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2017 Vol.34(3)

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2017, 11(3): 0-.
[Abstract](602) [PDF 367KB](167)
Evaluating reliability of grassland net primary productivity estimates using different meteorological interpolation methods
Xuan Ren, Jiang-hua Zheng, Chen Mu, Kai Yan, Ting-bao Xu
2017, 11(3): 439-448. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0312
[Abstract](993) [FullText HTML] (81) [PDF 2397KB](410)
Meteorological factors are significant in researching grassland productivity, vegetation growth, and disaster assessment. This study used different spatial interpolation methods including Cokriging (CK), inverse distance weighting (IDW), and ANUSPLIN, to analyse the average July precipitation and temperature datasets of 90 meteorological stations in Xinjiang from 2000 to 2011. In addition, the mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used to evaluate the interpolation results, and we discussed the effects of different interpolation methods on spatial variation of precipitation and temperature. Furthermore, the spatial variations in precipitation and temperature obtained using various interpolation methods were used to calculate the grassland net primary productivity (NPP) in Xinjiang using the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford (CASA) model and verified their accuracy using field measured biomass data. We obtained the following results, 1)The interpolation results of the precipitation and temperature using the ANUSPLIN was better than those of the other methods (MAEprecipitation=6.45, RMSEprecipitation=8.77, and MAEtemperature=2.11, RMSEtemperature=3.52), which indicates that the ANUSPLIN is a superior method for interpolating meteorological factors in Xinjiang. 2) The accuracy of estimating the Xinjiang grassland NPP differed between the various methods. The calculation of the coefficients between the field measured biomass data and the simulated values obtained using CASA model, showed that the ANUSPLIN had the highest accuracy, with an R2 of 0.794 7. There was a good linear relationship between the measured and simulated values of the grassland NPP. Compared with the Cokriging and IDW, the accuracy of ANUSPLIN was higher by 13.23% and 20.13%, respectively. These results show that improving the accuracy of the interpolation results of meteorological factors could enhance the estimation of grassland NPP.
Effects of grazing intensity on the ecological stoichiometry characteristics of alpine meadow
Hong-qin Li, Shao-juan Mao, Jing-bin Zhu, Yong-sheng Yang, Hui-dan
Ying-nian Li
2017, 11(3): 449-455. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0329
[Abstract](976) [FullText HTML] (58) [PDF 1447KB](285)
Ecological stoichiometry characteristic is important for the stability of alpine meadow ecosystem; however, its response to grazing is still not clear. Grassland sample plots with different grazing intensity, including fencing (CK), light grazing (LG), moderate grazing (MG), and heavy grazing (HG), were established in the Haibei alpine meadow in 2011. These plots were chosen to investigate the effects of grazing intensity on aboveground vegetation productivity, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) content of leaves of the vegetation community from May to September in 2014. The results showed that MG could significantly improve the aboveground productivity and proportion of Gramineae plants. Variation in the C content was maximum under MG treatment, supporting the hypothesis of intermediate disturbance. HG could significantly improve the N content. There was no significant effect of grazing on the P content. Fencing was beneficial to the turnover of N and P. The results indicated that moderate grazing was helpful for improving the productivity of the alpine meadow and fencing could enhance the cycle of N and P by changing the dominant species of the community.
Effects of fertilizing organic materials on contents of carbon and nitrogen, enzyme activity of desertified soils and alfalfa biomass
Wan-hua Qu, Zhi-gang Li, Jian Li
2017, 11(3): 456-464. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0378
[Abstract](871) [FullText HTML] (37) [PDF 1505KB](275)
Poplar branch, corn straw, and cow manure were selected from a local site in order to study the effects of these amended materials on desertified soil in Ningxia. Further, a microcosm experiment was set up to test the effects of individual material or mixed materials on contents of carbon and nitrogen, enzymatic activity of desertified soil, and alfalfa biomass. Results showed that both individual material (except cow manure) and mixed materials increased all fractions of soil carbon and nitrogen, except inorganic nitrogen, compared with control. Cow manure increased inorganic nitrogen, soil organic carbon (SOC), oxidized organic carbon, total nitrogen (TN), and available nitrogen of the soil relative to other treatments. However, cow manure decreased soil C/N (SOC/TN) and microbial biomass C/N (MBC/MBN). Mixed materials with poplar branch, corn straw, and cow manure were the best in increasing microbial C and N contents, and also showed the best tendency for increasing enzyme activity, including the activities of cellulase, catalase, sucrase, phosphatase, and urease. Mixed materials with poplar branch, corn straw, and cow manure was also the best in increasing alfalfa biomass. Individual treatment with cow manure resulted in lower alfalfa biomass compared with the control. In conclusion, mixed materials with poplar branch, corn straw, and cow manure showed the most significant effect on improving soil fertility in desertified soils according to principal component analysis. The study will be an example for desertified soil amendment in Ningxia and other similar sites in China.
