentrations was between 15 and 60 days, and the elimination rate of PP333 in the coil was above 99% after one year. The runoff loss of PP333 in the coil was very small, and the loss during the experiment was only 1.81%, and the loss was negatively correlated with rainfall and rainfall time. 2)The rate of reduction of PP333 was 98% after one year, and the residue of PP333 was slag> sand> roof. The ratio of A. fruticosa PP333 to matrix PP333 in the three sites were 3.39%~14.24%, 4.90%~18.29%, and 6.14%~13.64%, respectively. 3) After one month of treatment with 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg·L-1 PP333, the inhibition rate of the A. fruticosa height was 0.54%~14.66% and the rate of stem diameter increase was 8.67%~26.02%. The inhibition rate of A. fruticosa height was 15.09%~44.25% after one year, and there was no significant difference in stem diameter. The analysis of the morphological indices of A. fruticosa on the three types slope revealed that A. fruticosa growth was controlled by PP333and slope conditions.
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a new, precise genome editing technology, which has received wide attention from the scientific community globally. CRISPR/Cas9 is widely utilised for studying gene functions, because it enables precise modification of specific gene sites, including knockout, insertion, and substitution. CRISPR/Cas9 has many advantages, including convenience, precision, efficiency, and a wide selection of target sites. Presently, this technology is applied in all the field of life sciences, including microorganisms, plants, animals, and human gene therapy. The present article briefly introduces the course of development of CRISPR/Cas9 technology, mechanism of action, technical advantage, functions, and its applications. It summarizes the progresses in targetted plant genome editing, and discusses the potential applications of this process in research on grass species, including studies on functional genomics, gene metabolism and regulation, and genetic improvement, which provides a useful reference for the later researches and application of this field.
Cleistogamy (CL), a breeding system in which permanently closed and self-pollinated flowers are produced, has received increasing attention in recent years. The present study summarised the different types of cleistogamy, the variation of floral organs, their distribution in angiosperms, phylogenetic evolution, and related regulatory genes. There are three types of cleistogamy: dimorphic, complete, and induced cleistogamy. Among them, the occurrence of dimorphic cleistogamy is 77.3%. Cleistogamy is present in 705 angiosperm species, distributed across 236 genera and 53 families. Compared with chasmogamy (CH), the number of floral organs in cleistogamous flowers is reduced and the lodicules are degraded. Genetic control of cleistogamy involves one to three genes. Cleistogenes songorica is a representative plant with dimorphic cleistogamy. The morphology of CH and CL flowers revealed a significant difference, and the seeds are heteromorphic. The phylogenetic tree of the genera in Poaceae indicated that the relationship between Cleistogenes and Diplachne, belonging to Tridentinae, is closer than originally presumed. Such information will provide valuable background for understanding the ecological significance and role of genes in cleistogamy.
To understand the character and breaking methods of hard seeds in leguminous forages, the character of hard seeds in 30 leguminous forages and the effects of three treatments including cutting seed coat, sulfuric acid, and hot water on seed rate, germination rate, and germination index were observed. The results indicated that the seed rate of the 30 leguminous forages varied from 0.00% to 96.67% with an average of 50.18%. The seed rates were significantly different among different leguminous forages and showed a significant negative correlation with their germination rates. There was a positive correlation between the optimal treatment time of sulfuric acid and hot water and seed rate for most of these seeds. When seed rate was more than 70%, the optimal treatment time of sulfuric acid and hot water was 15~30 and 7~15 min, respectively; however, when seed rate was less than 30%, the optimal treatment time of sulfuric acid and hot water was 5~10 and 1~3 min, respectively. Comparing with hot water treatment, cutting seed coat and sulfuric acid treatment were more effective breaking methods for most leguminous forages seeds. However, the germination rates of Galactia elliptifoliola and Crotalaria pallida were higher after hot water treatment than sulfuric acid. Therefore, to break hard seed, different treatments were effective for different species, and the optimal treatment time can be estimated based on their seed rate.
