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2017 Vol.34(11)

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Effect of areas of land used for engineering construction on soil moisture and nutrient in the alpine steppe regions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
Tong Liu, Liang Mao, Xiao-pan Pang, Shao-hong Jin, Jing Zhang, Zheng-gang Guo
2017, 11(11): 2175-2182. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0602
[Abstract](862) [FullText HTML] (71) [PDF 582KB](424)
The area of land used for engineering construction greatly affects the restorable degree of destroyed natural steppe on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. An experiment was carried out to disclose the effect of land use for engineering construction on the conservation of water, potential nutrients, and present nutrients of soil in land that had been used for engineering construction and had experienced identical restoration periods. This study showed that the soil moisture content did not different between land used for engineering construction and natural steppe when the area used for construction was below 254 m2. Furthermore, the soil moisture of land used for engineering construction was smaller than that of natural steppe when the area used was 583 m2 (P<0.05). The organic matter content at a soil depth of 0-10 cm in land used for engineering construction was bigger and that at a depth of 10-20 cm was smaller than that of natural steppe when the area used for engineering construction was below 254 m2. However, the organic matter content at both soil depths in land used for engineering construction was smaller when the area used was 583 m2 (P<0.05). The soil total nitrogen content did not differ between land used for engineering construction and natural steppe when the area used was 55 m2. The soil total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen contents of land used for engineering construction were significantly lower than those of natural steppe (P<0.05) when the land used for engineering construction was over 156 m2. The amplitudes of these declines in nitrogen content correlated with the area of land used for engineering construction. The total phosphorus content at a soil depth of 0-10 cm first increased and then decreased as the area of land used for engineering construction increased (P<0.05), peaking at 156 and 254 m2. The available phosphorus contents at soil depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm first decreased and then increased as the area of land used for engineering construction increased, reaching nadirs at 156 and 254 m2. The total potassium and available potassium contents in soil first increased and then decreased as the area of land used for engineering construction increased, peaking at 254 m2. The total potassium and available potassium contents of land used for engineering construction were lower than those of natural steppe when the area used was over 254 m2, and they were bigger than those of natural steppe when the area used was below 254 m2. These results suggested that the conservation of water, potential nutrients, and present nutrients in the soil of land used for engineering construction were similar to those of natural steppe when the area of land used for engineering construction was below 254 m2, but differed in larger areas, when all the tested areas had experienced identical restoration periods.
Effect of altitude on the phosphorus contents of soil and plant litter deposits in a Wugong Mountain meadow
Qian Liu, Xiang Zheng, Bang-liang Deng, Li-ya Zheng, Li-jun Huang, Shu-li Wang, Ling Zhang, Xiao-min Guo
2017, 11(11): 2183-2190. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0281
[Abstract](1010) [FullText HTML] (128) [PDF 700KB](180)
Phosphorus is an essential element for plant growth and development. Along with nitrogen and potassium, it is one of the three main elements of plant nutrition. In this study, the correlations between the spatial distribution characteristics of litter total phosphorus, soil available phosphorus, and soil total phosphorus at different altitudes were investigated in a mountainous meadow at 1 600~1 900 m above sea level on Wugong Mountain, Jiangxi Province. The results showed that the change ranges of total phosphorus and soil available phosphorus in the litter were 0.50~3.53, 0.28~1.29, and 0.19~17.47 mg·kg-1, respectively. The soil total phosphorus content in the soil increased with an increase in altitude gradient, showing a “U” type distribution pattern, and the soil total phosphorus content in the soil was low at 1 700~1 800 m. There were significant differences in the total phosphorus content between the different species; the phosphorus contents of Miscanthus sinensis, Carex chinensis, Arundinella hirta, and Fimbristylis wukungshanensis were 4.21, 1.34, 1.03, and 1.28 g·kg-1, respectively. Additionally, the total phosphorus content was significantly different between the different species. The total phosphorus content of M. sinensis was significantly higher than that of C. chinensis, A. hirta, and F. wukungshanensis. The correlation analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between the altitudinal gradient and soil total P (P<0.01). There was a significant positive correlation between total phosphorus and soil available phosphorus (P<0.05). The correlation between total phosphorus and soil total phosphorus was not significant (P>0.05). It is generally believed that the correlation between total phosphorus and available phosphorus in litter is more and more obvious, and the correlation between soil phosphorus and phosphorus is mainly due to the change in direction and distribution of phosphorus in litter. The relative effectiveness of total phosphorus is higher. The results of this study have helped to gain a better understanding of the effects of different altitudes on the phosphorus content of soil and litter in a meadow on Wugong Mountain, and also provide the theoretical basis for vegetation restoration and sustainable management of mountain meadows.
