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The three major greenhouse gas flux of fallow cropland, Alfalfa grassland, rangeland, sheep manure and pig manure in Longdong loess plateau were determined using static box method in August. The results showed that the methane emission values in study area of abandoned cropland, alfalfa land, rangeland, sheep manure and pig manure was -290.212, -204.18, -180.14, 47.84 and 33.59 mg(dm2)-1, respectively; CO2 emission values was 266.99, 418.72, 947.31, 6 110.63, 14 771.80 mg(dm2)-1, respectively; N2O emission values was -4.87, -2.56, 5.31, 1 050.55, 1 911.76 m(dm2)-1, respectively, and their total emissions were -8 395.69, -5 425.62, -2 012.6, 568 110.19 and 310 915.58 mg CO2(dm2)-1. These three studied grassland performed as carbon sink and rangeland had the best carbon sequestration effect. Manures performed as carbon source. These 3 greenhouse gas flux of pig manure and abandoned land soil had linear correlation with temperature in 7.5 cm soil. System greenhouse gas emissions of pig and sheep manure system had linear relation.
In order to explore the response to grazing exclusion on soil physical and chemical quality, the influences of different grazing exclusion times (including 0 year, 1 year, 4 year and 11 year) on soil organic matter, soil total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, alkali solution nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, pH, soil moisture and bulk density in moderate degraded desert grasslands of Seriphidium transiliense in Xinjiang were studied by using the method of combination field survey with laboratory analysis. The results showed that the content of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, available potassium substantially increased first and then decreased with the grazing exclusion times in the surface(0-5 cm). Compared with continuous grazing areas, the content of soil organic matter decreased 11.9%~23.0% in 0-5 cm of soil layer and total nitrogen decreased 17.5%~34.1% in 5-10 cm of soil layer; but the content of total phosphorus and available potassium respectively increased 8.5% and 12.0% in eleven years of grazing exclusion. In addition, the content of total potassium, alkali solution nitrogen, available phosphorus had no obvious significant. The soil moisture presented increased volatility, but soil bulk density presented decreased volatility.
In order to evaluate the distribution characteristics of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the alpine meadow and steppe of Qilian county, the combined methods of field sampling and laboratory analysis were employed to analyze the variation of SOC in alpine meadow and steppe of Qilian county in altitude between 2 963 and 3 392 m. The results showed that there was very significant difference (P<0.01) between the contents of SOC in different soil depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-50 cm) which decreased with increasing soil depth. The density of SOC had same variations with the contents of SOC which also very significantly decreased with increasing soil depth. SOC had significant positive linear relationships (P<0.01) with both herbage production and vegetation coverage. The content of SOC increased with increasing of herbage production and vegetation coverage. There was significant negative linear relationship (P<0.01) between SOC and soil bulk density. Soil moisture decreased with increasing soil depth, therefore, the contents of SOC had significant positive linear relationships (P<0.01) with soil moisture.
In order to explore the effects of tourism disturbance on the characteristics of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the vegetation and soil in Kanas Scenic Area, the sample were divided areas into 4 zones: Ⅰ zone, Ⅱ zone, Ⅲ zone and Ⅳ zone according to the law of Kanas Scenic Area tourist activities (including hiking, horseback riding, roller compaction, the drift) and the distance of tourism channel, the number of attracted tourist, the conditions of vegetation and the C, N, P contents in vegetation and soil of these four different zones were measured. The results showed that the contents of N, P and C in both vegetation and soil decreased with the increase of the tourism disturbance intensity. The ratios of C∶N, C∶P and N∶P in vegetation and soil increased with the increase of the tourism disturbance intensity. Dynamic monitoring of C, N and P in vegetation and soil can reduce the negative impacts of tourism disturbance and contribute to the scientific and rational management of Kanas Scenic Area.
The degraded sub-alpine meadow in northwest Yunnan province was studied to explore the effects of fencing and cattle dung on soil rehabilitation. The four years experiment results showed that both fencing and cattle dung addition can significantly increase soil organic matter content (P<0.05) while did not affect soil bulk density and water content. Fencing and cattle dung addition had different effects on nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K). Fencing significantly increased (P<0.05) total N, total P and available K contents in 0-10 cm soil but significantly reduced (P<0.05) total K content. However, cattle dung addition significantly increased (P<0.05) total N and available P contents in 0-10 cm soil while only had little effects on total P and available K contents. In addition, there was significant interaction between fencing and cattle dung, therefore, treatments with fencing and cattle dung addition significantly affected the contents of total N, total P and available P in 0-10 cm soil. Treatments with fencing and cattle dung addition had cumulative effects on the organic matter in 0-30 cm soil. On the other hand, total N, total P, total K, and available P as well as available K concentrated in 0-10 cm soil and their content decreased with the increase of the depth in 0-30 cm soil. In conclusion, both fencing and cattle dung addition improved the soil nutrient and were benefical to rehabilitation of the degraded sub-alpine meadow.