Effects of microbial fertilizer on broccoli growth and soil microbial characteristics
Yong-mei Jiang, Tuo Yao, Yong-liang Tian, Jian-hong Li, Ting Liu, Ya-min
Jian-gui Zhang, Biao Zhang
2017, 11(3): 465-471. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0182
[Abstract](843) [FullText HTML] (49) [PDF 1357KB](321)
The effects of a microbial fertilizer on broccoli (Brassica oleracea) biological indicators and soil microbial biomass were tested in field experiments under different treatments (control, microbial fertilizer, 70% chemical fertilizer + microbial fertilizer, 100% chemical fertilizer). Biological indicators and soil microbial biomass increased in all fertilizer treatments compared to the control. The numbers of soil bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes decreased with soil depth with fertilizer treatments. The numbers of microbes showed a tendency of bacteria actinomycetes fungi with fertilizer treatments. The effects of the 70% chemical fertilizer + microbial fertilizer were the greatest among fertilizer treatments. Plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, aboveground fresh weight, aboveground dry weight, underground fresh weight, underground fresh dry weight, bacteria population, actinomycete population, total microbial population, soil microbial biomass carbon, soil microbial biomass nitrogen, and soil microbial biomass phosphorus increased by 6.82%, 11.53%, 11.76%, 9.68%, 33.33%, 62.5%, 33.33%, 34.04%~37.61%, 8.42%~15.87%, 32.53%~3.86%, 13.56%~18.6%, 3.99% and 12.81%~17.99%, respectively. The numbers of fungi decreased 26.23%~32.89%. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations among soil microbial biomass and the number of soil microorganisms. 70% chemical fertilizer + microbial fertilizer promoted broccoli growth.
Effects of nitrogen on photosynthetic characteristics of ‘Tifton85’ Bermudagrass
Dan-dan Li, Jing-bo Chen, Jun-qin Zong, Yi Wang, Jian-xiu Liu
2017, 11(3): 472-478. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0309
[Abstract](925) [FullText HTML] (72) [PDF 1375KB](296)
This study investigated the effects of different water nitrogen levels (0.05, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, or 40 mmol·L-1) on photosynthesis and fluorescence in ‘Tifton85’ (Cynodon dactylon×C. nlemfuensis) Bermudagrass in hydroponic experiments. The results showed that the leaf and stem dry weight increased, while root dry weight decreased, as the nitrogen content increased; the plant dry weight increased as nitrogen content increased, but there was no significant difference at high nitrogen levels. The plant dry weight was positively correlated with net photosynthetic rate(Pn), and Pn was positively correlated with the leaf nitrogen content. When nitrogen was lower than 5 mmol·L-1, the decrease of leaf nitrogen content induced the Gs to decrease, and eventually led to a decrease of Pn. When nitrogen was higher than 5 mmol·L-1, the Ci decreased, and then Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo both decreased, and so the increase of Pn slowed down. The above results showed that suitable nitrogen rates could improve Pn, and therefore improve the yield of ‘Tifton85’ Bermudagrass.
Response of Carex rigescens to different NaCl concentrations and its salinity threshold calculation
Kun Zhang, Ming-na Li, Shi-hao Cao, Yan Sun
2017, 11(3): 479-487. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0359
[Abstract](883) [FullText HTML] (52) [PDF 1446KB](323)
The effect of different NaCl concentration (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 mmol·L-1) treatments on the growth and physiological parameters of Carex rigescens were tested to determine its growth and salinity threshold under salt stress. The results showed that NaCl treatment inhibited the growth of C. rigescens. With increasing salt concentrations, plant height, leaf length, and leaf width of C. rigescens all decreased and the rate of withered leaves increased significantly. Leaf relative water content decreased and leaf membrane permeability increased under the same treatment condition and these two parameters had no significant change under the lower NaCl treatment (100 and 200 mmol·L-1). However, the change was significant when the NaCl concentration exceeded 300 mmol·L-1. The activity of leaf SOD (superoxide dismutase) and POD (peroxidase) increased at first and then decreased and the maximum activity occurred in the 300 mmol·L-1 treatment. This implied that 300 mmol·L-1 could be the critical NaCl concentration for salt tolerance of C. rigescens. Different NaCl concentration treatments had different effects on the chlorophyll content. With the increase in NaCl concentration, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll a+b content increased at first and decreased subsequently. Chlorophyll b tended to decrease and chlorophyll a/b showed no significant change. When C. rigescens biomass decreased to 50%, we considered the NaCl concentration as the threshold to evaluate the salt tolerance of C. duriuscula subsp. rigescens. The calculated salinity threshold value of C. rigescens in our study was 263 mmol·L-1. In conclusion, C. rigescens had a high salt tolerance and it could grow normally in a saline environment. The results of this study provide an important theoretical basis for further research on the salt-tolerance mechanism of C. rigescens.