Soil carbon and nitrogen and soil enzyme activities of different forage planting models on the Loess Plateau
Ze-yu Xie, Zhu-zhu Luo, Ling-ling Li, Li-qun Cai, Ren-zhi Zhang, Yi-ning Niu, Jing-jing Zhao
2017, 11(11): 2191-2199. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0572
[Abstract](903) [FullText HTML] (75) [PDF 560KB](213)
A long-term field experiment comparing the effects of different alfalfa-crop rotations on soil carbon and nitrogen forms and related enzyme activities was conducted at Dingxi, western Loess Plateau. Six rotation patterns[alfalfa-alfalfa, alfalfa-fallow, alfalfa-wheat(Triticum aestivum), alfalfa-corn(Zeamays), alfalfa-potato(Solanum tuberosum) and alfalfa-millet(Setaria italica)]were compared. The results showed that the alfalfa crop rotation is not conducive to accumulation of soil total organic carbon and total nitrogen, and alfalfa ploughing maintains higher soil organic carbon levels. Compared to alfalfa-alfalfa, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen of alfalfa crop rotation system were decreased by 1.60%~23.11% and 3.81%~21.83%.Owing to differences insoil nutrient uptake among crops, soil enzyme content will be changed. Compared with continuous alfalfa cropping, soil catalase and protease activity of alfalfa crop rotation were reduced, and the soil nitrate reductase activity was increased; the soil catalase activity and the protease activity decreased by 5.20%~12.30% and 15.03%~43.43%, and the nitrate reductase activity increased by 1.26%~28.79%. There was no significant difference between continuous alfalfa cropping and alfalfa crop rotation on soil urease activity (P>0.05), but it was higher than that in the alfalfa fallow treatment. Moreover, correlation analysis showed thatsoil urease activity and soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content were significantly positively correlated. These can be used as indices of soil fertility.
Distribution of soil carbon and its losing risk with potential degradation on the grasslands along western slope of Helan mountain, China
Bao-lin Zhang, Shi-gao Jiang, Chun-ping Zhang, Xu-dong Li, Temuqiletu, Guang-hui Zhuang, Jian Zhao, De-cao Niu
2017, 11(11): 2200-2210. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0530
[Abstract](859) [FullText HTML] (77) [PDF 634KB](179)
In order to study the distribution and changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) and inorganic carbon (SIC) and total carbon with grassland potential degradation following altitudes along Helan Mountain, meanwhile explore their relationships with environment factors of climate, vegetation and soil, we collected soil samples and plant samples in three grassland types at different altitudes along Helan mountain in Alxa, Inner Mongolia, China. The different soil indexs which mainly included soil pH, Soil organic carbon, total carbon, soil total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus, available nitrogen and soil bulk density were measured. The relationships between soil carbon with environment factors of climate, vegetation and soil were analyzed by integrated partial correlation analysis. The results showed, as the altitude increasing, soil organic carbon content and density increase and were expressed as grassland types: steppe> desert steppe> steppe desert. However, soil inorganic carbon and total carbon content and density increase gradually with altitude increasing, but it slightly decreased at the grassland at altitude of 2 100 m. Integrated partial correlation analysis showed TN was significantly correlated with soil organic carbon. While, the factors affecting soil inorganic carbon varied greatly. Soil bulk density was significant correlated with soil inorganic carbon and annual rainfall and annual average temperature were the main factors too. Because soil carbon density was influenced greater by soil carbon content than soil bulk density, similar to soil carbon content, soil carbon density in steppe was significantly greater than soil carbon density in steppe desert. Additionally, if the grassland at the higher altitude changes to the situation as the lower altitude, soil organic carbon content and density decreased, but soil organic and total carbon content and density decreased only when the grassland types changed. The whole research revealed that the degradation of the grassland influenced both soil organic and inorganic carbon content and density, and the soil development influenced the soil organic carbon characteristics too.
Screening of plant growth-promoting bacteria in alfalfa grownin saline in Cangzhou, Hebei Province
Xing-yue Wu, Hong-li Yao, Bei-nan Wang, Xue-yin Bao, Peng-fei Liu, Zhong-kuan Liu, Wei-dong Cao, Xiao-yun Liu
2017, 11(11): 2211-2217. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0005
[Abstract](770) [FullText HTML] (38) [PDF 533KB](182)
This study focused on Medicago sativa growing in Huanghua City, Cangzhou, Hebei Province. Soils adhered to M. sativa roots were sampled from10 different locations in Huanghua City, including Zhaozizha Village in Changguo, Zhangbazhai Village in Yangerzhuang, and Yunzhuang Village in Jiucheng Town. In total, 134 strains were obtained by isolation and cultivation from soil samples. Of these strains, 30 were chosen based on the growth promotion of M. sativa seedlings after 60 days of incubation. We also compared the performance of the strains based on their phosphate solubilization and auxin secretion abilities. The result showed that the strain EF2 had a significant positive influence on plant dry weight, and it also had the strongest phosphate solubilization ability, whereasthe strain LF13 hadthe strongestinfluenceon plant height, and also had the strongest auxin secretion ability. In conclusion, we obtained nine highly effective strains by investigating the ability of phosphate solubilization and auxin secretion, as well as growth promotion.
Identification of the pathogen of the potato dry rot disease and screening of fungicides in the Minxian district of Gansu Province
Shu-zhen Chen, Tai-xiang Chen, Xu-xia Ji, Cheng-de Yang, Xiu-rong Chen
2017, 11(11): 2218-2225. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0630
[Abstract](775) [FullText HTML] (59) [PDF 1766KB](160)
The pathogens causing potato dry rot disease during storage in the Minxian district of Gansu Province were identified as Fusarium equiseti, F. solani, F. tricinctum, F. oxysporum, and three other strains of Fusarium spp. Fusarium equiseti and F. solani were the most frequently occurring pathogenic fungi isolated from the diseased potatoes; frequencies of these isolates were 28.57% and 41.67%, respectively. Furthermore, this is the first reported case of potato dry rot disease caused by F. oxysporum or F. equiseti from Gansu Province. About 71.01% to 81.84% of the infestation was controlled by spraying 32.5% difenoconazole-azoxystrobin, while, spraying Bacillus subtilis B2 10 times during the storage period controlled 79.71% of the infestation. These provide the basis for control of the potato dry rot disease in the Minxian district of Gansu Province.
