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Combined USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) with remote sensing, geographic information technologies, the distribution area of soil erosion was evaluated quantificationally in Gansu Province from 2000 to 2010. The results showed that the mainly erosion intensity was mild and moderate erosion in Gansu Province.The soil area with significant erosion was 24 872.9, 27 503.6 and 28 000.8 km2 in 2000, 2005 and 2010, respectively. The region of soil erosion mainly distributed in the southern part of Gansu Province, and the main soil erosion area distribute in forest and grassland. The largest soil erosion area distribute in forest,followed by grassland. The main landforms types of erosion are mountain land in Longnan, Gannan and loess plateau. The variation in soil erosion from 2000 to 2010 was also analyzed, it indicated that the reasons of soil erosion were not only by uneven distribution of precipitation, land-use types and landform types, but also irrational useage of ecological environment.
A pot experiment was carried out to determine the effect of drought stress on physiological indexes of six different Ophiopogon japonicas gerplasms (Baoji No.1, Baoji No.2, Beijing, Tianshui, Quxian No.1, Quxian No.2) by measuring relative water content of leaves, MDA (Malondialdehyde) content, free proline accumulation, and to comprehensively evaluate the drought resistance of six gerplasms. The results showed that Baoji No.1 and Beijing growth were inhibited with the period extension of drought stress, and the MDA content and the soluble protein content increased slightly. The leaf relative water content of Baoji No.2 sharply decreased from 73.3% to 58.1%. And the free proine accumulation increased, while SOD activity increased at first then decreased as the period of drought stress increased of six O. japonicas gerplasms. Drought resistance of six O. japonicus germplasms were in following order as Baoji No.1> Beijing > Tianshui > Quxian No.1 > Quxian No.2 > Baoji No.2.
The green is the most carefully managed lawn in the golf course, and it influences the playability and operation of the golf course. A simple and practical turf quality evaluation method can help to select scientific golf course maintenance strategy and improve the quality of the green. In order to provide targeted and improved suggestions about maintenance, a reasonable and simple turf quality evaluation method of the green was established by combining evaluation and scoring of 6 index factors (speed, hardness, mowing height, smoothness, ratio of disease area and appearance quality) based on the existing turf quality evaluation theory and standards. The score of greens was 67 in June which had low score of mainly managing and increased to 86 in October which indicated that the selection of maintenance based on this evaluation method was feasible and effective.
Grassland national parks established by the Chinese central government refers to the special protection, management and utilization grassland regions, which focus on conservation on integrity of one or a plurality of typical grassland ecosystem and providing the places for grassland eco-tourism, grassland science research and grassland environmental education. The better top-layer design was necessary to gear international standards and Chinese national condition for establishment of grassland national park. The establishment of grassland national park in China should consider five functions, which were protection, scientific research, education, tourism and regional development. According to environmentally carrying capacity, tourist numbers and construction of infrastructure facilities, grassland national park would be divided into strict protected area, environmental conservation area, tourist area and community participation area, and then it need to manage each division with different policies. At the same time, perfect legislation, management system, entering system, diversified investment mechanism and ecological compensation mechanism should be established as soon as possible to ensure the healthy operation of the grassland national park.
Soil samples of eight leguminous shrub plants were collected respectively from the experimental field, and the plants were Cassia tora, Dendrolobium triangulare, Amorpha fruticosa, Sophora davidii, Crotalaria pallida, Indigofera amblyantha, Cajanus cajan and Leucaena leucocephala which cultivated in Guiyang. Each soil sample was collected from each sites at three depths in the soil profile: 5-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm, respectively. This study mainly analyzed the infection rate, spore density, species and the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The results indicated that the eight leguminous shrub plants had a higher infection rate of AM fungi, the infection rate of AM fungi for C. pallid was the highest, up to 80.8%; Soil available phosphorus had significantly negative correlation with the infection rate(r=-0.733,P=0.039); The spores of AM fungi mainly distributed in the 5-20 cm soil layer, the spore density of C. pallida at the 5-10 cm layer was the highest;Spore density were significantly affected by the host plants and soil layers (F=100.497, P<0.001);The dominant species of AM fungi were Glomus liquidambaris and Acoaclospora delicate, which were detected in the soil of eight leguminous shrub plants. It was important to inoculate the dominant AM fungi for leguminous shrub plant in karst area and do other related researches about rhizobia. What's more, these researches had a great effect on improving animal husbandry production and restoring degraded ecosystem.
