Display Mode： |
A large area of natural grasslands has been deteriorated in China primarily because of over-grazing and climate changes. Establishing a small area of cultivated pasture with high quality and productivity of forage grass is a key to protect and restore the degraded natural grasslands. The cultivated pasture can also supply high quality of forage grass for the sustainable development of grass-based animal husbandry. We refer to this as “Small vs. Large Area” Principle of the grassland protection and utilization, and test it using data of pratacultural experiments. We also make some recommendations on scientific and technological issues of China’s pratacultural development.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) widely distributes in the cropland system, and plays an important role in soil structure maintenance and nutrition absorption. Agriculture practices such as tillage, fertilizer and crop rotation can easily affected AM fungi. In the present study, soil samples from different agricultural farming practices, including tillage (T), no-tillage (NT), tillage + stubble return (TS) and no-tillage + stubble return (NTS) in the field of the Loess Plateau were collected in summer and winter to analysis the biodiversity of AMF. The results showed that 12 AM fungal species belonging to 4 genera were isolated and identified in summer soil samples. Specifically, there were 8 Glomus, 1 Diversispora, 2 Gigaspora, 1 Scutellospora species. Eleven AM fungal species belonging to 3 genera were isolated and identified in winter soil samples and all these 11 AM fungal species had been present in soil samples. Glomus was the most dominant genera across the treatments and G. aggregatum, G. caledonium and G. gigantea were the most dominant species both in summer and winter soils of the all treatments. AM fungi diversity decreased in the following order NT>NTS>TS>T. Farming practices and season could have significant impacts on AMF diversity.
In this research, the portable spectrometer was used to measure the spectral characteristics of 9 plants on the northern slope of the Tianshan mountains middle Seriphidium transiliense desert grassland. The first derivative, smoothed, normalization, and Rr-Rn of spectral characteristics were analyzed to identify and establish discriminant model for different plants. The results showed that the original spectral reflectance of different plants have some differences in specific bands, a first derivative can accurate extract the red edge position of plant characteristic parameters, and smooth process have an important role in removing noise, and the normalization in favor of the spectral characteristics of plants. However, difficult exists by using Rr-Rn in terms of the grass plants distinction. Using the Rn, REP, Rg, MSAVI, CRAI five spectral indies, the established discriminant model can discriminant of nine kinds of plants and the accuracy reached 90.5%.
In the present study, the response of biomass allocation of Pedicularis kansuensis and the phenology of P. kansuensis and its hosts to the snow cover changes with the level ±21.54 % for annual average snowfall depth in winter of alpine grassland in Bayinbuluke of Xinjiang were study to analyze their competition and reproductive strategies. Our results showed that the snow cover made the growing season of P. kansuensis and hosts having no consistent change law compared to CK. The flowering phenology of P. kansuensis and most typical hosts advanced under snow cover, which made their autumn phenology postponed. The beginning time of phenology period of P. kansuensis keep ahead of hosts from productive phase to seed dispersal. The reproductive allocation and root to shoot ratio of P. kansuensis significantly decreased(P<0.05). The plant height, canopy, column height and the size of lateral root of P. kansuensis under snow cover addition had significant difference with CK(P<0.05), however, except with lateral root, plants had no significant difference after snow cover removed. Totally, the same phenology stages of P. kansuensis and its hosts had certain differentiation after snow cover change, while the biomass allocation and individual morphology were more sensitive to snow cover which reduced reproductive investment and enhanced nutrient investment under snow cover change
The present study dealt with the effect of the edible fungus residue on the ecological characteristics of microorganism fatty acids in the rhizosphere of ryegrass. The phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) of the soil samples were detected by GC of Agilent 6890N. Pattern, content and structure of the microbial PLFAs in ryegrass rhizosphere were evaluated. The results showed that the types and content of microbial PLFAs in the rhizosphere of ryegrass adding edible fungus residue were higher than those in the control. In further, the microbial population structure could be changed due to improving the growth of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes by the treatments with adding edible fungus residue. The edible fungus residue could increase the microbial community diversity in the soil, in which, the enhancement of Shannon-Wiener index of community dominance, Simpson index of community abundance and Pielou index of uniformity was revealed. It was guessed that the quality of rhizosphere soil could be improved by adding edible fungus residue.
