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2015 Vol.32(12)

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2015, 9(12): 0-.
[Abstract](1090) [PDF 80760KB](416)
Orginal Article
Effects of covering white clover with different thickness in apple orchard on furrow soil fertility
Jian-cun KOU, Wen-quan YANG, Jin-long LI, Yuan LI, Hong-yang ZHAO, Ming-yu HAN
2015, 9(12): 1933-1939. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0255
[Abstract](726) [FullText HTML] (37) [PDF 1460KB](507)
In order to understand the effect of covering white clover on soil fertility in the apple orchard, the fresh white clover was covered in the furrow between apple trees rows. The thickness of white clover was 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm, respectively. The uncovered furrow was taken as the control. The soil fertility of the furrow was determined when white clover was decomposed for six months. The results showed that compared with the control, the fertility of 0-20 cm soil of the treatments, including the organic matter content, total and available N, P and K, all increased. Furthermore, fertility of 0-10 cm soil increased much more than that of 10-20 cm. When the thickness of cover white clover was less than 15 cm, the soil fertility went up as the thickness increased. However, when it reached 20 cm, the content of organic matter, total N and P, available P and K was lower than that of treatment with 15 cm. Conclusively, covering white clover can improve the fertility of apple orchard. And the positive effect is relative to thickness of covering white clover and soil depth. Covering 15 cm white clover has the best effect on soil fertility in six months.
Effects of interplanting Vigna sinensis on soil water stable aggregate of Citrus reticulata orchard in purplish soil erosion region
Zhen-mei ZHONG, Jie ZHAN, Zhen-wu LI, Zhao-yang YING
2015, 9(12): 1940-1944. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0095
[Abstract](799) [FullText HTML] (80) [PDF 1406KB](385)
It is common issues that developing of orchard in mountain easily leads to the destruction of soil structure and fertility in purple soil area. In this study, we analyze the effect of interplanting Vigna sinensis on the soil fertility and water stable aggregate of citrus orchard in purple soil region. The results indicated that interplanting V. sinensis on citrus orchard was conductive to the improvement of soil fertility, significantly (P<0.05) increased by 63.64% of total nitrogen, 20.90% of total phosphours, 93.43% of organic matters and 166.57% of available K compared to clean tillage, respectively. Meanwhile, interplanting V. sinensis on citrus orchard was benefit to the improvement of soil structure and stability of water stable aggregates, significantly increasing proportion of >5 mm and 2~5 mm water stable aggregate. 53.61% of soil water stable aggregates of citrus orchard interpreted by V. sinensis were >0.25 mm of size compared to clean tillage. Ratio of water stable aggregate (R0.25) and mean weight diameter (MWD) of interplanting V. sinensis treatment was significant higher of 25.22% and 35.90% than clean tillage treatment, respectively, however fractal dimension was lower of 5.17% than that. Finally, it was concluded that interplanting V. sinensis on citrus orchard increased soil fertility and soil structure in purple soil region, and it is a sustainable agricultural mode.
Effects of enclosure periods on soil active organic carbon and carbon pool management index in Seriphidium transiliense desert grassland
He-long YANG, Zong-jiu SUN, Jing YANG, Hui-min MA
2015, 9(12): 1945-1952. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0131
[Abstract](756) [FullText HTML] (48) [PDF 1473KB](399)
Influences of different enclosure periods on grassland soil active organic carbon and carbon pool management index were studied in Seriphidium transiliense desert grassland in Xinjiang. The results showed that soil carbon density decreased in the following order: Enclosed 9 years> Control> Enclosed 1 year>Enclosed 6 years, and soil active organic carbon and carbon pool management index decreased in the following order: Enclosed 9 years> Control> Enclosed 6 year>Enclosed 1 years. The soil carbon density in grassland enclosing 9 years was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of enclosing 6 years which increased 36.51%, while soil active organic carbon and carbon pool management index of enclosing 9 years were significantly higher than those of the other treatments in the soil layer of 0-5 cm(P<0.05) which increased 35.81%~84.89% and 35.83%~93.96% respectively. Soil organic matter, total phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium had significant (P<0.05) or extremely significant (P<0.01) correlations with soil active organic carbon, carbon activity and efficiency, while the grey correlative degree of soil carbon pool management index, active organic carbon and biomass of community was higher than that of soil organic matter and carbon density. Soil active organic carbon and carbon pool management index could be more sensitive to indicate the changes of soil carbon and primary productivity in grassland.