Arbuscular myucorrhizal fungi (AMF), grass endophyte and plant pathogens are widely distributed in agro-ecosystems. Both AMF and grass endophyte could establish symbiosis with plants which could improve plant nutrient uptake, water absorption and enhance plant stress resistance, such as disease and drought stress. AMF could reduce plant disease incidence and disease index by a series of mechanisms including competing invading sites, nutrition and space with plant pathogens, consuming plant pathogens energy, improving plant water and nutrition efficiency and adjusting plant disease related proteins. Grass endophyte also could decrease plant disease incidence and the possible mechanism including excreting antimicrobial metabolites, inducing plant resistance and inhibiting medium of disease spread. The interactions of AMF and grass endophyte depended on plants and fungi which are mutual or antagonism. Research and utilization of AMF and grass endophyte are very important for improving and maintaining agro-ecosystem productivity and sustainability.
An experiment was carried out to study the effects of organic fertilizer with different levels and potash and phosphate fertilizer applications on the yield, nutrient quality and economic efficiency of alfalfa in low-yield fields by a field experiment method,and the orthogonal design was adopted to study the effects of recovering alfalfa productivity in low-yield fields with different levels of fertilizer ratio(organic fertilizer, potash fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer). The results showed that the effects of organic fertilizer and quantitative chemical fertilizer combinging application on the hay yield, nutritional quality and economic efficiency of alfalfa low-yield fields were better than the organic fertilizer (P<0.05). Compared with the control (no fertilizer), all treatments significantly improved alfalfa hay yield in the low yield fields, it increased by 9%~325%. The crude protein content of all treatments were significantly higher than the control, crude protein of M3PK (23.04%) was highest. All treatments significantly reduced alfalfa neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) content in low-yield fields, the M3PK had lowest NDF (29.04%) and ADF (22.40%) content. In the orthogonal design of organic fertilizer and potash and phosphate fertilizer, organic fertilizer (30 000 kg·ha-1)+phosphate fertilizer (200 kg·ha-1)+potash fertilizer (100 kg·ha-1) was the best combination for alfalfa hayyield in low-yieldg fields. organic fertilizer (30 000 kg·ha-1)+phosphate fertilizer (600 kg·ha-1) +potash fertilizer (100 kg·ha-1) was the best combination for crude protein of alfalfa and organic fertilizer (30 000 kg·ha-1)+phosphate fertilizer (600 kg·ha-1)+potash fertilizer (50 kg·ha-1) was the best combination for NDF and ADF of alfalfa. To compare the cost of each treatment, M3P3K2 [organic fertilizer (30 000 kg·ha-1) +phosphate fertilizer (600 kg·ha-1)+potash fertilizer (100 kg·ha-1) ]ranked first in output, production, net income, with better economic benefits. Through comprehensive analysis M3P3K2 was more suitable to promote for the same low-yielding fields of alfalfa.
This study explored the effects of special organic fertilizer and mixture with chemical fertilizer on growth and drought tolerance of Haloxylon ammodendron seedling in three villages (Zhongsha, Wangzhuang and Changcheng) of Liangzhou District, Wuwei City. The results showed that: 1) The addition of special organic fertilizer significantly increased the branching number, layers, main stem diamer, plant height, crown diameter and fresh weight and dry weight of H. ammodendron, and it’s density firstly increased and then decreased along with time increasing. 2) The accumulation of shoots Na+ increased significantly by applying the special organic fertilizer in the Zhongsha; Special organic fertilizer + DAP + urea fertilizer treatment significantly increased shoot Na+ and K+ accumulation in Wangzhuang; Special organic fertilizer + DAP + urea fertilizer treatment significantly decreased shoot K+ accumulation in Changcheng. 3) The special organic fertilizer not only saved cost but also reduced the use of NPK fertilizers. The results showed that the special organic fertilizer could improve the growth and drought tolerance of H. ammodendron.