Analysis of EMS and 60Co-γ mutagenesis of Dianthus spiculifolius seeds
Shu-fang Gong, En-hui Liu, Tong-tong Jiang, Ai-min Zhou, Jin-gang Wang
2017, 11(11): 2226-2234. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0053
[Abstract](796) [FullText HTML] (128) [PDF 2665KB](164)
In order to develop new varieties of Dianthus spiculifolius, we mutagenized seeds using EMS and 60Co-γ rays. Treatment of seeds for 16 h with 1% EMS, close to the half-lethal dose, resulted in a mutation rate of 7.0%. Seeds treated with 300 Gy 60Co-γ rays (dose rate 0.1 Gy·min-1, close to the half-lethal dose, resulted in a mutation rate of 4.2%. We obtained 1 038 phenotypic mutants in the M1 generation, of which 95 were derived from seeds treated with EMS, and 943 were obtained following irradiation of the seeds. This study has enriched the germplasm resources of D. spiculifolius and has provided a technical reference for the mutagenesis of other Dianthus species.
Cloning and expression analysis of anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase gene in Grape hyacinth
Ling-juan Du, Kai-li Chen, Ya-li Liu
2017, 11(11): 2235-2244. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0049
[Abstract](906) [FullText HTML] (106) [PDF 2328KB](163)
Anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase (3GT) is the last key enzyme in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, which can catalyze unstable anthocyanidin into anthocyanin. In this study, we cloned a 3GT gene (designated as Ma3GT from Muscari armeniacum) using the PCR technique. The gene’s cDNA was 1 377 bp long and encoded an open reading frame of 458 aminoacids. Ma3GT showed 55%~64% similarity with the other 3GTs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Ma3GT was classified into monocot subgroups of 3GTs, and had the closest relationship with the 3GTs of Freesia hybrid and Iris hollandica. QRT-PCR analysis detected transcripts of Ma3GT in different organs of M. armeniacum. The expression level of this gene was high in the fully opened petals (stage S4), very low in the leaves, and almost zero in the roots and bulbs of M. armeniacum. Andit almost had no expression in all the organs of M. aucheri ‘White Beauty’ and M. armeniacum‘Pink Surprise’. The gene expression was related to the floral developmental stages in M. armeniacum. The transcript level was rarely detectablein the unpigmented buds (stage S1), but increased during the pigment accumulation stages and peaked in the fully opened petals (S4). The expression had significant differences in three cultivars of different colors. The expression level was high in the petals of M. armeniacum, and rarely detectable in the petals of ‘White Beauty’ and ‘Pink Surprise.’ This research will provide informationand theoretical support for the functional study of the Ma3GT gene.
Growth and in vitro flowering of Gomphrena globosa
Xiao-juan Zhang, Guang-hua Deng, Fang-qing Lian, Na Zou, Ying-rong Huang, Shu-jun Zhou
2017, 11(11): 2245-2253. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0642
[Abstract](773) [FullText HTML] (51) [PDF 1034KB](140)
To clarify the mechanism of growth and in vitro flowering induction of Gomphrena globosa, the shoots with apical bud were used as explants on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium to explore the effects of different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, or 80 g·L-1) of sucrose, and different combinations of cytokinins [N6-benzyladenine (BA) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA)] and auxin polar transport inhibitors TIBA and NPA on nitrogen-regulated growth and flowering in vitro. The results indicated that sucrose was the key factor in floral morphogenesis and growth, and that treatments without sucrose (modified MS supplied with 6.5 g·L-1 agar) produced no flowers and few roots. An increasing concentration of sucrose could promote flowering, and the highest percentage of flowering (80.72%) was obtained on medium containing 80 g·L-1 sucrose. The height, leaf number, and particularly the root volume of G. globosa were all higher in treatments with 20~40 g·L-1 sucrose. L9(34) orthogonal experiment results showed that BA was more effective than NAA in promoting growth and flowering induction, with the highest percentage of flowering (60.14%) and growth being obtained on media containing 1.0 mg·L-1 BA. Auxin polar transport inhibitors prevented flowering and rooting of G. globosa, with the inhibition effects of TIBA being stronger than those of NPA at the same concentrations, although auxin itself did not induce flowering. Therefore, sucrose is indispensable for the growth and in vitro flowering of G. globose. BA also plays an important role, and the effect was also regulated by endogenous hormones.
Establishment and optimization of a suspension culture system for culturing Asarum heterotropoides
Si-yu Liu, Yue Yang, Ying Wang, Li-juan Wang, Xiu-ju Wu
2017, 11(11): 2254-2260. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0029
[Abstract](850) [FullText HTML] (67) [PDF 1251KB](163)
Using the callus induced by young petioles of Asarum heterotropoides, a suspension culture system was established. Then the effects of the amount of inoculum, lighting time, amount of culture fluid, speed of rotation, and concentrations of sucrose and plant growth regulators on the cell suspension culture of A. heterotropoides were studied. The results showed that the optimal conditions for callus suspension culture were 2 g calli inoculated in 100 mL 1/2 MS liquid medium containing 0.6 mg·L-1 6-BA and 0.3 mg·L-1 NAA, a rotation speed of 150 r·min-1, 30 g·L-1 sucrose, and exposure to whole-day light. The growth curve of suspension cells of A. heterotropoides was S-type. The best harvest time of suspension cells was 15 d. Through the suspension culture, the cell masses and various forms of single cells could be obtained rapidly. These findings provide the basis for large-scale culture of A. heterotropoides suspension cells so as to enhance the application value of A. heterotropoides.