Sphaerophysa salsula is an important legume distributed in northwestern China. In order to better understand the diversity and phylogeny of endophytic bacteria collected from nodules of Swainsonia salsula in different regions of northwestern China, genetic diversity of these isolated endophytic bacteria was estimated using 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP and 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed that these 115 bacteria strains had 28 genetic types which were further identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. These strains belonged to the following genera: Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Paracoccus, Sphingomonas, Inquilinus, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Streptomyces, Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Staphylococcus, Bacillus. These results demonstrated that endophytic bacteria in nodule had rich genetic diversity in S. salsula.
Currently, the studies of soil total carbon of grassland are mainly focused on traditional statistical analysis based on survey data and spatial analysis of soil total carbon are limited. The present study attempted to apply multi-source data including field survey soil total carbon data, remote sensing data and meteorological data obtained from 146 grassland sampling plots by using geostatistics to study the spatial analysis of soil total carbon data in the Ili region, located at the northwest margin of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The results show that there was a significant correlation between the total carbon content from various depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40 cm and the mean of four soil depths) and altitude, average annual temperature, annual precipitation, ≥10 ℃ annual accumulated temperature, humidity and NDVI. A comprehensive evaluation model was established using this six ecological factors, and the spatial distribution pattern of grassland soil total carbon content was inversed with 1 km spatial resolution. The soil total carbon content in 0-40 cm depth was 4.2519% and it decreased with the increase of soil depth. The results indicated that the spatial distribution of soil total carbon content in different depths significantly varied in areas of Ili. The total carbon content in high altitude region was higher than that of the river valley. The highest total carbon content was distributed on northern slopes of the Southern Tianshan mountains and southern slopes of Boluokenu mountains, and the lowest was found in intensive human activity areas, distributed in both sides of Ili river and interchange of the Teks River and the Ili River. The results indicated that the spatial distribution of soil total carbon content was correlated with the types of grassland in Ili, soil total carbon content significantly influenced by human activities, i.e. overgrazing, blind land reclamation.
In Qinghai-Tibet Plateau grassland, human disturbances are becoming more and more strongly, especially with the increase of grazing intensity, the grassland ecosystems are in face of seriously degradation. In order to analysis the impacts of yak grazing on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau alpine meadow ecosystem and to determine the appropriate yak grazing intensity, four different grazing intensities and one control treatment were set up in Hongyuan County located in eastern part of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The soil water content and soil bulk density, plant biomass and coverage, the weight increase rate of yak were determined after one growing season. The results showed that, with the increasing of yak grazing intensity, the soil water content decreased and the soil bulk density did not change. The above-ground and below-ground biomass firstly increased then decreased with the increasing of yak grazing intensity, and the Poaceae and Cyperaceae biomass showed the same pattern as the total biomass, but the fabaceae and others grass biomass showed no significant difference. The weight increase rate of yak slowed with the increasing of yak grazing intensity. The combined results indicated that the appropriate yak grazing intensity was between 1.016~1.284 head·ha-1 in this region. The study can provide theoretical basis for the restoration of the degraded alpine grassland and the ecological livestock reducing engineering programs in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
Grassland enclosure and establishing are important measures to recovery and reclamation of degraded grassland vegetation. Accurate assessment of dynamics of soil carbon and nitrogen storage has important ecological significance. The present study focuses on dynamic of organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (STN) in deep soil (0-500 cm) in 30 years enclosure grassland and overgrazing grassland in semi-arid region of Guyuan city, Ningxia Province. The results showed that SOC content in 0-440 cm soil of 30 years enclosure grassland was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that in overgrazing grassland. There was no critical change layer of SOC in enclosure grassland, however, there was critical change layer of SOC located at 130 cm soil layer in overgrazing grassland. There was critical change layer of STN located at 130 cm soil layer in both enclosure and overgrazing grassland. The accumulation of STN occurred in 60-320 cm soil layers with very less accumulation topsoil layers (0-60 cm) and deeper layers (>320 cm). SOC storage in 30 years enclosure grassland was stable in 340-500 cm depth soil with 11.5 mg·hm-2 of each 20 cm soil layers, however, SOC storage in overgrazing grassland was stable in 140-500 cm depth soil with 8 mg·hm-2 of each 20 cm soil layers. SOC and STN storage in 0-100 cm soil in 30 years enclosure grassland accounted for 44.8% and 27.2% of total SOC and STN storage in 0-500 cm soil, respectively, those in 0-200 cm soil accounted for 72.2% and 38.5%, respectively, those in 0-300 cm accounted for 83.5% and 64%, respectively, those in 0-400 cm accounted for 92.2% and 80.1%, respectively. These results showed that there was much carbon and nitrogen information in the deep soil which was necessary to study dynamic of SOC and STN in the deep soil.