Changes on its chemical characteristics and soil particle composition after water formation in the Qingtu Lake
Shu-juan LIU, Hong-bo YUAN, Fa-ming LI, Kai-lin LIU, Xiang WAN
2015, 9(12): 1953-1959. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0287
[Abstract](749) [FullText HTML] (112) [PDF 1743KB](416)
Importing water to Qingtu Lake as a key measure, it has great significance to protect the water resources and ecological environment in the Shiyang River Basin. Stratified samples three soil layers of 0-60 cm in ten plots from 0 to 450 m of southeast water margin of Qingtu Lake were measured mass percentage of soil particle size and total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium and conductivity, then soil particles composition and chemical properties change were analyzed after water formation of Qingtu Lake. The results showed that, with increasing distance from the margin of the water, soil particles and chemical properties showed regular changes of increasing or decreasing, and soil clay composition positively linear correlated to total potassium and total phosphorus. The soil properties changes were exacerbated in 0-150 m from the margin of the water. Soil fine and nutrients appeared enrichment and reached the extreme at 100-150 m and 300 m from the margin of the water. Therefore, the good correlation between soil nutrients and soil fine matter showed that the change of soil clay particles could be used as a quantitative index to reflect the change of soil properties and the degree of soil restoration after the water formation.
Response of Form. Phragmites australis and Form. Nitraria tangutorum after ecological water delivery to Qingtu Lake
Zheng-rong CHEN, Shi-zeng LIU, Shu-juan LIU, Tao SUN
2015, 9(12): 1960-1968. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0376
[Abstract](1064) [FullText HTML] (152) [PDF 2431KB](501)
Qingtu Lake——the tail of Shiyang river, located in the edge of Badain Jaran Desert and Tengger Desert, is an ecological barrier to block two deserts encircling. Since 2010, Qingtu Lake has been delivered into ecological water for five years, and had formed certain scale water, which has ecological significance to promote regional vegetation restoration. In this study, the high resolution remote sensing data from 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014 combining with field survey data were used and statistically analyzed to compare the water area and distribution of Phragmites australis, Nitraria tangutorum communities before and after ecological water delivery. The results showed that the water area doubled because of the additive effect by consecutive five-year water delivery additive effect; Relative frequency of Form. P. australis increased and Form. N. tangutorum communities decreased after water delivery; Area of Form. P. australis increased 8.43 times; Area of Form. N. tangutorum reduced about 68.00%, and Form. N. tangutorum distributed near water and in water disappeared. Water delivery has promoted Form. P. australis spreading by water, and Form. N. tangutorum scattered within 50 m distance to water margin. In conclusion, water delivery to Qingtu Lake promotes wetland plants growing and desert plants degradation.
Dynamic monitoring of vegetation coverage based on long time-series NDVI data sets in northwest arid region of China
Wei WANG, Qi-sheng FENG, Ni GUO, Sha SHA, Die HU, Li-juan WANG, Yao-hui LI
2015, 9(12): 1969-1979. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0459
[Abstract](945) [FullText HTML] (125) [PDF 3791KB](653)
Vegetation is an important indicator of terrestrial ecosystem, and is a sensitive indicator for climate change. Although MODIS NDVI has higher accuracy, the length of time-series is limited. Therefore, it is necessary to expand and improve the time-series AVHRR NDVI data sets. According to the linear regression models between MODIS NDVI and AVHRR NDVI for each month, we produced a long time-series NDVI data sets (1981-2013). Using the NDVI as an indicator of vegetation activity, this study analyzed vegetation dynamic changes in northwest arid region of China for recent 33 years. The results showed that: 1) MODIS NDVI and LTDR NDVI have linear correlations with a high determination coefficient (>0.8). 2) In recent 33 years, vegetation activity has been enhancing in whole study area, in which area of the sparse vegetation has been increasing continuously, and area of grassland vegetation has not been changed greatly. 3) The climate of this area has been becoming warmer and wetter than before. There are significant correlation among NDVI data, mean annual temperature and annual precipitation. Vegetation activity is sensitive for climate change, topography and human activities.