Evaluation of salinity tolerance of 55 centipedegrass ecotypes
Yi-ming Liu, Heng-fu Huan, Xi-peng Ding, Zhi-jian Chen, Xin-yong Li, Pan-dao Liu, Yu Feng, Zhi-yong Wang, Chang-jun Bai, Guo-dao Liu
2017, 11(11): 2261-2271. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0290
[Abstract](857) [FullText HTML] (91) [PDF 742KB](195)
In this study, the salt tolerance of 55 centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides) ecotypes was evaluated under 200 mmol·L-1 NaCl using a hydroponic system. Turf quality (TQ), withered leaf rate (WLR), relative growth (ΔW), chlorophyll (Chl) content, and relative water content (RWC) were measured after 18 d of salt treatment. The results showed that there were significant salt tolerance differences among the 55 centipedegrass ecotypes. Compared with the control, the TQ, ΔW, Chl content, and RWC of all centipedegrass ecotypes and cv. ‘cuiw-1’were significantly decreased, whereas WLR was significantly increased (P<0.05). Correlation analysis showed that WLR was negatively correlated with RWC and TQ, with correlation coefficients of -0.85 and -0.73, respectively, whereas RWC was positively correlated with TQ, with a correlation coefficient of 0.70. Principal component analysis indicated three principal components, which could account for 91.79% of the total change. Membership function and hierarchical cluster analysis showed that ecotypes CP52, CP15, CP51, and CP49 had the best salt tolerance and were expected to be applied in the turf development of coastal saline soil.
Distribution and harmfulness of turf weed species in Loudi City
Yong-xian Zeng, Chen-zhong Jin, Guo-hong Xiang, Ze-fa Liu, Qi-han Shi, You-lin Peng
2017, 11(11): 2272-2278. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0209
[Abstract](933) [FullText HTML] (128) [PDF 509KB](174)
The distribution and harmfulness of turf weed species in Loudi City were investigated, and statistical methods were applied to analyze the importance value and other indices. Sixty-eight turf weed species in Loudi City were identified based on field surveys, information from herbariums,and literature reviews. They belonged to 58 genera of 28 families, in which Compositae,Gramineae, and Apiaceae were the dominant families. The 13 dominant species included Erigeron annuus, Alopecurus aequalis, and Imperata cylindrica, which should be the target weeds for control. This research provides some important data for the prevention, control, and comprehensive utilization of the turf weeds in Loudi City, and a reference for similar studies in other parts of the world.
Effect of coumarin on Sorghum sudanense seed germination and seedling growth
Jing-yi Wang, Dan-dan Yao, Jun Xu, Cai-xia Wu, Guo-qi Zhao, Chen-lan Hua
2017, 11(11): 2279-2288. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0008
[Abstract](931) [FullText HTML] (71) [PDF 3075KB](171)
Coumarin is the main allelochemical of Melilotus officinalis, and can inhibit seed germination and seedling growth in a variety of weeds. In this study, we aimed to explore the allelopathy mechanism of coumarin and its inhibition of grass. Petri dish experiments were conducted on Sorghum sudanense to study the effect of coumarin on the main growth and physiological and biochemical indices, and to observe ultrastructural changes in the roots and stems by transmission electron microscopy. The following results were obtained. Coumarin concentrations in the range of 20 to 100 μg·mL-1 significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the early germination of S. sudanense and the degree of inhibition increased with an increase in coumarin concentration. Coumarin solution significantly (P<0.05) inhibited root length, and with an increase in treatment time and coumarin concentration, the roots became more coarse and distorted. There were concentration and time effects on stem growth. At 4 d, a coumarin concentration of 20~100 μg·mL-1 promoted stem length, whereas at 6 and 8 d, a low coumarin concentration promoted stem length and a high concentration inhibited stem length. A 100 μg·mL-1 coumarin solution significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth of S. sudanense, and the germination rate, root length, and stem length were all significantly (P<0.05) lower than in the control group; Coumarin solution significantly (P<0.05) increased the activity of catalase and reduced the activity of superoxide dismutase, whereas the activity of the peroxidase initially decreased and then significantly (P<0.05) increased. Coumarin solution significantly (P<0.05) enhanced the content of soluble sugars and reduced the content of chlorophyll. Furthermore, treatment with coumarin initially decreased and then increased the content of starch, and the activity of indole acetic acid oxidase in coumarin-treated plants was lower than that in the control group. Treatment with coumarin solution destroyed the ultrastructure of Sudan grass root cells, with vacuole volume becoming larger, the number and types of organelles decreasing, the nuclear membrane being distorted, and the nuclei becoming smaller or even disappearing. Coumarin treatment also significantly (P<0.05) increased the number of starch granules in the chloroplast of S. sudanense and their volume became larger. The above results indicate that 100 μg·mL-1 coumarin solution can regulate the growth of S. sudanense by changing antioxidant enzyme systems, increasing osmotic adjustment substances, decreasing chlorophyll content, affecting enzyme activity, and destroying cell ultrastructure.