The Chinese football pitch quality evaluation system: The establishment of a grading evaluation systemfor football pitch based on evaluation index recognition
Yu-feng Chen, Gui-long Song, Lie-bao Han
2017, 11(3): 488-501. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0299
[Abstract](1029) [FullText HTML] (149) [PDF 2076KB](296)
As the basis of football sport, the quality of a football pitch directly affects the competition and appearance of the game. At present, all international football pitch evaluation systems are based on one of two approaches: “Through-type grading evaluation” or an “Average Importance Index”.In this study, we summarized the relevant standards of domestic and foreign publications, and screened the rating thresholds of football field quality evaluation indices and indicators to establish the standard categories. Through investigation ofexperts, football players, and football fans, we assessed awareness of the indicators, and found that those surveyed had significant differences in cognitive importance of the indicators, but had similar quality awareness and a tendency for some common core indicators. This proved that the traditional ways to evaluate and grade football pitches, including the average importance index or through-type grading evaluation, were not objective. Introducing cognition into an evaluation system and established as part of football pitch quality evaluation couldsolve the problem of lack of objectivity, and meet the users’ requirements, so as to build and manage football pitches better. This study makes the Chinese football pitch quality evaluation system more scientific and practical, and thus will improve the quality of the pitches to better meet the needs of users.
The nitrogen cycle and factors affecting it in the belowground ecosystem
Kai Zeng, Lin Liu, Yi-min Cai, You-jun Chen, Dong-ming Chen, Fei-da
Shu-ting Pei, Chun-mei Zhou, Xu-dong Shen
2017, 11(3): 502-514. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0342
[Abstract](1748) [FullText HTML] (127) [PDF 1469KB](312)
Nitrogen (N) is one of the main factors limiting primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems due to its role in plant growth and development. In belowground ecosystems, most nitrogen exists in the form of complex polymers, but these forms of nitrogenous compounds cannot be absorbed and assimilated directly by plants. Hence, the ecological process from complex polymers to simple inorganic substances has always been a focus of research; this process is regulated and controlled by a series of complex biogeochemical reactions that occur belowground via symbiotic associations between plant roots and bacteria (e.g., biological nitrogen fixation). In this paper, we summarize the effects of soil biotic and abiotic factors on the belowground nitrogen cycle. Soil organisms promote the belowground nitrogen cycle through metabolism and release of various enzymes; Plant roots change the soil properties and secrete organic matter. The development of soil organisms is strongly restricted by abiotic factors, so the interaction between organisms and some abiotic factors also exerts important influences on the belowground nitrogen cycle. Currently, due to the high abundance of soil organism species, the complexity of nutrient circulation patterns, the limited understanding regarding the response of nature to global climate change, and the expense of molecular biotechnology, it is still difficult to define the whole nitrogen nutrition circulation network in the belowground ecosystem at the molecular level. This review summarizes our current understanding regarding the belowground nitrogen cycle and how it is regulated by biotic and abiotic factors.
Cloning and expression analysis of an Actin gene fragment from the halophyte Atriplex canescens
Huan Guo, Yan-nong Cui, Fan Wu, Le Zhang, Xiang-yu Xu, Ai-ke Bao
2017, 11(3): 515-522. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0157
[Abstract](933) [FullText HTML] (94) [PDF 1733KB](284)
The Actin gene is one of the most commonly used reference genes for studying functional gene expression patterns. In this study, total RNA was extracted from the leaves of 4-week-old Atriplex canescens seedlings, and an Actin gene fragment was obtained by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and linked into pMD19-T vector using primers designed based on conserved Actin gene sequences from similar plant species. The positive clones identified by PCR were sequenced, and the results showed that the Actin gene fragment of A. canescens contains 598 bp encoding 198 amino acids. Homology comparison with Actin genes from other higher plants in GenBank indicate that this gene fragment shared more than 84% nucleotide sequence similarity and 94% amino acids sequence homology with other plants, suggesting strong conservation of this gene. Our results confirmed that the cloned gene was an Actin gene fragment, which we named as AcACT. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship between AcACT and the Actin genes from Beta vulgaris and Suaeda glauca. Meanwhile, AcACT expression was constant in different tissues under salt treatment based on quantitative PCR analysis, which suggests that AcACT can be used as a reference gene for studying the expression patterns of salt tolerance-related genes of A. canescens.