Wide ornamental grass resources in Liaoning Province were investigated during 2010-2014, and the ornamental value was evaluated by grey-correlation analysis to screen the excellent germplasm resources. The results showed that there were 103 ornamental-grass species in total, belonging to 49 genera and 10 families, mainly in Gramineae, Iridaceae, Cyperaceae. They accounted for 56.7%, 16.3% and 12.5%, respectively. These ornamental grasses are widespread in Liaoning Province, especially in hillside area and prairie shrubland, where they accounted for 52.9%; 58.7% have drought tolerance, 50.0% belong to medium-size, 22.0% belong to good-size, 51.0% have green leaf. The ornamental value of 103 ornamental grass resources was evaluated by grey-correlation analysis based on the full investigation and research of ornamental grass resources in Liaoning Province, and with the characters of ornamental value, height, color of leaf and inflorescence. The number, habitats and ornamental characteristics of ornamental grasses had high level of diversity. The comprehensive evaluation results showed that the correlation degree with ideal species of 37 in the 103 ornamental grasses was higher than 0.7; Miscanthus purpurascens, Stipa grandis, Arundinella hirta, Bromus inermis, Setaria faberii, Iris ruthenica var. nana, I. mandshurica, I. tigridia, I. uniflora, I. dichotoma, I. tenuifolia had better ornamental effects and their correlation degree with ideal species were higher than 0.8, they can be used for landscaping directly.
In the present study, the full length cDNA of PutSnRK2 gene was cloned from the cDNA library of Puccinellia tenuiflora under the NaHCO3 stress. PutSnRK2 gene contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 077 bp, encodes 358 deduced amino acid residues (AARs) with a calculated molecular mass of 41.1 kDa and predicted pI of 5.63. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the expression of PutSnRK2 gene was significantly induced (P<0.05) in leaves and roots of the P. tenuiflora under stress of NaHCO3, NaCl, ABA, and PEG. At the same time, the prokaryotic expression plasmid of pGEX-6p-3-PutSnRK2 was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and GST-PutSnRK2 fusion protein was induced and purified. These results provide foundation for further analyzing the activity of PutSnRK2 and protein-protein interaction.
In order to induce callus, the experiment was conducted to study the sterilization effects of NaClO (or Antiformin) and HgCl2 on stems respectively by using Lvzhou No.3 as materials. We took the sterile stems, germs and young leaves derived from the sterile stems as explants, different concentrations of hormones and 1.0 g·L-1 PVP were used for callus induction. The results showed that the best sterilization effect is to use 0.1% HgCl2 to sterilize for 18 min and the pollution rate was 13%. While NaClO cannot be sterilized effectively, and it also has toxic effect on stem segment. The culture mediums with best induction effect were MS+0.5 g·L-1 6-BA, 1.0 g·L-1 PVP and 3.0 g·L-1 2,4-D. In three kinds of explants, the order of induction rate was germs>stems>young leaves. 1.0 g·L-1 PVP can be used to promote the induction rate of buds significantly, making 100% callus formation.
In order to extend the excellent clones of Lespedeza formosa f. albiflora, the effects of different naphthylacetic acid (NAA) concentrations, cuttage media, stem types, cuttage time were studied using the hard stem of L. formosa f. albiflora as test materials. The results showed that 400 mg·L-1 naphthylacetic acid (NAA) was suitable for cutting when the concentrations were between 100~400 mg·L-1; compared to perlite and peat, the optimal cuttage media was sand, the root rate could reach to 62.22%, the average root length was 7.53 cm, the average root number was 6.83, and this cutting seedlings were advantageous to improve the survival rate of late transplanting. The branch of two-age-year-old cutting could not rooted, the root rate was 0. The green branch or semi-woody branch of one-age cutting could have a better rooting effect. The cutting seedling could carried out from May to September, the best cuttage time comprehensively was in July.