Study on pod development and ventral suture structure of shattering-resistant common vetch
De-ke Dong, Yun-hua Han, Dong-hua Li, Yan-rong Wang, Zhi-peng Liu
2017, 11(11): 2289-2294. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0592
[Abstract](1191) [FullText HTML] (171) [PDF 1143KB](163)
The abscission layer cells and machine tensile generated by cellular water loss were the main causes of pod shattering in shattering-susceptible common vetch (Vicia sativa), but the organizational structure is unclear. This study, using shattering-resistant V. sativa subsp. sativa No.135 as the research material, analyzed its dynamic changes in pod morphology, moisture content, germination rate and anatomical structure of ventral suture cross section during pod development to explore the pod shattering-resistant mechanism and provide a theoretical basis for determining optimal harvest time. The results elucidated two main points: 1) When the pods of V. sativa subsp. sativa No.135 turned to brown-black at about 26 days after peak anthesis, they reached their maximum size and dry weight; when the germination rate was high, the hard seed percentage and the water content were low. 2) The parenchyma cells between the two vascular bundles were not differentiated into abscission layers, but differentiated into sclerenchymatous cells and connected the vascular bundles, wholly formed by the parenchyma cells. The results showed that the optimum harvest time was 26 days after peak anthesis. The key cause of the shattering-resistant trait lies in the loss of layer cells and the parenchyma cells differentiated into the sclerenchymatous cells.
Improvement of oxidation resistance and osmotic regulation of white clover seedlings by exogenous auxin under polyethylene glycol stress
Ya-ping Li, Yan Peng
2017, 11(11): 2295-2302. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0048
[Abstract](1011) [FullText HTML] (86) [PDF 742KB](187)
This research was conducted to investigate the effect of auxin (IAA) on the drought tolerance of white clover (Trifolium repens cv. ‘Pixie’) under drought stress induced by polyethylene glycol-6000(PEG-6000) nutrient solution. The results showed that 1 μmol·L-1 IAA significantly improved the drought tolerance of white clover fed with a nutrient solution containing 15% PEG (-0.3 MPa). Exogenous IAA improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase to varying degrees, increased the contents of ascorbate and glutathione, decreased electrolyte leakage, and decreased the contents of malondialdehyde, superoxide anions, and H2O2. These observations indicated that IAA effectively reduced oxidative damage and lipid modifications. Exogenous IAA also significantly increased the contents of total amino acids and proline, and efficiently decreased the osmotic potential, which was associated with an increased relative water content. Similarly, under drought conditions, the treatment with exogenous IAA (1 μmol·L-1) significantly improved the relative water content and alleviated lipid injury in detached leaves, but treatments with auxin biosynthesis inhibitors (60 μmol·L-1 naphthylphthalamic acid and 60 μmol·L-1 amino-oxyphenylpropionic acid) decreased the relative water content and lipid injury in detached leaves. In conclusion, the results indicated that IAA can effectively increase the capacities of white clover for antioxidant protection and osmoregulation, thereby leading to an improved drought tolerance.
Effect of Rhizobium dosage on growth of alfalfa in Kubuqi Sandland
Ruo-ci Liu, Tie-mei Wang, De-rong Su, Shi-hai Lyu, Sheng-xing Ye, Jun-han Chen
2017, 11(11): 2303-2308. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0012
[Abstract](822) [FullText HTML] (69) [PDF 517KB](139)
The effect of Rhizobium dosage on the growth and nodule characteristics of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) was investigated in Kubuqi Sandland, Inner Mongolia. The seeds of alfalfa cultivar ‘4010’ were mixed with Rhizobium Dormal at ratios of 0, 10, and 20 g·kg-1 and then sown. Each treatment had three replicates. Indices of growth, nodules, yield, and nutrient contents were measured periodically. The results showed that Rhizobium had a significant influence on plant height, nodule formation, yield, and nutrition content at the first harvest (P<0.05). Rhizobium inoculation resulted in a 14-fold increase in nodule number compared with the 0 g·kg-1 treatment. The 20 g·kg-1 treatment resulted in the highest values for plant height and hay yield, resulting in an increase in plant height of 6.8 cm and an increase in hay yield of 1.79 t·hm-2. The 10 g·kg-1 treatment significantly decreased the stem/leaf ratio and resulted in a higher CP content and lower Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) and Neutral washing fiber (NDF) contents at the first harvest. The maximum yield and best nutrition quality were not obtained simultaneously. In practical production, factors including cost also need to be taken into account when determining the optimal Rhizobium dosage.
Effect of drought stress and re-watering on the morphological characteristics of root, stem, and leaf in Helianthus tuberosus
Tie-xia Zhu, Lin Wang, Yang Gao, Wei-dong Wang, Kai Gao
2017, 11(11): 2309-2315. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0007
[Abstract](716) [FullText HTML] (39) [PDF 548KB](156)
Using pot experiments, we examined the effects of drought stress and re-watering on root, stem, leaf, stem/leaf ratio, root/shoot ratio, and biomass in Helianthus tuberosus The following results were obtained. Root, stem, leaf biomass, and total biomass in treated plants were lower than those in control plants. The diameter of the taproot and fibrous roots was increased. During drought stress and re-watering, the lengths of fibrous roots were greater than those in control plants, and the length of the taproot was greater than the control during drought stress but lower than the control during re-watering. The mean leaf area of treated plants was higher than that of control plants, and the number of leaves were lower than that in control plants. The stem/leaf ratios of treated plants were all higher than those of control plants, except on the second day of measurement. During drought stress and re-watering, the root/shoot ratio of treated plants under drought stress on the second day of measurement and re-watered plants at 16 days was higher than that of the control plants, but lower than that of control plants on the fourth and eighth days under drought stress and eighth day under re-watering.