Effects of elevated CO2 on growth and yield of different fall dormancy alfalfa
Xiao-meng Zhai, Xiao-bo Zhang, Tie-mei Wang, Xiao Guan
2017, 11(3): 523-531. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0132
[Abstract](874) [FullText HTML] (73) [PDF 1528KB](253)
This study was conducted to determine the growth and development of three types of fall dormancy alfalfa (fall dormancy alfalfa Maverick, semi-fall dormancy alfalfa ABI700, and non-fall dormancy alfalfa UC-1465) under elevated CO2 concentration. We used an artificial climate box and open top chamber dynamic and observed seed germination, growth, and yield of three types of fall dormancy alfalfa. The results showed the following: 1) The germination rate, germination potential, germination index, and mean germination time of all three types fall dormancy alfalfa were promoted significantly when CO2 concentrations reached 550-700 μmol·mol-1. 2) Under high CO2 concentration, the growth period of the three types of alfalfa increased with CO2 concentration after 3~6 d. 3) The plant height, leaf area, fresh weight, and dry weight increased significantly under high CO2 concentration (P0.05). The fresh weight of single plant of UC-1465 was greater than Maverick and ABI700 by 19.33%~21.76% and 12.74%~13.11%, respectively, after high CO2 concentration treatment. The dry weight per plant of UC-1465 was also greater than Maverick and ABI700 by 14.85%~26.77% and 12.31%~14.58%, respectively, after high CO2 concentration treatment, while the growth advantage of the non-fall dormancy alfalfa UC-1465 was further improved. 4) CO2 concentration had no significant effect on the stem diameter except at flowering (P0.05). The stem diameters of Maverick and ABI700 during the whole growth period were larger than those of the control group under high CO2 concentration. These results suggest that the growth potential of the non-fall dormancy alfalfa and semi-fall dormancy alfalfa would be greater in the future under conditions of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration.
Optimization of chromosome sectioning and karyotype analysis of Spathiphyllum floribundum
Gui-fang Zhang, Gai-ting Ren, Zuo-pu Zhou, Li-feng Lei, Chun Liu, Li Zhang
2017, 11(3): 532-538. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0333
[Abstract](948) [FullText HTML] (156) [PDF 2161KB](201)
To establish the optimal approach for analyzing the root tips of Spathiphyllum floribundum‘Mojo’, we compared different sampling times and pretreatments during chromosome sectioning. The results showed that the optimal sampling time was 08:45-09:15 and the optimal pretreatment was 0.002 mol·L-1 or 0.07 mmol·L-1 of 8-hydroxyquinolin or cycloheximide, respectively for 4 h. S. floribundum is a diploid plant and its chromosome number is 2n=2x=30. “Mojo” contains a B-chromosome. The karyotype analysis revealed that S. floribundum is 2n=2x=30=20m+6m (SAT)+2sm+2sm(SAT) (B-chromosome). Furthermore, chromosome 3 and 8 are metacentric, whereas the others are facrocentric. Satellites were observed in the four pairs of chromosomes (3, 4, 6, and 9). The chromosomal length ratio was 1.73, mongolicus was 2A, and the karyotype asymmetry coefficient was 56.37%.