Viola philippica has dimorphic seeds which come from chasmogamous flowers and cleistogamous flowers. Based on the morphology observation of CH and CL seed, we compared the germination characteristics of the two types of seeds at different temperatures, light conditions and the storage time. The results showed that: 1) The length, width and weight of CL seeds were significantly lighter (P<0.05) than CH seeds. 2) The optimum germination temperatures of CH and CL seeds were 20 ℃, and both the germination rates were above 95%. Both of the two types of seeds did not germinate at a low temperature (10 ℃), but germination rate of CH seeds was significantly lower (P<0.05) than CL seeds at a high temperature (30 ℃). As to the moderate temperature (15-25 ℃), the germination rates of CH and CL seeds did not differ significant(P>0.05). 3) CH seeds were sensitive to light and its germination rate would be inhibited in the dark (P<0.01), but the germination rate of CL seeds had no significantly difference at 12 h light and full dark conditions(P>0.05). 4) Compared with the control, the germination rates of CH and CL seeds significantly decreased after 210 d and 510 d storage (P<0.05), respectively. CH seeds maturing in the spring can quickly germinate. CL seeds germinated later in the season than CH seeds. The part of CL seeds could germinate, another part became transient soil seed bank and could germinate next spring. The differences in germination characteristics between dimorphic seeds of V. philippica improved the species’ fitness to heterogeneous habitats.
Seed germination of Agropyron cristatum and its physiological and biochemical characteristics during germination were studied to understand the effects of the 10-month storage condition on the seed vigor. The results revealed that storage temperature and moisture content had extremely significant effects on the germination rate, root and bud lengths of A. cristatum(P<0.01), while MDA was not significant. The greatest seed germination rate of A. cristatum was 79.8% under the storage temperature of -15 ℃ with 6% of seed moisture content. No germination occurred at all when the seeds were stored at the temperature of 20 ℃ with 12% moisture content in the seeds. The greatest root length of A. cristatum was observed under the storage temperature of 4 ℃ with 6% of seed moisture content; The greatest bud length was observed under the storage temperature of -15 ℃ with 12% of seed moisture content. The shortest root and bud lengths of A. cristatum was observed under the storage temperature of 20 ℃ with 6% of seed moisture content. The greatest conductivity of A. cristatum was observed under the storage temperature of 20 ℃ with 12% of seed moisture content. While the least conductivity was observed under the storage temperature of 4 ℃ with 4% of seed moisture content(P<0.01). By analyzing the relationship between different vigor indexes of A. cristatum, we found that the relationship between root length and bud length showed extremely significant correlation(P<0.01). The relationship between root length and conductivity showed significant correlation(P<0.05), while other indexes were not significant. Taking all the vitality indexes into account, the optimum moisture content of A. cristatum was 4%~6%, the optimum storage temperature was -15~4 ℃.
To predict forage yield and nutritional quality of spring wheat(Triticum aestivum), oat(Avena sativa) and rye(Secale cereale), the field experiment was conducted in Jingtai oasis and hay yield. Plant height, tiller density, crude protein, crude fat, NDF, ADF, crude ash and water soluble carbohydrate were determined in 2010, then the relationships among these indicators were analyzed. Under condition of hay harvest of three crops, there were significant relationship among growth indicators (plant height, tiller density, hay yield) and five nutritional indicators (except soluble carbohydrates). Undersimulated grazing, there were no significant relationships between plant height and nutritional indicators for both spring wheat and rye, but there were significant relationships between tiller density and nutritional indices for oats and rye. In terms of the above, multi-variable regression equations were established to predict the nutritional quality on basis of tiller density and forage yield, which were considerably accurate while being compared with the observed values.