Miscanthus floridulus, Arundinella hirta, Fimbristylis wukungshanensis, Carex chinensis, Sinarundinaria nitida was the dominant species, respectively, of five different main communities in Jinding scenic of Wugong Mountain in Jiangxi Provience. The hyperspectral data of these five different main communities were measured using field portable spectroradiometers (SVC HR 768, USA). The effective characteristic parameters of spectral absorption achieved by three data processing methods including resampling method, first-order differential method and continuum removal method to obtain the spectral characteristics distinguishing these 5 kinds of grassland communities. The analyzed results showed that there was significant difference between the variance analysis of each wave band of these 5 kinds communities and C. chinensis>A. hirta>M. floridulus >S. nitida> F. wukungshanensis based on reflectivity value. There was most significant difference between peak/Valley depth of the 3 wave bands(500-600 nm, 600-700 nm and 1 200-1 300 nm) which achieved by resampling method. The five communities can be well classified using the characteristic parameters related to red edge, yellow edge and blue edge. The maximum difference between aspect rations of absorption valley obtained from continuum removal method can reach as high as 92 which was the most effective parameter to distinguish the 5 communities. The corresponding wavelength position of the peak/trough was the common parameters of five main mountain meadow community.
Based on MODIS remote sensing data of the main growing season (5-9 months) from 2006 to 2014, through to the remote sensing data preprocessing, local projection, the biggest synthesis, synthesis of the Yili river valley in 2006-2014 NDVI value, analyzes the average and more years growing season NDVI change rule. At the same time, the main climatic factors of Yili River Valley were collected and analyzed. The results show that the NDVI is influenced by average temperatures during the month, the largest passed 0.01 significance test, and the relationship with sliding average temperature is very small; Average NDVI and monthly precipitation and the correlation of moving average precipitation are good, reach the significance test of 0.05 above, but 3 months moving average precipitation had the greatest influence on NDVI, and passed the extremely significance test of 0.01.
Wetland has great environmental regulation and ecological benefit functions. As a newly established natural protection area, the three gorges artificial wetland in Gansu Yellow river are still rarely known about their natural resources. Based on materials and digitized information, as well as field survey, the natural resource in the wetland was investigated. The results show that there are rich plant resources in the wetland, and a total of 252 plant species were founded, which belonging to 65 families and 181 genera. Animal resources included 23 species of mammals, 141 species of birds, 3 species of reptiles, 4 species of amphibians, and 36 species of fish. However, due to human activities and other factors, the degradation of the wetland community has been increased, which has caused a great loss. According to the existing problems, some suggestions are put forward, such as grazing and reclamation.
The Arabidopsis thaliana expressing CBF2 gene in Brachypodium distachyon was used as the experimental material. The response of the germination rate of transgenic A. thaliana seeds and seedlings growth to drought was analyzed by simulated mannitol osmotic stress, and the drought resistance of the mature seedlings was detected by pot experiments. Results showed the seed germination rate declined with the increase of the osmotic pressure, and it become significant when it reached -0.62 MPa. The germination rate of transgenic seed was slightly higher than wild seeds, but the difference was not significant. When the osmotic pressure was higher than -0.37 MPa, the root length increment significantly reduced with the increase of stress intensity, and the root length increment of transgenic plants was significantly higher than wild A. thaliana. The survival rate of wild A. thaliana was 11.7%, while the average survival rate of transgenic plants was 41.6% when the A. thaliana seedlings was dealing with drought stress for 25 days. POD and SOD activity of transgenic A. thaliana was significantly higher than wild plants, and MDA content and relative electrical conductivity were significantly lower than wild plants with the extension of drought stress time. Our results suggested that the CBF2 gene in B. distachyon can significantly enhanced the drought resistance of transgenic A. thaliana seedlings and mature seedlings.