High-quality forage seeds are the foundation of good pastures for the livestock husbandry industry. The advent of plant growth regulators (PGRs) has created new methods for increasing seed production in grasses and legumes. Based on their effects, PGRs can be divided into two types: plant growth stimulators and plant growth inhibitors. Plant growth inhibitors have been widely used in forage seed production. This research detailed progress in the use and mechanism of PGRs for forage seed production. In particular, it illuminated the effect of PGRs on seed yield and seed yield components. Existing problems and developmental trends were also summarized to provide necessary information to improve future research.
In order to determine the suitability of Phaseolus aureus as interplanting crops, field experiments and pot trials were conducted under full natural light, and 30 and 72% shading to test the shade tolerance of two Mung bean varieties, including Small Robinia-flower Round-leaf (SRRPA) and Big Lace-leaf Mung bean(BLPA) in 2015. The photosynthetic parameters, chlorophyll content, and RuBPCase activity in leaves of the Mung beans were measured during the first bloom stage. In addition, the response of growth and nutritional quality to weak light was studied. The results showed that, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), water use efficiency (WUE) and RuBPCase activity of BLPA significantly decreased by 24%, 18%, 12%, 13%, and 21%, respectively, than that under full light, whereas these parameters showed no significant change at 30% shading in SRRPA in response to shading. Photosynthetic parameters, including Pn, Gs, Tr, and WUE, in the two Mung bean varieties were significantly decreased by more than 11% under 72% shading. Vegetative growth of BLPA was significantly inhibited, but that of SRRPA revealed no significant change at 30% shading. In addition, vegetative growth of the Mung beans was significantly inhibited at 72% shading, and dry matter yield decreased by more than 34%, compared to those under full light. Shading treatments significantly reduced seed yield by over 37% compared to that under full light. These results indicated that SRRPA had the ability of resisting shade, and could tolerate 30% shading, which was suitable for intercropping.
Drought is one of the most important factors restricting the growth and development of grasslands in Tibet. To counter these effects, we studied drought resistance ability in two species of wild forage plant, by collecting seeds of Leymus secalinus and Elymus nutans in Tibet, in order to provide reference for the ecological restoration of arid and semi-arid areas, and selection of grass species in artificial grassland. The results showed that the growth rate, plant water content, and chlorophyll content of two wild forage species decreased with the increase of drought time, and the difference was significant (P<0.05). The contents of malondialdehyde and free proline increased with increase in drought time, and the difference was significant (P<0.05). Soluble sugar content of L. massoniana decreased first and then increased, while the soluble sugar content of E. nutans decreased first and then increased, and finally decreased. The soluble protein content decreased first and then increased. The two biological characteristics and the five physiological characteristic indexes of the two wild forage species were comprehensively evaluated by the membership function method, and the drought resistance of L. secalinus was greater than that of E. nutans.
Global climate change and the aim of achieving food security have immensely increased pressure on agriculture worldwide. The development of new crop resources can mitigate this effect. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a native species of the Andean region of South America. Its seed, stem, and leaf are highly nutritious. Moreover, it has strong adaptability to adverse environments, and a strong potential as a forage crop. In the present study, we reviewed the literature on Quinoa emphasising on its potential as forage, summarised how it adapts to arid, infertile, and saline environments, and its responses to temperature and light. Further, we proposed some future research directions on Quinoa for forage and feeding extension.
To provide a scientific basis for alfalfa irrigation in Ar Horqin Banner, 30 years of meteorological data (from 1984 to 2013) and the FAO Penman-Monteith equation were employed to study the water requirement regularity and irrigation quota of alfalfa. The results showed that the water requirement of alfalfa for the first to fourth harvests, growing season, non-growing season, and full year in Ar Horqin Banner were 221, 187, 169, 179, 755, 70, and 825 mm, respectively. The water requirement rates were 4.3, 4.7, 4.1, 2.5, 3.7, 0.4, and 2.3 mm·d-1, respectively. The irrigation requirements were 194, 118, 66, 131, 508, 56, and 564 mm, respectively. The irrigation quotas were 228, 139, 78, 154, 598, 66, and 664 mm, respectively.