Effects of nitrogen levels on root characteristics of ramie genotypes possessing different nitrogen recovery efficiency
Ji-kang Chen, Long-tao Tan, Chun-ming Yu, Ai-guo Zhu, Ping Chen, Yan-zhou Wang, Tao-tao Zhu, He-ping Xiong
2017, 11(11): 2316-2324. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0044
[Abstract](755) [FullText HTML] (56) [PDF 581KB](158)
The root is the main organ of ramie for absorbing nitrogen. It is therefore, important to study the responses of ramie root under different nitrogen levels for variety improvement and agronomic-trait modification. This paper focused on root characteristics and response by root, and their relationship to nitrogen recovery efficiency (NRE). A potted experiment was conducted using two ramie varieties with different nitrogen utilization efficiency, and there were: 0, 6, 9, 12 and 15 mmol·L-1 nitrogen levels. The results showed that different parameters of ramie root had different responses under different nitrogen levels. The total absorption area (TAA), active absorption area (AAA) and root area∶volume ratio (A∶V), all were found to increase with the increasing nitrogen levels, but no significant effect was detected on root length (RL) in the experiment. Ramie root volume (RV) and activity (RA) were enhanced by increasing nitrogen levels. RV of H2000-03 with high NRE peaked at 12 mmol·L-1, which was 3.06 times of unfertilized N. RV of Ceheng Jiama with low nitrogen efficiency peaked at 9 mmol·L-1, which was 2.38 times of unfertilized N. RV and RA reduced after exceeding a certain amount of nitrogen, among which the RA of Ceheng Jiama was reduced by 67.5% at the rapid growth stage of the plant. Highest NRE was detected for 9 mmol·L-1 due to the significant changes in root parameters measured. H2000-03 showed significantly higher RL, RV, TAA and AAA than Ceheng Jiama. These parameters also could be maintained at a higher level in H2000-30 along its growth stages. Unfertilized N significant difference was detected in A∶V and RA between the two varieties, which was key for improvement of ramie root characteristics. The key periods which affected NRE and nitrogen accumulation of ramie shoots mostly were the later stages of plant growth and the key attributes were root quantity and root surface characteristics.
Economic benefit analysis of different summer-sowing patterns and cutting frequencies of three photoperiod-sensitive sorghum-sudangrass hybrids
Zhen-fu He, Lu He, Chun-gui He, Fei Wang, Guo-dong Wang, Long-sheng Liu
2017, 11(11): 2325-2334. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0555
[Abstract](806) [FullText HTML] (70) [PDF 818KB](166)
In order to understand the economic benefits of photoperiod-sensitive sorghum-sudangrass hybrids planted following three different sowing patterns (no-tillage without mulching, tillage without mulching, and tillage with plastic mulching, respectively), three hybrids, Monster, BJM, and Big kahuna, were multiple cropped after winter wheat harvest in the Longdong dryland area, in Gansu Province. The yield from two different processing techniques, mowing once (one cut) and mowing twice (two cuts) per year, were measured, and the variance of the total investment, total revenue, net return, and the ratio of output to input were analyzed. Results showed the main effect of dibbling pattem was significant differences (P<0.05) in the total revenue, net return, and the ratio of output to input, and these values were the highest in the sowing pattern involving tillage without mulching. The interaction effect of different hybrid varieties and different sowing patterns was non-significant; the main effect of varieties under the two-cut processing technique was non-significant, and Monster had the highest value; the main effect of varieties under the one-cut processing technique had a significant difference (P<0.05), and BJM had the highest value. Comparison of manual work and machinery operation showed that the total investments in machinery operations associated with the three different dibbling ways were all lower than that involved with manual work; the net return, and the ratio of output to input were higher with machine operations than those involved with manual work. Comparison between the one-cut and two-cuts processing techniques showed that the total revenue, net return, and the ratio of output to input in the one-cut technique were higher than those in the two-cuts technique. Considering the economic benefits, the optimum multiple cropping production model of sorghum-sudangrass hybrid is BJM mowed once (one week before the early frost) with machinery operation using tillage with plastic mulching after winter wheat harvest in Longdong, Gansu.