To develop new simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for Elytrigia repens, EST-SSR primers of E. repens were designed using the EST sequences of E. repens in NCBI database.The genetic diversity of 47 Elytrigia samples were analyzed using EST-SSR markers to determine the function of EST-SSR in E. repens. Results showed that: From the 27891 Elytrigia EST sequences released in NCBI, 1 068 SSRs were searched. Among those EST-SSRs, the frequency of hexamer motifs was the highest, which is 53.83% of the total number of SSRs,whereas the frequency of dimer, trimer tetramer, pentamer, hexamer were AC/TG(2.72%), CGC/GCG(1.87%), CGAC/GCTG(5.24%), CCGCC/GGCGG(0.37%), CAGCTC/GTCGAG (3.37%), respectively. 105 pairs of EST-SSR primers were designed and synthesized, and 64 pairs (60.95%) of EST-SSR primers led to PCR amplification products. 18 EST-SSR primers were randomly selected and used to analyze the genetic diversity of 47 Elytrigia samples. The results showed that the polymorphic percentage was 78.64%,polymorphic information content (PIC) was in the range of 0.22~0.83. Taken together, all results indicate that the EST-SSR markers of E. repens developed in this study is highly effective and valuable, and they can be used in the research of genetic diversity and association analysis for important trait in E. repens.
Using a combination of greenhouse pot and field experiments, this study determined the effect of inoculation with different rhizobial strains on seedling growth and nodulation capacity of two cultivars of Medicago sativa. Further, seedling photosynthetic characteristics and biomass components of M. sativa cv. Longdong were analyzed. The results showed that seedling biomass, plant height, number of branches and number of leaves of M. sativa cv. Gannong No.3 increased by 102%, 100%, 17% and 102%, respectively, after inoculation with 17767 strains in greenhouse; while Longdong inoculated with 17625 strains increased seedling biomass, plant height, number of branches and number of leaves by 187%, 48%, 80% and 47%, respectively. In the field condition, seedling biomass and plant height of M. sativa cv. Gannong No.3 was increased by 21% and 13%, respectively after inoculation with 17650 strains; while Longdong cultivar inoculated 17574 strains increased seedling biomass and plant height by 348% and 70%, respectively. Inoculated 6-3, 17537, 129, 17670, 17582, 17578 and 17650 strains treatments increased plant water use efficiency to some extent in Longdong cultivar, whereas seedling photosynthetic rate was increased only by inoculating 17578 and 17582 strains. Based on their performance in the greenhouse and field condition, the optimal symbiotic rhizobial strains with M. sativa cv. Gannong No.3 and M. sativa cv. Longdong was B2 and 17650, respectively.
To study the physiological changes process of three types of fall dormancy alfalfa under three CO2 concentration (700 μmol·mol-1, 550 μmol·mol-1 and control 350 μmol·mol-1) in open-top chambers during the whole growth period. The results showed that: the CO2 concentration higher, the chlorophyll content and the content of soluble sugar higher of the whole growth period. The chlorophyll content was increased by an average of about 11.49%, 6.00%; soluble sugar content was increased by an average of 52.01%, 38.82% with 700 and 550 μmol·mol-1 treatment. The MDA content decreased by an average of approximately 18.20%, 17.93% with 700 and 550 μmol·mol-1 treatment. The elevated CO2 concentration had a significant positive effect on the synthesis of proline content at flowering (P<0.05) and the rest of the time was inhibited. In summary, CO2 concentration had a significantly effect on physiological indices of alfalfa at the early flowering (P<0.05). The chlorophyll synthesis cumulative amount of UC-1465 (non-fall dormancy alfalfa) higher than Maverick (fall dormancy alfalfa) and ABI700 (semi fall dormancy alfalfa) under high CO2 concentrations. And high CO2 concentration is more favorable for Maverick (fall dormancy alfalfa), ABI700 (semi fall dormancy alfalfa) to accumulate soluble sugar and reduce MDA content, it is very likely to enhance the capacity of ease stress and osmotic adjustment.
To analyze the allelopathic effect of faba bean (Vicia faba) to white clover (Trifolium repens), alafalfa (Medicago sativa) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), the seed germination and seedling growth of 3 plant species were studied under different concentrations (1.0%, 0.5% and 0.1%) of faba bean plant water extract. The results showed that the water extract of faba bean could inhibite the germination potential and germination percentage, and also retarded the seedling growth. The inhibitory effect increased along with the concentration water extract of faba bean plant. In addition, the inhibition to germination percentage of alfalfa outweighed that of white clover and ryegrass. The allelopathic index (RI) of faba bean plant water extract of 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1.0% to germination percentage of alfalfa are -0.63, -4.03, and -16.01, respectively. The water extract of faba bean plants could also inhibite the radical length, plumule length, seedling dry weight of three receiver plants. This study showed that white clover, alfalfa and Italian ryegrass should be planted as far as possible away from faba bean to avoid allelopathic effect to seed germination by faba bean.