The ephemeral species Ceratocephalus testiculatus was mainly distributed in Takeermohuer Desert at Yili in Xinjiang. A nature reserve plot and an artificial woodland were chosen to investigate biomass allocation and growth rhythm of C. testiculatus, based on field investigation and laboratory analysis. The results indicated that height, total biomass, leaf biomass, scape biomass, and frutescence biomass at the nature reserve plot were significantly higher than that in the artificial woodland. However, root, leaf, and scape biomass allocation were significantly lower, and only frutescence biomass allocation was significantly higher. Biomass of leaf, scape, and frutescence increased as a power function with increase in total biomass in each plot. A linear relationship between root biomass and total biomass was observed, and the highest rate of increase was evident in the artificial woodland. The rates of reproductive allocationⅠand Ⅱ (i.e., frutescence biomass/total biomass and scape biomass/total biomass, respectively) were relatively stable, and height and total biomass of the plants hardly affected them. Changes in leaf biomass significantly affected root biomass and reproductive biomass in the nature reserve plot. However, it affected reproductive biomass of plants in the artificial woodland significantly. C. testiculatus populations adjust biomass of vegetative and reproductive modules and allocation rates for adapting to different environments, and ensuring reproductive success and attainment of the largest reproductive allocation ratio in the short span of growth.
The Hetao region of China is a traditional agricultural and livestock farming region. The forage yield is low, of a single variety, poor quality, and cannot fully meet the animal husbandry development requirements of the region. To improve and accelerate the industrialisation and the scale development of the forage industry, we studied the adaptability, productivity, and nutrition of 23 new internal and external alfalfa (Medicago sativa) varieties in the Hetao area. We made the following conclusions: 1) There were significant differences in the winter survival rate of the different varieties of alfalfa; the winter survival rate of Gongnong No. 1 and Millionaire were higher, whereas Liangmu No. 1 was the lowest (55%); 2) Cuts of different height showed the first crop stubble tended to be higher than the second and third stubble; the first crop of the hay yield variation was higher than the second and third crop stubble; 3) The forage yield increased with an increase in height, whereas the stem/leaf ratio and protein showed a negative correlation; 4) The comprehensive evaluation of the indicators showed that Millionaire, WL353LH, and Sitel were better than the others. Therefore, preliminary results indicate their suitability for planting in the Inner Mongolia Hetao Irrigation District.
The expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the oogenesis of Calliptamus italicus was detected by immunohistochemistry after the exposure of adult insects to temperatures of 33, 36, 39, and 42 ℃ for 4 h. The results showed that HSP70 was expressed in the oocytes and follicular cells during the previtellogenic stage, but was only expressed in the follicular cells only during the vitellogenic and postvitellogenic stages. The relative expression of HSP70 showed an initial increase, but then decreased with an increase in temperature in the range from 33~42 ℃. The highest expression, which was significantly higher than those in the control (27 ℃), was observed when adult insects were exposed to 36 ℃ (P<0.05). The lowest expression was observed when adults were exposed to 42 ℃, but there was no significant difference between treatment at 42 and 27 ℃ (P>0.05). The relative expression of HSP70 was significantly different at different temperatures, which may be critical for the resistance and adaptation of C. italicus to brief exposure to high temperature.
Plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) were considered a keystone species on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (QTP). Much attention has been paid to the effect of habitat environment on their spatial distribution. However, most of the previous studies mainly focused on qualitative description, because pikas’ holes were difficult to identify by satellite-based remote sensing and traditional field observation was time-consuming. High-precision photography and low costs make the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) a feasible option for investigating the spatial distribution of pikas at the plot or even the regional scale. In the present study, we investigated pikas’ burrow density by using aerial photography with light UAVs from July to August 2015. Altogether, approximately 300 work points were set and 1800 aerial photos were obtained. Each photograph covered 26 m×35 m on the ground and each pixel covered approximately 1 cm2. Coupled with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil water content (SWC) and land surface temperature (LST) data derived from satellite——based remote sensing, we analysed the effect of habitat environment on plateau pikas’ spatial distribution. The results showed that 1) the burrow density of pikas significantly varied with grassland types (P<0.05); alpine meadows had the maximum burrow density, whereas deserts had the lowest; 2) the most suitable habitat for pikas was 0.5~0.6 for NDVI, 20%~25% for SWC, and 28.5~29 ℃ for LST, respectively; and 3) burrow density was positively correlated with NDVI and SWC (P<0.05), but significantly negatively correlated with LST (P<0.05). Our results suggested that NDVI, SWC, and LST were the dominant factors affecting the distribution of pikas. Owing to the high resolution of the aerial photographs, UAVs provided a novel and efficient method of improving our understanding of the role of pikas over large regions on the QTP.