Screening on the drought resistance index and conditions for ×Triticale Wittmack at the seedling stage
Xue Li, Xin-hui Tian, Wen-hua Du
2017, 11(3): 539-546. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0173
[Abstract](986) [FullText HTML] (77) [PDF 1439KB](198)
The effects of drought stress on ×Triticale Wittmack seedlings were assessed in order to the develop simulation conditions for determining drought resistance. In order to do this, the hypertonic solution polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) was used to simulate physiological drought. Indices including water content, relative water content and conductivity, the content of malondialdehyde, chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids, soluble sugar and free proline in leaves were determined. The results showed that 30% PEG treatment for 28 days was an optimal simulation. At significant differences existed for most parameters determined in this study compared with the controls. We also found that the physiological indexes suitable for determining ×Triticale Wittmack success at the seedling stage were water content, relative water content, and levels of malondialdehyde, chlorophyll b, and proline in leaves. After drought stress, ×Triticale Wittmack seedlings grew slowly, and the contents of water, relative water and chlorophyll in leaves decreased, but the content of free proline and MDA increased
Phenotypic diversity of germplasm resources from Miscanthus lutarioriparius
Wei Xiang, Zi-li Yi, Liang Xiao, Hong-mei Huang, Ni-qin Qiao, Jing Huang
2017, 11(3): 547-555. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0328
[Abstract](1048) [FullText HTML] (74) [PDF 1373KB](231)
In this research study, we determined nine phenotypic traits, dry matter yield, canopy height, panicle height, stem diameter, shoot density, leaf length, leaf width, leaf stem ratio, and moisture content, of 32 samples collected from the following subregions, Huanghuai plain(ⅢD9a), Jianghan plain(ⅢD9b), South Jiangxi-Eastern Hunan hilly(ⅢD9d), Sichuan, Hubei, and Hunan subregion(ⅢD10c). The above traits were determined usingnested, partial correlation, and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA)cluster analyses. The study revealed the following results. 1)The coefficient of variation range of all nine phenotypic traits was 13.53%~45.54%, and they showed extremely significant changes based on subregions, but only six traits(dry matter yield, canopy height, panicle height, stem diameter, shoot density, and moisture content) changed significantly between subregions. 2)There were significant positive correlations between dry matter yield and stem diameter, canopy height and panicle height or moisture content, stem diameter and leaf stem ratio, leaf width and leaf length, altitude and shoot density, and latitude and shoot density. However, significant negative correlations were observed between dry matter yield and leaf to stem ratio, leaf width and moisture content, altitude and canopy height or stem diameter, longitude and dry matter yield, and latitude and stem diameter. 3)The UPGMA clustering analysis showed that four floras could be divided into three categories. Huanghuai Plain and Jianghan Plain subregions belong to group Ⅰ, and they were shorter, thinner, and produced a lower yield. The South Jiangxi-Eastern Hunan Hilly,Sichuan, Hubei, and Hunan subregions belong to group Ⅱ, and they were longer, thicker, and showed higher yields. Furthermore, the South of Jianghan Plain, South Jiangxi-Eastern Hunan hilly, and Sichuan-Hubei-Hunan subregions belong to group Ⅲ, and they showed characteristics that were between those of group Ⅰ and Ⅱ.
Growth model and classification of different alfalfa varieties under irrigation conditions
Cui-lan Qi, De-li Wu
2017, 11(3): 556-564. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0176
[Abstract](882) [FullText HTML] (46) [PDF 1785KB](307)
The growth model for 15 varieties of alfalfa as the first crop in the second year under irrigation conditions was investigated. The results showed that the growth model was consistent with the logistic growth curve. There were obvious differences in the regression models of varieties. Based on these models, the highest potential yield (K), maximum growth speed (Vmax), time of maximum growth (t), turning point of growth speed from slow to fast, and that of fast to slow (t1, t2), the period of vigorous growth (t2-t1), and growth characteristic values (GT) were calculated. The variable t2 can be used as an index to the time to begin harvest with reference to production. Partial correlation analysis showed that the potential yield of alfalfa was determined by the product of days of vigorous growth and maximum growth speed. According to the values, the varieties were clustered into five types. The second classification varieties (Golden Empress, Ameristand 201, Derby, Sandili, Vela, and Rest) are appropriate for local planting with harvest beginning on May 17.
Effect of fences on functional groups and stability of the alpine meadow plant community in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
Jiu-fu Luo, Jin-xing Zhou, Wen-xia Zhao, Lin-shui Dong, Jing-ming Zheng
2017, 11(3): 565-574. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0302
[Abstract](848) [FullText HTML] (39) [PDF 1541KB](342)
The changes in community structure and stability of the alpine meadow ecosystem under artificial conditions are an important way to study its ecological function. To explore this kind of change in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, field investigations within and outside of fences in a permanent sample plot (established in 2005) in Wumatang were conducted in August of 2009 and 2013. Species richness(R), differences in functional groups, and M. Godron stability index were analysed to explore the differences between fenced and unfenced communities. The results showed that 1) the species richness of the fenced community was greater than unfenced; the number of annual and biennial plants in the fenced community was significantly greater than in the unfenced one in 2009; the dominant species of the fenced community changed from Kobresia pygmaea to Pedicularis kansuensis by 2013, and species belonging to perennial grasses, forbs, and annuals and biennials meant the fenced community was obviously richer than the unfenced community; and 2) the M. Godron stability index showed that the fenced community was more stable than the unfenced one in 2009, but less stable than the unfenced community in 2013. The fenced community structure showed an obvious change and the stability presented a downtrend as the time went by, whereas the stability of the unfenced community presented an uptrend.