Rumex has the characteristics of higher cold resistance, salt tolerance and nutritional value, it's widely used in animal husbandry. The EM bio-organic fertilizer can increase the yield and quality of crops, andimprove soil. Therefore, the promotion of EM biological organic fertilizer on Rumex planting iseconomically important. We used the Russian Rumex species(Щавель Чемпион)and domestic varieties Rumex K-1 as material, spraying EM biological organic fertilizer in Rumex planting area to investigate the effects of organic manure on forage agronomic characteristics and quality. The results indicated that EM microbial bio-organic fertilizer can effectively promote the growth and development of Rumex, It significantly improved the economic benefit of forage grass. EM biological organic fertilizer applied can significantly improve the chlorophyll content of the leaves in Rumex leaf cluster period, but effect on tannin content was not significant. The quality of imported EM bacteria could be improved significantly by using the organic fertilizer. These results indicated that the biological organic fertilizer could not only improve the agronomic characteristics of the pasture, but also improve the quality of the EM during the cultivation of Rumex.
Sand burial is an important way to change seedling growth in sand land. Nitraria tangutorum is one of the main constructive plants in desert areas. In order to investigate the impacts of sand burial on seedling growth and biomass allocation, the plant propagation were cut successfully and grown in testing grounds, which were buried by sand with four sand-burial depths(0, 5, 10 and 15 cm) for two months. The growth of the seedlings in different sand-burial and biomass were examined once a month for three months. The results showed that 1) At the mid-period and late-period of the experiment, the basal diameter, mean diameter of root and total root length of N. tangutorum seedlings increased more significantly with light and moderate sand burial than other treaments. 2) At the early-period and mid-period of the experiment, the primary branch of stem and leaf mass increased more significantly in 0 cm sand-burying than other treatments, while the relative growth rate and net assimilation rate were mostly higher than other treatments. 3) Compared to other treaments, light sand burial had a marked influence upon the secondary branch, which could significantly increase the stem and leaf mass, number of leaves and total leaf area of N. tangutorum. 4) The relative growth rate and net assimilation rate of N. tangutorum seedlings were mostly lower in 15cm sand-burying than in other three treatments, suggesting that light sand burial can promote the growth of N. tangutorum seedlings, while heavy and severe sand burial injure the plant growth seriously. N. tangutorum, as a clonal plant of stem-layering, should be buried with sand lightly in order to promote the growth of branches and the ablity of exual reproduction when used for fixing mobile sand.
Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) is an annual forage grass widely grown in southern China, and it plays an important role in modern prataculture and animal husbandry. In this study, agronomic traits of 13 Italian ryegrass materials were measured in 3 critical growth periods to identify the primary indexes of forage yield. The results showed that variations in main agronomic traits of Italian ryegrass were abundant and its coefficient of variation ranged from 4.37% to 27.91%. The fresh weight per plant had significant correlation with width of inflorescence, number of internode, number of tillers, and crown diameter; Meanwhile, the dry weight per plant had significant correlation with natural height, straighten height, length of internode, length of flag leaf, internode diameter, width of second leaf and width of flag leaf. Principal component analysis, regression analysis and path analysis showed that the key factor was plant-type factor affecting fresh weight per plant, expressed by number of tillers and crown diameter. On the other hand, leaf shape factor was key factor affecting dry weight per plant, concretely expressed as the difference of length and width of flag leaf and second leaf.
Experiments was conducted by normal conditions, mild drought stress, severe drought stress and different concentrations of silicon treatment on Saponaria officinalis, and photosynthetic parameters and chlorophyll content of leaves were determined. The photosynthetic curve was fitted, and the photoresponse parameters under various treatments were obtained. The results showed that the light compensation point (LCP) of S. officinalis leaves decreased, and the rest of the photosynthetic physiological indexes increased by silicon application under normal condition; The net photosynthetic rate(Pn), chlorophyll content, maximum net photosynthetic rate(Amax), dark respiration rate(Rd), light saturation point (LSP) and apparent quantum efficiency(AQY) of S. officinalis leaves increased, and stomatal conductance(Gs), transpiration rate(Tr) and LCP decreased by silicon application under mild and severe drought stress. Notably, 0.3, 0.4 g SiO2·kg-1 were most effective. The results indicated that the application of silicon could enhance the photosynthesis and respiration of the S. officinalis, so as to make better use of the light energy and regulate the metabolism and significantly alleviate the damage caused by the drought.