To study the response of the growth characteristics, biomass accumulation and biomass allocation pattern of Avena sativa to planting density and nutrient addition, a pot experiment was conducted with different planting densities and different levels of nitrogen addition. The results showed that the plant height, leaf length, panicle length, tiller number, root biomass, shoot biomass and reproductive biomass of A. sativa differed significantly (P<0.01) in the different density levels; as plant density increasing, reproductive biomass allocation increased, while belowground biomass (root) allocation decreased; shoot (leaf and stem) biomass allocation decreased along with plant density and then increased afterwards. Nutrient addition increased both vegetative and reproductive biomass. Nutrient addition had more effect on shoot biomass than root biomass. Reproductive biomass allocation: F1 (no nutrient addition) ≈ F2 (low nutrient addition) >F3 (medium nutrient addition) ≈ F4 (high nutrient addition), i.e. A. sativa exhibited high root biomass allocation and shoot biomass allocation in F1. In general, to obtain limited resources and optimal biomass allocation and to adapt to biotic (e.g. plant density) and physical (e.g. nitrogen addition) environment changes, there’s a trade-off between the below-ground biomass allocation and between vegetative-reproductive biomass allocation of A. sativa in different treatments.
Indigofera amblyantha Craib cv. 803 is a new legume forage shrub cultivar bred by Guizhou Institute of Prataculture. It was bred from wild I. amblyantha using multiple individual choice method for years. Based on the region adaptive evaluation on the growth and production performance of I. amblyantha cv. 803, the annual hay yield and seed yield of I. amblyantha cv. 803 were 12.74 and 1.92 t·ha-1, respectively, which were 13.75%, 16.56% and 15.70%, 11.60% higher than wild I. amblyantha and I. amblyantha cv. erxi, respectively; the crude protein content varied from 17.58% to 19.04%. It is an excellent leguminous forage shrub for grassland improvement and pasture planting in the tropical and the subtropical area. It is also a good choice to control soil and water loss in the karst mountain and push forward rocky desertification comprehensive management process and can be popularized widely.
In order to improve cold resistance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), three alfalfa cultivars (Gongnong1st(GN1st), the Wega7F and the WL319HQ ) and one meadow fescue (Festuca ovina) cultivar were used in this study. Soluble sugar, soluble protein, free proline and POD activity, and winter survival rate were measured at six different time. The results showed that the winter survival rate were different among different varieties, the average winter survival rate in mixture was more than 90%,better than monoculture,and the winter survival rate in the each field had significant difference between mixture and monoculture. Variations in soluble sugar, soluble protein, free proline contents increased along with temperature decrease in late fall, then decreased along with temperature increase in spring of the following year, soluble sugar content reached peaked in mid-November, and there were significant different between monoculture and mixture (P<0.05); soluble protein content reached peaked at the end of October, there were significant difference between monoculture and mixture (P<0.05), except WL319HQ; free proline content of WL319HQ reached peak at the end of October, other treatments reached peaked in mid-November, there were significant difference between monoculture and mixture in the same measure stage (P<0.05); the POD activity change showed up-down-up trend in the whole wintering stage, showed the highest activity in mid-November. Membership function analysis and winter survival rate showed the order of cold-resistance of alfalfa cultivars was GN1st+meadow fescue>GN1st>Wega7F+meadow fescue>Wega7>WL319HQ+meadow fescue>WL319HQ.