Analysis of nutritional content in 13 forage crop varieties in the Loess Plateau based on visible/near infrared reflectance spectroscopy
Tian-hui Yang, Sheng-hua Chang, Ben-tian Mo, Fu-jiang Hou
2017, 11(3): 575-581. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0137
[Abstract](1089) [FullText HTML] (109) [PDF 1314KB](247)
A visible/near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (visible/NIRS) model was developed to determine the forage cultivar nutritional composition of 780 hay samples under simulated rotational grazing. Hay samples (n=780) from 13 forage crop varieties under simulated grazing in Loess Plateau during the 2012 to 2013 growing season were evaluated using calibration methods for prediction of nutrient contents using NIRS. The following results were obtained. The optimal calibrations in Leguminosae were ether extract (EE), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and crude ash(Ash). The multiple correlation coefficients(RSQ) and 1-variance ratio (1-VR) were 0.94 and 0.7, and standard error of calibration (SEC) and standard error of cross validation (SECV) were 0.071~0.713 and 0.160~2.751, respectively. Optimal calibrations in Gramineae were EE and water-soluble carbohydrate content(WSC). RSQ were 0.916 and 0.859 and 1-VR were 0.609 and 0.810 for EE and WSC, respectively, and SEC was 0.250 and 1.488 and SECV was 0.505 and 3.172, respectively. For the other species, the results for nutrient predication were reasonably good, with the exception of ADF. RSQ and 1-VR were 0.85 and 0.70, and SEC and SECV were 0.361~3.557 and 0.495~4.602, respectively. These results indicate that the accuracy of prediction using NIRS was acceptable for 13 forage crop nutrients, although the crude protein(CP), ADF, neutral detergent fibre(NDF), Ash of Gramineae and the ADF of others species (RSQ 0.7) may require further calibration. The accuracies of the predictions for CP and WSC in Leguminosae (RSQ 0.55) were not acceptable and thus more samples and greater precision during measurement will be required in further investigations.
Effects of irrigation quota and distribution on the production performance of alfalfa in the first growth year
Qian-bing Zhang, Lei Yu, Chun-hui Ma, Wei-hua Lu, Hai-xiu He
2017, 11(3): 582-591. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0303
[Abstract](870) [FullText HTML] (63) [PDF 1430KB](225)
This study explored the effects of irrigation quota and distribution on the production performance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in the first growth year. Three irrigation quota treatments were conducted: 3 750, 4 500, and 5 250 m3·hm-2. Three irrigation distribution models were conducted under the same irrigation quota of 4 500 m3·hm-2. The irrigation quota was divided before and after mowing at 35%+65%, 50%+50%, or 65%+35%. The leaf∶stem ratio and stem diameter were most strongly affected; these increased hay yield and improved nutritional quality. The next-strongest effects were on the growth rate and height in all growth traits of alfalfa. An irrigation quota of 4 500 m3·hm-2 enhanced hay yield and improved nutritional quality of first-year alfalfa. The 35%+65% irrigation distribution could significantly improve the hay yield and crude protein, reduce NDF and ADF(P0.05), and thus enhance the nutritional quality of alfalfa.
Effect of potato‖oat intercropping on nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium mass fraction and nutritional quality of potato
Na Wu, Na-na Yang, Ji-li Liu, Ya-ya Yang
2017, 11(3): 592-597. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0323
[Abstract](1099) [FullText HTML] (74) [PDF 1474KB](240)
A potato‖oat intercropping field experiment was performed using four different potato∶oat row ratios (2∶2, 2∶4, 4∶2, and 4∶4) to determine nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium content and the quality of the potatoes, using monocropped potato as the control. The results showed that as the growing process advanced, the nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium content in potato stems, leaf decreased gradually from the flowering to harvest stages, while the nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium content in tubers showed a rising trend. The nitrogen content in different organs of the potato consistently decreased in the following order: leafstemstubers from flowering to harvest. Furthermore, the accumulation and distribution centre of potassium and phosphorus were transferred to the tubers at harvest. Potato‖oat intercropping improved the nitrogen and potassium mass fraction but reduced that of phosphorus in the potatoes. The crude protein content of potatoes produced at a potato:oat intercropping row ratio of 4∶2 was the highest, and significantly higher than that obtained with monoculturing. Furthermore, an intercropping potato:oat row ratio of 4∶4 produced higher starch and lower sugar and vitamin C contents than the other ratios did. Therefore, these results demonstrate that rational intercropping patterns could improve the quality of potato tubers to some extent.