In the present study, the degraded succession series of Stipa purpurea in alpine grassland was classified using system clustering analysis in Yourdusi Bayanbulak, and grassland plant community structures with different degraded level were compared. With the increase of the grassland degradation succession degree, the plants community structure and the dominant position of the main plants obviously changed and the height, coverage, density and the above ground biomass of S. purpurea decreased. The degradation succession model of alpine grassland in Bayanbulak were S. purpurea+Koeleria→Leymus+Potentilla→Carex+Pedicularis→Koeleria+Potentilla. The important value of S. purpurea was as an important index of grassland degradation in Yourdusi Bayanbulak. The similarity between samples from same level was higher while similarity between samples from different levels was lower. Clustering results consistent with various similarity comparison results.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of milk replacer on rumen fermentation and plasma biochemical indices of Qianbeima adult goats based on our previous study revealing that milk replacer can improve growth performance of Qianbeima lambs. Six healthy goats were assigned to 33 Latin square design according to their age and body weight: control, treatment 1, and treatment 2. The goats in control were fed basal diet, while treatment 1 and treatment 2 were supplemented with 2.5%, 5% milk replacer, respectively. Experimental last 45 days including 3 phases with 14-day adaptation and 1-day sampling duration for each phase. The results showed that: 1) Feeding of nutritional fortifier had no significant difference (P0.05) for ruminal pH and MCP levels. The NH3-N concentration was found to be the lowest in treatment 1, which was significantly decreased than control (P0.05). 2) Ruminal activities of microcrystalline cellulose, cellobiase, and xylanase were unaffected for 3 treatments (P0.05), however, carboxymethyl cellulose level for treatment 1 and treatment 2 was significantly higher than control (P0.05). 3) Ruminal levels of acetic acid, propionate, butyrate, and total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) in treatment 1 and 2 were higher than control (P0.05); while A/P was decreased (P0.05). 4) Treatment 2 had a decreased (P0.05) plasma Glu level than treatment 1 and a decreased TG level than control. The other plasma metabolites (UN, TP, Alb, TC, and Cr) were unaltered by nutritional fortifier addition (P0.05). It was suggested that milk replacer could improve rumen fermentation parameters, cellulose activity, VFA levels, and some plasma metabolites for goats. Overall, addition of 5% level milk replacer was recommended in the practice.
This study aimed to use linear programming method for forage formulation optimization by dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), combined net energy (NEmf), beef energy unit (RND) of forage and beef nutritional needs in spring, summer, autumn and winter. Forage formulation optimization in spring including oats, straw, ryegrass and maize with their proportions of dry matter were 47.26%, 36.55%, 13.45% and 2.74% respectively, and Guimu 1 grassy, corn and rice straw in summer with dry matter proportions of 91.25%, 8.49% and 0.26% respectively , and Guimu 1 grassy, corn and sweet potato in autumn by proportions of 89.30%, 9.01% and 1.70% respectively, and oats, rice straw, sweet potato, ryegrass and maize in winter by proportions of 50.26%, 25.59%, 17.49%, 5.61% and 1.04% respectively. There was a state of basically flat between input and output of Cd in beef breeding system by monitoring the Cd contents in forage, drinking water, dung and beef and calculating the input and output dynamic, and the single head beef’s Cd annual input was 753.70 mg while the output was 747.02 mg. In the Cd annual input of beef breeding system, the annual total Cd accumulation contribution rate of beef’s drinking water and fodder additives were 0.05% and 4.56% respectively, while the contribution rate of beef’s forage was 95.39%. The Cd annual total output contribution rates of beef meat and beef urine were 0.46% and 0.06% respectively, while the contribution rate of beef dung was 99.48%. The main ways to reduce the Cd input and increase the Cd output in farming system were to control the Cd content of forage and regulate the Cd output of dung. The net output of Cd per beef in this beef breeding system was 226.55 mg·head-1, accounting for 30.33% of Cd total output. Therefore, the beef breeding system of “forage-beef-dung-forage” building at clean territory could achieve the purpose of forage self sufficient and beef wastes security consumptive, and it ensured the quality of beef forage and beef meat and the system operating in cycle in the low Cd level.