Effect of mixed pattern on growth efficiency and mixed advantage of Bromus innermis+Onobrychis viciaefolia mixture pasture
Ya-qiong Zhu, Wei Zheng, Xiang Wang, Zheng-xuan Guan, Mei-jun Liu
2017, 11(11): 2335-2346. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0032
[Abstract](954) [FullText HTML] (71) [PDF 805KB](178)
This study aimed to determine the relative growth efficiency and interspecific competition dynamics of two kinds of forage grass (Bromus inermis and Onobrychis viciaefolia) under different mixed modes (i.e., alternating rows and peer-mixed seeding patterns). A pot experiment was performed to analyse and compare the relative growth rates, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, herbage yields, and relative yields (RY) of the grasses. The results showed that the relative growth rates of both grasses were higher with mixed seeding than with monocropping, and using a spacing of 30 cm between rows for the alternating rows mixed seeding pattern yielded the highest relative growth rates among the tested treatments. The relative density of B. innermis (RDg) and the relative density of O. viciaefolia (RDl) under the alternating rows mixed seeding pattern were both higher than that in the peer-mixed seeding pattern. A spacing of 30 cm between alternating rows yielded higher RDl and RY values of O. viciaefolia, while peer-mixed seeding or a spacing of 30 cm between alternating rows yielded a higher RYT (total relative yield) value. The initial fluorescence efficiency Fo and maximal fluorescence Fm of B. innermis in the mixed sowing treatments were higher than those in the monocropping treatment, and the photosystem Ⅱ potential active center Fv/Fo value of the monocropping treatment was higher than that in the mixed sowing treatments. Under different mixed seeding methods, the capture of light energy per unit area (TRo/CSo) values of the two kinds of forage grass were smaller, and a spacing of 30 or 45 cm between alternating rows yielded higher chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Therefore, mixed seeding with a spacing of 30 cm or more between alternating rows can yield a high photosynthetic efficiency and high interspecific competition between legume forages, resulting in high component stability and performance for this mixed seeding pattern.
Chinese alfalfa habitat suitability regionalization
Li-jun Xu, Da-wei Xu, Huan-cheng Pang, Xiao-ping Xin, Dong-yan Jin, Xue-juan Tang, Ming-ying Guo
2017, 11(11): 2347-2358. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0551
[Abstract](1831) [FullText HTML] (134) [PDF 3464KB](163)
Alfalfa is one of the most widely planted perennial forage plants in China and is known as the “king of grass”. With the rapid development of our animal husbandry, the area under alfalfa plantation is increasing every year; as such, the criteria of choosing the suitable species of alfalfa is particularly important to us. According to the existing research foundation, alfalfa suitability regionalization has been done, our study are based on the natural elements ecological suitability model, forage biological characteristics, the actual production of pasture and system analyzed various factors. The results clearly indicated the ecologically suitable distributional areas of alfalfa in the nation, and determined the suitable areas, secondarily suitable areas, and unsuitable areas. The suitable areas for alfalfa cultivation in China are as follows: the Northeastern region, mainly including Jilin, Midwest Liaoning, and some districts in eastern Heilongjiang; Inner Mongolia, including the eastern part of Chifeng, Tongliao, and Xin’an, and the western part of Wulanchabu, Hohhot, and Erdos; the Northwestern region, Gansu, mainly along the Hexi Corridor; as well as Xinjiang, mainly Yili, Changji Hui Autonomous Region, and the peripheral areas of the Tarim Basin. Less suitable alfalfa planting areas were found in the Tibetan plateau, in Qinghai, centered around Xi’ning, Haidong district, Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, and parts of Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture; in North China, which consists of Zhangjiakou and the area south of Bashang, Chengde. The Loess Plateau, where most areas are proper. Anhui, northern Jiangsu and northwest Hubei in Central of China are suitable areas. The suitable areas in the southwest include northern Yunnan, Bijie, Guizhou, and Chengdu, and Deyang, Suining, and the southern part of Mianyang in the Sichuan province.
Annual analysis of nutritional quality of pasture in Haiyan County, Qinghai Province
Xiao-hong Fan, De-yu Yang, Li-zhuang Hao, Shu-jie Liu, Jian-zhang Niu, Xiao-wei Zhang, Lu Sun, Cheng-tu Zhang, Ji-ye Li
2017, 11(11): 2359-2365. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0138
[Abstract](780) [FullText HTML] (75) [PDF 541KB](154)
In order to compensate for the problem of insufficient support for monitoring of the nutrient value of pasture in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, we examined the dynamic nutritional value of grassland pasture under grazing conditions in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. During the period September 2015 to August 2016, we selected typical Tibetan herdsmen and grazing pastures to track yak grazing, and simulated the collection of edible forage for sampling. The nutrient composition and total energy of the pasture were analyzed, and the dry matter digestibility of pasture was determined using a two-step in vitro method. The following results were obtained. 1) The contents of crude protein, ether extract, acid detergent fiber, ash, calcium, and phosphorus were 3.68%~19.21%, 0.86%~2.74%, 9.65%~43.83%, 44.70%~76.23%, 5.40%~9.62%, 2.13%~5.12%, and 0.027%~0.190%, respectively, and the contents of CP and ash in May were significantly higher than those in other months (P<0.01). 2) The digestibility of pasture was 42.72%~72.47%, which was significantly higher than that of other months (P<0.01). 3) Total energy (GE), digestive energy (DE), and metabolic energy (ME) were 17.76~19.67, 7.81~13.26, and 6.40~10.87 MJ·kg-1, respectively. There was no significant difference in the GE of forage in different months (P>0.05), although it was the highest in June, followed by November. DE and ME were significantly higher in May than in other months (P<0.05), and the lowest in December, followed by April and June. In conclusion, the natural forage of Haiyan County, Qinghai Province in May and June is of good quality, whereas in October to March, the nutritional value of forage is low. Therefore, in view of the different types of seasonal grassland grazing throughout the year, it is recommended that pastoralists and farmers use natural grassland to supplement feed for breeding yaks in October to March. In the future, we will conduct follow-up monitoring of forage grass, and determine the fine feeding of grazing yak.