Relationship between root tensile mechanical properties and main chemical components of five herbaceous species
Chao Ye, Zhong-lu Guo, Chong-fa Cai, Feng-ling Yan, Zhong-hao Ma
2017, 11(3): 598-606. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0325
[Abstract](2734) [FullText HTML] (779) [PDF 1438KB](347)
To explore the effect of root chemical components on the mechanical properties of five common herbaceous species in Central China, root tensile tests were conducted on their roots. The tested roots were divided into four groups with diameters ranging from 0 to 1.5 mm, and then their root chemical components such as cellulose, lignin, and hemicellulose content were measured. In addition, the holocellulose and ratio of lignin to cellulose contents were calculated. The results showed that the root tensile force and strength of the five species were in the following descending order: Vetiveria zizanioides>Paspalum natatu>Cynodon dactylon>Zoysia matrella>Setaria viridis in each diameter class. A comparison of the different species in each group revealed that the tensile properties of V. zizanioides and P. natatu were significantly higher than those of the other three species were (P0.05). Furthermore, the different diameter classes of the five species showed a significantly increased tensile force while the tensile strength decreased significantly with increasing root diameter. Both the tensile force and strength were shown to be power functions (P0.05). The analysis of the root chemical components showed that the values were in the range of 21.90%~34.57%, 12.85%~19.42%, 14.31%~19.34%, 38.52%~51.83%, and 0.37~0.83 for the cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose, holocellulose, and ratio of lignin to cellulose content, respectively. Interestingly, the root diameter of the five species was negatively correlated with the cellulose and holocellulose contents but positively correlated with the lignin and the ratio of lignin to cellulose contents. However, no significant correlation was found between the hemicellulose content and root diameter. The root tensile force was negatively correlated with the cellulose and holocellulose content, and positively correlated with the ratio of the lignin to cellulose content while the root tensile strength was positively correlated with the cellulose and holocellulose content, and negatively correlated with the lignin and the ratio of lignin to cellulose content. All the correlations were statistically significant, and the above the results indicate that cellulose, holocellulose, lignin, and the ratio of lignin to cellulose contents exhibited a good correlation with the mechanical properties of the herbaceous species roots. Therefore, this study provided useful information on the relationship between the mechanical properties, chemical components, and diameter of these plant roots.
A review of biological characteristics, applications, and culture of Chenopodium quinoa
Fa-rong Yang, Jie Huang, Yu-ming Wei, Min-quan Li, Xue-gong He, Jian Zheng
2017, 11(3): 607-613. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0169
[Abstract](1679) [FullText HTML] (234) [PDF 1345KB](378)
Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa), an annual dicotyledonous herb belonging to the family Amaranthaceae, is native to Andes in South America, which has been cultured for 5 000-7 000 years. Because quinoa is rich in protein, amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and diet fiber, has low fat and sugar content, and is cholesterol free, it has high utilisation value and will become a crop with great potential in future. This paper summarizes research studies conducted on quinoa in China and overseas, discusses resource distribution, planting environment, biological, and physiological characteristics, and nutritional and anti-nutritional components of quinoa, and elaborates product development, breeding, and planting technology, and some of the associated problems. In conclusion, research on germplasm resources and nutritional-chemical contents of quinoa should be undertaken, breeding of varieties suitable for planting at low altitude areas should be performed, and its nutritional values should be elucidated completely, making it one of the national staple food crops in the future.
Biological and ecological characteristics of Harmonia axyridis in China
Tian-xuan Zhao, Ming-long Yuan
2017, 11(3): 614-629. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0294
[Abstract](1439) [FullText HTML] (205) [PDF 1575KB](292)
Harmonia axyridis, with its highly diverse wing colour pattern, is one of the most important natural insect enemies that have fascinated biologists. Comprehensively understanding the bio-ecological characteristics of H. axyridis is a prerequisite to developing effective biological control agents. In this paper, we reviewed the research history of studies on H. axyridis, summarized the results of bio-ecological characterizations of H. axyridis, and focused on the recent research progress on its predatory actions, wing colour polymorphism, artificial rearing, and field releasing technology. We suggest that further studies of the bio-ecological characteristics of H. axyridis would be necessary in future to elucidate the evolutionary mechanism of its ecological adaptation and the genetic basis of its wing colour polymorphism. In addition, further studies would promote the “factory” and “commercialization” of artificial rearing, which would lay the foundation for the conservation and utilization of H. axyridis.