Seeds were collected from four Leguminous plant species (Sophora alopecuroide, Vicia tenuifolia, Glycyrrhizae glabrae, Medicago romanica) and fed to sheep, then recorded the seeds recovery rates and mean retention time after digestion. Determined the morphological and biological characteristics and germinability of seeds before and after digestion. The results showed that many seeds were excreted from sheep digestive tract, and excretion dynamic all fitted Gaussian model, excretion peak of S. alopecuroide, V. tenuifolia, G. glabrae appeared 24~36 h after digestion, but that of M. romanica appeared 18~30 h after digestion. Total recovery rate from feces of four plants species seeds was 14.513%(S. alopecuroide), 4.463%(V. tenuifolia), 10.811%(G. Glabrae), 4.608% (M. romanica), respectively. Mean retention time of S. alopecuroide, V. tenuifolia, G. glabrae and M. romanica was 36.3, 29.6, 31.2, 31.9 h, respectively. Seed weight decreased significantly (P<0.05) after digestion except for S. alopecuroide, seed shape index of all species decreased. The color of seed coat was deepened, seed surface texture was indistinct, and appeared wrinkles and obvious erosion after digested obviously. The germination rates of seed increased after digestion and the highest germination rate appeared in 24~48 h after digestion. Gastrointestinal tract of sheep can break hard seeds and provide a good pathway for seed dispersal.
In order to explain endophytic fungi affects internal physiological mechanisms of perennial ryegrass under different growth conditions. This study compared the physiological changes of infected endophytic fungi (E+), free endophytic fungi (E-) and mixed (M) three ryegrass (Lolium perenne) populations under natural field conditions and greenhouse with different water treatments.The results showed that endophyte significantly (P0.05) increased the total chlorophyll content, soluble sugar content, proline acid content, superoxide dismutase activity and catalase activity of ryegrass, but the malondialdehyde content and peroxidase activity were reduced when the water content was 15% FWC (drought) and 60% FWC(flood) of the soil saturated water content under greenhouse conditions; These three populations had no significant difference in physiological parameters at 45% FWC soil moisture content; This showed that the endophytic fungi increased the resistance of the host by improving the protection of enzyme activity under stress conditions. Under natural field conditions, the changes trend of chlorophyll content, soluble sugar content, proline content, superoxide dismutase activity and catalase activity in ryegrass showed that E+ M E-, malondialdehyde content and peroxidase activity showed that E- M E+. In conclusion, endophyte also can promote the growth of hosts by changing the internal physiological mechanisms under natural growth conditions.
In order to explore the effect of different ecological conditions on production performance of Festuca arundinacea cv. Qiancao No.5 in Guizhou, the difference of production, varieties resistance and nutritional quality between Qiancao No. 5 and F. arundinacea cv. Johnston were studied in five different ecological conditions of Guizhou for two consecutive years. The results showed that: 1) With the altitude increasing, the yield of Qiancao No.5 and Johnston showed a trend of decrease among 5 pilots, especially in Weining pilot that has the highest altitude were (highly) significant lower than the other pilots. And the yield performance of Qiancao No.5 and Johnston were better in Dushan and Guiyang pilots where altitude are relatively low. 2)The yield of Qiancao No. 5 were extremely significant (P<0.01) higher than that of Johnston in each pilot. Thus, the production performance of Qiancao No.5 were better than that of Johnston. 3)The comprehensive resistance of Qiancao No.5 was better than Johnston, and whose EE content was extremely significant (P<0.01) higher than that of Johnston on the nutritional quality. Therefore, Qiancao No.5 was worth promoting production in theory because of its higher production performance, better comprehensive resistance and nutritional value than those of Johnston.