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of applying single or multiple lactic acid bacteria (LAB) at ensiling on the fermentation quality and protein fractions of alfalfa (Medicago sativa). The protein fractions of alfalfa silage were calculated by Cornell net carbohydrate and protein system (CNCPS). The silage material was the first-cut alfalfa (425.6 g DM·kg-1 fresh herbage) harvested at budding stage. Forage was packed into 21 laboratory silos and ensiled for 40 days. The results showed that all treatments with LAB had significantly lower (P<0.05) concentration of NH3-N than untreated group, and butyric acid was not detected in these treatments. The treatment of single-strain (Lactobacillus plantarum) at 1×107 cfu·g-1 fresh herbage had the lowest concentration of NH3-N and the highest concentration of lactic acid. Silages treated with lactic acid bacteria (other than multi-strains at 1×105 cfu·g-1 fresh herbage) characterized by lower (P<0.05) pH value. There was no (P>0.05) treatment effect on the content of crude protein. The content of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) in silages with all additives of LAB was reduced when compared with untreated, and silages treated with compound LAB characterized by lower (P<0.05) NPN. Additives with single and multi-strains of LAB both resulted in alfalfa silage with low concentration of non-protein nitrogen (PA), high concentration of immediately degraded protein (PB1) and intermediately degraded protein (PB2). The concentration of true protein (PB) in silage with multi-strains of LAB was higher (P<0.05) than untreated. Therefore, high concentration of L. plantarum was beneficial to improve the fermentation quality of alfalfa, and the proteolysis, in some extent, could be inhibited by multiple LAB at ensiling.
The present study took source regions of the two rivers (Irtysh River and Ulungur River) in Altai Mountain as the study area to analyze the influence of different artificial measures including different moisturing measures combined with soil measures and biological measures on restoration of abandoned field in the gold mining area. The results showed that the plant diversity of abandoned mining areas was 96.67% less than that of the original grassland. After artificial irrigation, the number of species increased 21.7 times, and the soil-stone ratio increased 4.5 times. Drip irrigation, flood irrigation, sprinkler irrigation three measures. The flood irrigation measures was the best for soil recovery compared with drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation which improved soil-stone ratio by 38.0% and 33.1% after soil covering, improved soil-stone ratio by 21.7% and 11.4% after sheep manure supplement, improved soil-stone ratio by 8.9% and 8.5% after sowing, improved soil-stone ratio by 24.2% and 2.9% after of planting black currant. The cost of drip irrigation was higher than that of sprinkling irrigation which was also higher than that of flood irrigation. The flood irrigation was restricted by geographical position, and the sprinkling irrigation was widely applicable. This study provided a theoretical basis for ecological restoration of abandoned mining areas in other areas.
The aim of the paper is to analyze the impact factors on herdsman’s commissioned grazing behavior using descriptive statistics and ordered Logistic regression model. 442 households from Xilingol League and Hulunbuir City in Inner Mongolia were questioned. The empirical results showed that the age of the head of the household, animal husbandry income proportion of total family household income, whether banning grazing, and the stocking rate per unit area had significantly positive impact on herdsman’s commissioned grazing behavior. Whereas variables associating with grazing experience, the number of family labor, the value of fixed assets, and whether grassing negatively affected herdsman’s commissioned grazing behavior. Policy suggestions such as specifying commissioned grazing behavior, improving ways of grazing commission are promoted to achieve effective management of grassland. Further, the findings might be useful for the institutional decision-making of government to develop and improve the grassland management regulations and policies.
To explore biological protection pattern of western slop, the TBS technology was introduced to manage slop biological protection at Gongguoqiao hydropower station in Yunnan, which presented TBS process and the choice of slop protection plant. Meanwhile, vegetation growth survey was followed after greening for several years, which proved that TBS technology can achieve the desired effect and has promotional value if reasonable species were selected.
“Herbage and turf grass breeding” is one of core courses in the undergraduate education of pratacultural science. In order to meet the demands of pratacultural science development, the theory and practical teaching and evaluation system of “herbage and turf grass breeding” were innovated to cultivate talents with practical ability and inovation spirit in the field of pratacultural science. The teaching practice has proved that these reforming measures highlighted the dominant position of students in learning, improved students learning initiative,practical ability and teaching quality which promoted “Herbage and turf grass breeding” to the higher level.