Occurrence of Rhynchaenus empopulifolis in a Populus euphratica forest in Jinta County, Gansu Province, China, and methods for its control
Qiong Zhang, Jun-shan Da, Jian-sheng Wan, Jin-rong Liu
2017, 11(3): 630-634. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0221
[Abstract](1184) [FullText HTML] (85) [PDF 1275KB](208)
Rhynchaenus empopulifolis is the most important insect pest damaging Populus euphratica forest, and the incidence is becoming increasingly serious. In the present study, we found that when temperature above 10 ℃, it recovers activity and immediately causes harm to P. euphratica in Jinta County. The larva begins to pupate in May, and is most abundant in early June. We investigated the effectiveness of the control of this pest by separately spraying 5% Cypermethrin Emulisible Oil 1 000 times, and 2.5% Deltamethrin Emulisible Oil 2 000 times. According to the results, spraying 5% Cypermethrin Emulisible Oil 1 000 times had a significant control effect that average good leaf rate was higher than water treatnent in early April. Moreover, the average correct mortality of the pupae was 99% and 100%, and with this control strategy, the adults almost could not complete eclosion.
Institutional changes to the grassland contract system from the perspective of property right in China
Ying Zhao, Heng Zhao, Ho Peter
2017, 11(3): 635-643. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0546
[Abstract](902) [FullText HTML] (50) [PDF 1363KB](241)
The current academic debate on natural resources management focuses on whether property rights need clarity. All studies thus far have focused on the institutional form rather than on institutional function. However, Institutional function theory holds that the clarity of property rights is only an institutional form, institutional form is not important, it is a subsidiary of institutional function, the decisive role of the function rather than the form. Although the grassland contracting system can improve economic efficiency and improve standard of living herdsmen at an early stage, this system could likely cause problems and limitations in grassland management. This study discusses property rights from the perspective of institutional functions, and analyses the limitations of grassland management in China, with a view to help improve grassland management policies.
The couple model of ecological conservation and high quality production for urban agriculture of arid areas in Northwestern China
Xing-yuan Liu, Yu-ying Shen, He Zhao
2017, 11(3): 644-652. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0135
[Abstract](848) [FullText HTML] (81) [PDF 1481KB](269)
Urban agriculture undertakes a dual function of ecological conservation and economic development in arid regions in Western China.Traditional urban agriculture has not been able to adapt to the demands of urban-rural integration,which have changed from a single production function to the multiple functions in production, ecology, landscape, and culture. Here, we design couple models based on functional coupling, industry coupling, and spatial coupling of urban agriculture in Xifeng District of Qingyang City in Gansu Province, according to natural resource features, development status, functional orientation, and spatial layout of agriculture. These models assess efficient vegetation restoration and ecological conservation, high-quality productive agriculture and livestock, and leisure and cultural development. The modern urban agriculture system is based on soil and water conservation and ecological conservation,development-oriented of efficient high quality production,various means of agriculture, and forestry and animal husbandry through 3 modes of integrated application in the Xifeng District of Qingyang City in Gansu Province.
Development and prospects of ‘grain-forage supply’ in modern animal husbandry
Yun Zhao, Kai-yun Xie, Jiang-chun Wan, Ying-jun Zhang
2017, 11(3): 653-661. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0361
[Abstract](876) [FullText HTML] (65) [PDF 1379KB](398)
With the increase in China’s population and improvements in its residents’ living standards, the consumption of meat, eggs, and milk products continues to grow. This paper reviews the effects of changes in the dietary structure of people on the development of agricultural systems. The demand for livestock products has been directly transferred into demand for development of ‘grain-forage supply’ in modern animal husbandry. Consequently, grassland farming should be implemented because combining this with current systems is guaranteed to promote sustainable development of the agricultural economy. However, there are many problems associated with the process of transferring ‘cultivated agriculture’ into ‘grain-forage supply’. We suggest that increasing the proportion of high-quality forage is a basic approach to obtain a solution to these problems, and a grazing livestock system is the basis of development of a grassland animal industry. Moreover, building a system of animal husbandry information is important to the direction and guarantee of China’s sustainable agricultural development in the future. It is an important part of agricultural production that grass or forage crops are coupled with other crop production systems. Furthermore, a comprehensive soil-plant-animal product industrial chain should be established to meet the demand of people for livestock products and to promote ‘grain-forage supply’ development.