Spatial distribution characteristics of biomass in four main types of rangeland in Shanxi
Min Ren, Zhen-yu Tan, Zhi-yuan Zhang, Yong-qiang Gao, Xiang Zhao, Guo-hua Ren, Zong-yi Su
2017, 11(11): 2366-2377. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0037
[Abstract](877) [FullText HTML] (72) [PDF 1303KB](159)
This research mainly investigated 70 sample plots in the rangelands in Shanxi Province, which comprises of four types of rangelands, namely, warm-temperate tussock, warm-temperate shrub tussock, temperate steppe and temperate montane meadow. We measured the above-ground biomass and underground biomass of rangelands, and analyzed the changes in biomass extracted from four altitude gradients, six latitude gradients and five longitudinal gradients. From this regard, it is possible to understand the spatial distribution characteristics of biomass in Shanxi Province, lay a rational foundation for managing and protecting the Shanxi Province rangeland ecosystem. The results revealed an overall trend that the spatial distribution of biomass of rangelands enhanced at first, but then decreased with the increasing altitude, especially for the altitude range of 1 200-1 600 m, which incidentally recorded the highest underground biomass (1 412.86 g·m-2) and total biomass (2 037.87 g·m-2). Shoot biomass (301.5 g·m-2) and litter biomass (105.97 g·m-2) were highest at altitudes below 800 m. With the latitude from south to north, the underground biomass and total biomass increased and then gradually decreased, while the south appeared to be slightly higher than the north (P>0.05). Underground biomass and total biomass in the southern and northern areas were significantly lower than that in the central region (P<0.05). However, with the longitude from west to east, the total underground biomass and total biomass first decreased, and then increased. Biomass in four types of rangeland varied significantly. Underground biomass in the warm-temperate tussock and other three rangelands were significantly (P<0.05) different. Litter biomass in warm-temperate tussock and temperate montane meadow were significantly different than the two other rangeland types.
Construction of an indicator system and a case study of eco-environmental quality assessment of China’s grassland nature reserves
Jin-hong Du, Yu-bo Zhang, Fang-zheng Liu, Bing Chen, Jun-sheng Li, Wei Wang
2017, 11(11): 2378-2387. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0229
[Abstract](866) [FullText HTML] (116) [PDF 1910KB](179)
The destruction of eco-environments in China’s nature reserves is increasing in severity. Moreover, China’s grassland nature reserves have fragile ecosystems, which are difficult to restore once destroyed. Assessment of eco-environmental quality is important for the sustainable development of grassland nature reserves. On the basis of previous studies and literature on assessments of the eco-environment quality of grassland and characteristics of grassland nature reserves in China, we established an eco-environmental quality assessment system for grassland nature reserves, which includes 16 indicators (14 general indicators and 2 limit indicators). The eco-environmental quality change level was divided into seven grades. Model assessment clearly indicated that the eco-environment of Xilinguole Grassland Nature Reserve had deteriorated significantly from 2010 to 2015.
Forage industry development strategy in Shandong Province based on SWOT model
Fan Jiang, Wei Zhao
2017, 11(11): 2388-2395. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2017-0181
[Abstract](708) [FullText HTML] (70) [PDF 586KB](158)
The aim of the “Grain to forage” strategy is to adjust the planting structure, promote anminal husbandry transforming and upgrading, solve the food security and agricultural pollution problems. This paper expounds the development status of Shandong Province forage industry. The strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the development of forage industry in Shandong Province were analyzed by SWOT method in this paper, and the SO, WO, ST, WT strategies were drawn by the above four elements cross analysis. Through analysis a conclusion is drawn that the SO strategy is the key of the development of forage industry in Shandong Province, which is making full use of the natural conditions ,choosing areas with prominent soil resource and anminal husbandry advantages to establish forage grass base, such as the Yellow River Delta. Propose some policy suggestions on establishing the base, improving technical regulations, the publicity of strategy, industrial financing.
Application of lactic acid bacteria to Elymus nutans silage from the Tibetan Plateau
Pei-xin Jing, Hong-mei Zhang, Lei Cao, Dong-mei Xu, Yong-hui Zhang, Xu-sheng Guo
2017, 11(11): 2396-2402. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2016-0614
[Abstract](810) [FullText HTML] (74) [PDF 501KB](170)
The study was conducted to investigate the effect of applying a low temperature fermentative strain of Pediococcus pentosaceus Q6 on the fermentation quality of Elymus nutans silage ensiled at different temperatures. Before ensiling of E. nutans, the grasses were treated without inoculation or with inoculation of either the strain of Pediococcus pentosaceus Q6 or a commercial strain P. pentosaceus (APP). The treated grasses were then ensiled at 10, 15 and 25 ℃, respectively. The ensiled grasses were opened on 30, 60 and 90 d after fermentation for laboratory analysis. The results showed that after 60 days of fermentation at 15 ℃, the fermentation quality of the silage inoculated by P. pentosaceus Q6 was obviously better than the control silage or silage inoculated by APP. Inoculation of P. pentosaceus Q6 at ensiling had an effective reduction in silage pH, and also increased the concentration of lactic acid dry matter in ensiled grasses compared to the control silage or silage inoculated by APP. Meanwhile, application of P. pentosaceus Q6 not only increased the count of lactic acid bacteria, but also inhibited the growth of yeasts and molds in the grass silage. Therefore, P. pentosaceus Q6 is a candidate strain that can be used to making silage at low temperature in the Tibetan plateau.