To explore the diversity of butterfly fauna in the Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve of Gansu Province, eight sample lines, Majiasi (Ⅰ), Guantangou (Ⅱ), Xinglongshan (Ⅲ),Yinshan (Ⅳ), Hongzhuangzi Gou-Luotuoxian-Matan (Ⅴ),Qianjiawan-Xujiaxia-Fenhuocha (Ⅵ), Yaogou-Shuanglonggou (Ⅶ) and Maxianshan (Ⅷ), from five forestry stations were selected to investigate butterfly resources. A total of 1 271 butterfly specimens were collected and identified, belonging to 65 species, 42 genera, and 7 families. Nymphalidae, with the most species (21), and Satyridae, with the most individuals (729), were the dominant families. Papilionidae and Parnassiidae, with only 1 species, were regarded as rare. The diversity index, species richness, similarity coefficients, and the butterfly fauna were also calculated and analyzed. The results showed that the diversity of butterflies was different among the eight sample areas, of which the line Ⅳ had the highest index and the lowest dominance index, the line Ⅱ had the lowest biodiversity index and species richness, line a had the lowest evenness index and the dominance index only less than that of line Ⅳ, line Ⅷ showed the lowest quantity in number of families, genera, species, and individuals, and the highest evenness index. Because the changes between habitats affected the diversity of butterflies, we suggest that it is necessary to protect the environment and plant hosts so as to ensure the diversity of butterflies and other organism in the long term. The fauna in Xinglong Mountain National Nature Reserve consisted of palaearctic species occupying 46.154%, oriental species occupying 3.077%, and widely distributed species occupied 50.769%, which showed that the widely distributed species were dominant, and the palaearctic species were more numerous than the oriental species.
There is a large amount of turf cutting litter produced in China every year. The processing and utilization of lawn grass can play a role in mitigating the shortage of energy, feed, fertilizer, and protein resources. Therefore, the way to use turf cutting litter has become a significant research subject. Four methods of turf cutting litter usage including energy regeneration, feed processing, fertilizer transformed, and deep processing were analysed. The research progress of turf grass production in energy production, feeding livestock, composting, and processing leaf protein was introduced in detail. It was pointed out that different treatment methods should be adopted for grasses and legumes, and the input and output of each processing mode should also be further quantified. Further, conclusions and suggestions were made for future research in the methods for turf cutting litter usage.
In the present study, we analysed the nutrient components and amino acid formation in mulberry, ramie, and kudzu by using feed analysis technology and amino acid analysis. The results showed that: 1) the protein content of mulberry, ramie, and kudzu was high. In particular, the ramie protein content was as high as 22.38% and the fibre content was also high; 2) the gross energy of kudzu was the highest (17.17 MJ·kg-1); 3) there were abundant amino acids in mulberry, ramie, and kudzu. In particular, the content of the first restrictive amino acid, lysine, was 0.65%~0.89% and the total essential amino acid content was 5.10%~7.40%. Therefore, mulberry, ramie, and kudzu could be high quality forage grass resources available for development and usage in southern China.
Morphological observation, physiological and biochemical tests, and the 16S rRNA sequence analysis methods were used to analyse lactic acid bacteria (LAB) diversity in mixed silage of corn stover and cabbage, and the thermotolerant strains were screened through with temperature and pH as the restrictive indicators. The results showed that 12 LAB strains were isolated from mixed silage, which were classified into Lactobacillus and Pediococcus, respectively. Specifically, one strain (LB-1) was Lactobacillus plantarum, six strains (LB-2, LB-4, LB-7, LB-8, LB-9 and LB-11) were Pediococcus pentosaceus, three strains (LB-5, LB-6 and LB-12) were Lactobacillus brevis, and two strains (LB-3 and LB-10) were Lactobacillus paracasei. The characteristics of LB-3 and LB-8 included high-temperature resistance, acid-resistance and higher acid-production ability. Therefore, these two lactic acid bacteria can be used as inoculants for silage forage.