The pot experiments were conducted to investigate effects of cadmium(Cd) stress on cadmium accumulation, physiological response and ultrastructure of Lolium multiflorum under different concentrations of Cd stress. The results showed that aboveground Cd content was less than the critical value (100 mg·kg-1) and underground Cd contents and the translocation factor was less than 1 which suggest that L. multiflorum is not Cd hyperaccumulator. The low concentrations (50 mg·kg-1) Cd stress stimulated the chlorophyll synthesis whereas high concentration Cd stress inhibited the chlorophyll synthesis. With Cd concentration increasing, the initial fluorescence (F0) gradually increased, the maximum fluorescence (Fm) firstly increased and then decreased, while photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ(Fv/Fm) and potential photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ (Fv/F0) gradually decreased, quantum yield (PSⅡ), electron transfer efficiency (ETR), photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), non photochemical quenching coefficient (qN) firstly increased and then decreased. The indices of physiological had different performance. With Cd concentration increasing, CAT activities firstly decreased and then increased and decreased again, however, superoxide dismutase activities firstly increased and then decreased and proline contents gradually increased. Compared with the control, POD activities increased, however, MDA contents had no significant increase which suggest that the leaves of L. multiflorum did not have high degree membrane lipid peroxidation. The high Cd concentration (300 mg·kg-1) injury ultrastructure of L. multiflorum which made part of the chloroplast grana lamellae hollowed, granum lamella dissoluted, mitochondrial cristae structure reduced and osmiophilic particles increased. This study indicated that L. multiflorum had stronger accumulated ability and physiological resistance to Cd stress and could be used in remidiation for Cd contaminated soil.
In order to clarify drought-resistant physiological characteristic of dominated grass vegetation in Jinsha River dry-hot valley. Soil water and drought-resistant physiological characteristic of Heteropogon contortus, Bothriochloa pertusa, Eulaliopsis binata, Paspalum natatu during seedling stage were studied in a potted experiment simulated natural drought condition. The results indicated that soil water content decreased significantly with the passing of time after irrigation. The soil water content was higher in potted B. pertusa than in others. Leaf water content of H. contortus and B. pertusa didn't reduce significantly with reduction of soil moisture(P>0.05). Leaf water content of E. binata and P. natatu reduced obviously at 30 d after irrigation(P<0.05). Proline accumulation of H. contortus, B. pertusa and P. natatu increased significantly at 15 d after irrigation(P<0.05). Proline accumulation of E. binata didn't increase significantly with reduction of soil moisture. Chlorophyll content of H. contortus and P. natatu didn't reduce significantly, Chlorophyll content of B. pertusa and E. binata reduced significantly with reduction of soil moisture. MDA content of B. pertusa and P. natatu didn't increase significantly, MDA content of H. contortus and E. binata increased significantly with reduction of soil moisture.
Trace elements are considered an important factor maintaining the production of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) pasture. A field experiment was carried out to determine the effects of Fe and Zn on the biomass and photosynthetic characteristics of alfalfa pasture. The results showed that application of Fe, Zn and mixture of Fe and Zn significantly increased the biomass of alfalfa pasture. Application of Fe or Zn didn't have significant effects on alfalfa height, but significantly increased the branches per plant, and the biomass of alfalfa pasture increased by 11.43%~12.89% and 6.31%~10.77% with Fe and Zn, respectively. Leaf stem ratio was the biggest when Zn was 15 kg·hm-2. Mixture of Fe and Zn didn't have significant effects on the height and branches per plant of alfalfa pasture, but improved the photosynthesis and increased the biomass of alfalfa pasture. The aboveground biomass and leaf stem ratio of alfalfa reached the maximum value when 9 kg·hm-2 Fe and 15 kg·hm-2 Zn was mixed, in which the biomass increased by 28.77% when compared with control.
In order to explore the influence of integration of irrigation water and fertilizer on the growth and quality of alfalfa under subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), the pot culture experiment simulated SDI and integration of water and silicon fertilizer was carried out with four treatments of silicon concentrations (0、0.01、0.02 and 0.03 g SiO2·kg-1 Soil) and nine duplicates for each treatment. The results showed that six growth indexes of alfalfa applied silicon fertilizer were higher than that of without silicon fertilizer. As for the quality of alfalfa hay, CP with 0.02 g·kg-1 silicon fertilizer was the highest, NDF with 0.02 g·kg-1 silicon fertilizer was the least. So the conclusion was that the integration of irrigation water and silicon fertilizer under subsurface drip irrigation can promote growth of alfalfa,and silicon fertilizer promote the early growth stage of alfalfa more than the late growth stage of alfalfa. Plants with 0.02 g·kg-1 Si fertilizer has higher quality than other plants.