The effects of different cutting time and stubble height on hay yield and quality of Leymus chinensis meadow in the western of Jilin Province were studied during the period of August 1 to September 1 in 2014. The results showed that with the delay of cutting time, the coverage of community significantly increased (P<0.05), while the crude protein(CP) content of both community and L. chinensis significantly decreased, the change of root biomass of community in the soil depth of 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm the presented the process of increasing to decreasing, while the change of rhizome biomass of L. chinensis in 10-20 cm soil depth presented the process of decreasing. The hay yield of both community and L. chinensis were the highest when cutting time was August 15. The hay yield of community was the highest in stubble height of 8 cm, and that of L. chinensis was the highest in stubble height of 2 cm. The nutrient content of community and L. chinensis did not significantly change in stubble height of 2~8 cm. The highest yield and fine forage quality were achived when the cutting time was August 15 and stubble height at 2 cm in L. chinensis meadow in the western of Jilin Province.
The research on the phenology of the grassland community could help cognize the function of the grassland community, and provide the background data for the ecosystem assessment. In this study, the factors that affect the flowering phenology of alpine meadow in Gannan were discussed in four aspects: geographical environment, functional traits, pollination modes and phylogeny. The results showed that, at the community level, the flowering period covered the whole growing season, but there was still a peak flowering period in the whole species. The first flowering date, peak flowering date and duration of flowering time were different. Each species has unique pattern in flowering phenology; Plants height(P<0.001) and seed size(P=0.034) could significantly predict flowering time; Wind-pollinated species flowered earlier than insect-pollinated species(P=0.008);There was a negative correlation between flowering phenology overlaps and phylogenetic distances.
Seeds vigor is very important for agricultural production as the most basic materials which directly determine the success or failure of agricultural production. The studies of seed aging mechanism are always the hotspot and difficulty in seed science research. Mitochondria are important organelles in eukaryotic cells and play central roles in cell energy synthesis and metabolism, but they are also the main sources of reactive oxygen species which have been widely regarded as the major cause of seed ageing. During seed aging, the typical structure of mitochondria is gradually damaged, accompanied by the reduction of respiratory rate and oxidative phosphorylation efficiency and the change of antioxidant function. The present article mainly summarizes the changes of mitochondrial structure, respiration, antioxidant system during seed aging, and introduces the research progress of relationship between mitochondria changes and programmed cell death. The existing problems and future development of the relationship between seed aging and mitochondria are systematically reviewed which might provide a theoretical foundation for the mechanism study of mitochondria changes during seed ageing.
The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of adding oregano essential oil to the total mixed ration (TMR) on TMR temperature, dry matter intake, milk yield and incidence of hoof disease of lactating Holstein. Based on similar performance paired principle, 72 healthy Holstein dairy cattles were divided into two groups including trial group [milk production (29.88±8.55) kg·d-1, 0.028 kg·d-1 oregano essential oil in TMR] and control group [milk production (29.15±7.07) kg·d-1, no oregano essential oil in TMR]. The results showed that the temperature increasing rates of the trial group diet were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those of the control group which took place at 17:00 in June, 13:00 and 17:00 in July and August. The dry matter intake of trial group cattle was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05) in May, and very significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.01) in June, July and August. The milk yield of trial group cattle were very significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.01) in June, July, August and September. There was no significant difference between the trial group and control group for the incidence of hoof disease. In conclusion, an addition of 0.028 kg·head-1·d-1 oregano essential oil can reduce the temperature of TMR, and improve the palatability of TMR and the freshness of TMR, and increase dry matter intake and milk yield, especially for Holstein dairy cattle during the summer periods in the north when temperatures are high.