The vegetation composition and interspecific relationship reflect the interaction relationship of spatial distribution pattern among plant populations and communities. We analyzed the important value, diversity index of species, biomass composition, the Jaccard association index and spearman rank correlation coefficient of main species growing on patch in Polygonum viviparum alpine meadow (P. viviparum patch) and control (CK), in order to reveal the ecological mechanism of succession process in Alpine meadow. The results indicated that number of species in P. viviparum patch was bigeer than that in CK, and the change pattern of each group was similar between important value and biomass composition. P. viviparum patch dominated mainly by forbs and grasses, accounting for 60.9% and 22.1% of the green biomass, respectively, and P. viviparum accounted for about one third of the green biomass; while it dominated mainly by grasses and forbs, accounting for 53.3% and 27.1% of the green biomass, respectively. In P. viviparum patch and CK, the significantly associated species-pairs accounted for 16.4% and 33.0% of their respective total species-pairs. The interspecific association of most species-pairs was not significant, and the independence between species-pairs was stronger. The ratios of negative and positive correlations were 0.83 and 1.40, respectively. Plant communities of P. viviparum patch was a stable stage. The formation of P. viviparum patch can strengthen community stable of alpine meadow.
A three year grazing trial was conducted in a two seasonal grazing (warm-season and cold-season) pasture in alpine meadow to study the variations of the plant community characteristics in the warm-season pasture and winter pasture. In the two seasonal grazing pasture, the aboveground biomass of plant communities decreased with grazing intensity increasing, and the aboveground biomass of graminoid had similar performance with plant community. The influence of grazing treatments in warm-season pasture was higher than that in winter pasture. The dominant plant species under no grazing, heavy grazing in cold-season pasture were Stipa purpurea and Kobresia humilis, whereas the dominant species under the other grazing treatments were S. purpurea and Thermopsis lanceolata. The diversity index and evenness index of the plant community in warm-season pasture firstly decreased and then increase with grazing intensity increasing, however, these two indices of the plant community in cold-season pasture increased with grazing intensity increasing. For warm-season pasture and cold-season pasture, the diversity index was the highest under heavy grazing intensity.
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of pine needles polysaccharide on growth performance and immune functions of broilers. Two hundred and forty one-day-old 815 broilers were randomly divided into 4 groups with 4 replicates in each group and 15 broilers in each replicate. The basal diets were supplemented with 0, 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.15% pine needles polysaccharide, respectively. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Growth performance, immune organomdocws indices, serum immune indices were determined in different periods. The results showed as follows: in the early stage (1-21 d), there was no significant difference among all groups in the growth performance (P>0.05). The concentration of IL2 in the 0.05% polysaccharide group was extremely significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.01), while pine needles polysaccharide took no effect on the TNFα, thymosin concentration and immune organ indices (P>0.05). In the later stage (22-42 d), ADG (average daily gain) of the broilers in the 0.10% polysaccharide group was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05). There was no difference in ABG (average body gain) and F/G (feed/gain) in all the groups (P>0.05). The concentration of TNFα in 0.05% polysaccharide group was significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05). In contrast, there was no significant difference in the IL2, thymosin concentration and immune organ indices in all groups (P>0.05). In conclusion, pine needles polysaccharide could improve the growth performance and immune functions of broilers. The adding amount of 0.05%~0.10% pine needles polysaccharide was appropriate.
Reed is a kind of better material for papermaking, in which the cellulose content directly affects the value of paper making,and the higher cellulose content is beneficial to the pulping, bleaching, and making the tightness and the transparency paper. A experiment was conducted to test the effect of different irrigation time and wastewater concentration (mg·L-1) of papermaking wastewater on the cellulose content in reed The results showed the cellulose content in reed stems and leaves was the highest when the concentration of wastewater irrigation was 300 mg·L-1, indicating that the cellulose content in reed stems of the germination period was 36.39%(300 mg·L-1)>35.39%(175 mg·L-1)>34.73%(50 mg·L-1)>33.45%(CK).The irrigation wastewater was the most beneficial to cellulose accumulation of reed when reed was during the fast growing period,for example, and the change quantity of the cellulose content in reed stems was 11.75% (rapid growth period) > 9.64% (heading) > 9.6% (maturity) > 7.68% (the leaf expansion period) > 3.64% (germination) when the wastewater concentration was 300 mg·L-1. The cellulose content in reed stems was higher than that in leaves, and they were 33.45% in stem and 22.11% in leaves when the wastewater concentration was 300 mg·L-1 in the germination period. The concentration(X) had the significant effect on the cellulose content of reed(Y),which would be described as equation:Y=0.01X+31.261%。