Field experiment with three grazing treatments, including continuous grazing, rotational grazing and forbidden grazing, was conducted to determine the effect of utilization pattern on rodent capture rate and its community diversity in the typical steppe of Hulun Buir from 2012 to 2014 by using live trap method. This study showed that capture rate of rodents was significantly higher in continuous grazing area than that in forbidden grazing area, and the grazing treatments altered the community structure of rodents, indicating that Citellus dauricus with 38.60% capture rate was dominant in continuous grazing area, and C. barabensis, and C. dauricus were dominant species in rotational grazing area, accounting for the 37.30% and 31.50% capture rate, respectively, and C. barabensis was dominant species in forbidden grazing area, with capture rate of 38.89%. This study also showed that the highest species richness and Shannon-Wiener index of rodent community were observed in continuous grazing area, and the highest evenness index of rodent community was found in rotational grazing area, while the lowest richness index, Shannon-Wiener index and evenness index of rodent community were observed in forbidden grazing area. The richness and Shannon-Wiener index in continuous grazing area were significantly higher than those in forbidden grazing area (P<0.05). These results indicated that the rotational grazing pattern encouraged grassland resources to effectively utilize and controlled the rodent troubles.
The study explores the differences of various types of herbsman’s decision-making and the internal mechanism leading to overgraze employing yield and profit maximization theory. A random sample survey was used to construct multi-choice model. The study also analyzes the impact factors including variables of family income, animal husbandry science and technology promotion, inputs of grassland management, industry behavior, and risk awareness on herbsman’s grazing decision-making. The empirical results showed that: 1)Herders’ production decisions were significantly affected by livestock price. However, due to the small price differences between the different quality livestock, herders pursued the breeding stock excessively instead of product’s quality, which led to the failure of grassland grazing policy. 2)The proportion of Yak rearing had maximum marginal effects on breeding stock. Herdsmen would reduce 5.684 unit of breeding stock if increased 1 unit rearing proportion. 3)The majority of herders tended to choose the economic benefits, and looking for ecological benefits simutaneously. Effective improving the regional ecological economic development strategy is the core of the future participation of herders in pastoral areas of Tibet ecological protection and economic development strategies.
As the biggest alfalfa consumption and trade country, the trade pattern and international competitiveness has experienced significant changes in China. The purpose of the study is to make a comparison of the international competitiveness of alfalfa trade among China, the US and Australia. The paper used three indexes including international market share, revealed comparative advantage index and trade competitiveness index to evaluate competitiveness based on the international trade data from 1994 to 2014. Results revealed the development tendency of trade competitiveness of China alfalfa forage products, and policy suggestions were promoted to increase the competitiveness.
With the rapid development of Chinese economy, upgrading of dietary structure has become an irreversible trend. The paper aimsto analyze the structural problems of Chinese agricultural system from the perspective of meat and grain production. H-P filter and comparative analysis areadopted to analyzethe stability and development trend of Chinese grain-consumption and non-grain-consumption meat production.The results indicated that the ratio among Chinese per capita consumption of grain,per capita consumption of non-grain-consumption meat and per capita consumption of grain-consumption meat had been changed from 70.53∶6.36∶1 to 9.37∶2.68∶1 during 1992 and 2012. This revealed that Chinese per capita consumption of grain was significantly reduced in people’s diet whereas the meat consumption gradually increased. Chinese meat production fluctuated in recent years. A substantial increase in meat production and a large increase in meat consumption, in turn, madean inevitable increase in food consumption. Grain production increased steadily but the potential for grain production had been gradually reduced since 2000. Therefore, under the practical needs of the adjustment of Chinese residents’ dietary structure, the conflict between the rising demand of meat and the decreasing supply potential of grain gradually stand out, which makes the reduced demand for grain becomes necessary. Under the pressure of huge grain demand, increasing the production of non-grain-consumption mutton and beef, developing pastoral agriculture become optional ways.
Ramie (Boehmeria nivea) is a perennial herbaceous plant belonging to Boehmeria Genus of Urticaceae family. The nutritional value of ramie is similar to that of alfalfa. The tender stems and leaves of ramie are of abundant nutrition, crude protein is more that 19% and rich in vitamins and amino acids. Ramie can grow well in hot rainy season in south China and its biomass yield is much higher than that of alfalfa. These characteristics make ramie a good feedstuff for vegetable protein. This paper reviewed the research progress of ramie feeding including ramie forage resources, cultivation techniques, yields, nutritional quality and animal feeding. Meanwhile, some suggestions regarding the further development and utilization of ramie for forage were proposed.