Spatial and temporal characteristics of aridity index and association with AO and ENSO in Qinghai Province
Shi-hu ZHANG, Yi-feng WANG, Qin-zheng HOU, Xiao-gang DONG, Kun SUN
2015, 9(12): 1980-1987. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0543
[Abstract](985) [FullText HTML] (93) [PDF 2203KB](1037)
This study were used the methods of climate tendency rate, spatial analysis, Penman-Monteith model, the temporal-spatial variations, cross wavelet and wavelet coherence to analyze the spatial and temporal variations of AI (aridity index), influencing factors, and the relationship of the AI with AO (Arctic Oscillation) and ENSO (El Nino-Southern Oscillation), based on the data of 29 meteorological stations in Qinghai Province during the period of 1961-2013. The results showed that the average of AI was 0.49 for many years. The trend of AI fluctuantly reduced in the past 53 years. The average of AI linearly decreased at the rate of -0.03·10 a-1 (α=0.01) over the study area, which means the climate gradually changes to moist in Qinghai Province. The maximum value and minimum value of AI appeared in December and August, respectively, which showed that the average of AI increased firstly then reduced within a year. The maximum of the AI appeared in northwest of Mangai County and north-central of Golmud City and Nuomuhong Town, and the minimum of AI appeared in southern-central of Maqulai County and Jiuzhi County. The average of AI had significantly positive correlation to sunshine time (P<0.01) and wind velocity (P<0.05) in Qinghai Province. At the same time,the average of AI has negative correlation with the temperature, precipitation and relative humidity. In addition, the average of AI is multi-scale significant correlation to AO and ENS in this study (a=0.05).
Monitoring models of the grass yield for grassland in Gansu Province
Bin SUN, Bing-yu WANG, Jin FENG, Jia-chang JIANG, Dong-rong PAN, Hui WANG, Hong-xia WANG, Tian-hu HAN
2015, 9(12): 1988-1996. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0362
[Abstract](817) [FullText HTML] (68) [PDF 1749KB](435)
Based on MODIS data and field data, the optimal prediction models of remote sensing were established for different grassland distribution regions, and these established models were also used to estimate the grass yields during the period of 2005 to 2009 in Gansu, and discuss the feature spatial distribution of grass yield. The results showed that optimal vegetation index and inversion model was different for different grassland distribution regions. The vegetation index RVI with logarithm model was suitable for the desert grassland areas of high plain in Hexi Corridor, and vegetation index EVI with exponent model was suitable for meadow grassland areas in Gannan High-land, and vegetation index NDVI with quadratic polynomial model was suitable for temperate steppe grassland areas in the Loess Plateau. The total grass yield of grassland in Gansu was 3.718 30×107 t in 2009, with an increasing trend from northeast regions to southwest regions. There were 3 high yield regions which were in Gannan High-land, the middle-east part of North Slope of Qilan Mountains and south region of Longnan. Compared with that of year 1985, the grass yield of grassland in Ganau province obviously decreased with percent of 19.34%.
Incidence and isolation of endophyte in native grasses of Qinghai Plateau
Gen-sheng BAO, Xing-xu ZHANG, Xiu-zhang LI, Xiao-xing WEI, Chun-jie LI
2015, 9(12): 1997-2007. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0104
[Abstract](802) [FullText HTML] (47) [PDF 2095KB](430)
The characteristics of high altitude and low temperature determined the diversity and heterogeneity of grass in Qinghai Plateau, however, there were fewer studies about grass endophytes in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The endophytic infection of native grasses collected from 48 locations in Qinghai Plateau were examined, meanwhile, endophyte were also isolated from infected grasses species. The results demonstrated that the average incidence of endophyte infection in 14 tested grass species were above 50%, however, that in 12 tested grasses were below 50%. The average incidence of endophyte infection in several grasses, such as Roeneria pendulina, Stipa purpurea, Achnatherum inebrians, Festuca sinensis, Poa sphondylodes, F. nitidula, F. kirilovii and F. rubra, were above 80%. Meanwhile, incidence of endophyte infection varied in same genus. The isolation frequency of endophyte was relative lower, the morphology of colonial and conidial varied among S. purpurea, Elymus tangutorum, P. psilolepis and S. aliena. It was concluded that the endophyte infection in native grass were higher in Qinghai Plateau and the endophyte might diversified among grass's species.
Diversity characteristics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizosphere of twenty six species of plants in Songnen saline-alkaline grassland
Chun-xue YANG, Fei CHEN, Ying-nan YUE, Xiu-feng YAN
2015, 9(12): 2008-2020. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0232
[Abstract](834) [FullText HTML] (44) [PDF 2865KB](603)
In order to explore the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM) fungi in the rhizosphere of salt-tolerant plants in Songnen saline-alkaline grassland, 26 species of plants of 11 families from Songnen saline-alkaline grassland were gathered and 40 AM fungal species of five genus were isolated in July 2013. Glomus and Acaulospora were the dominant genus and Glomus intraradices was the dominant species. Density of the spore in the rhizosphere of Potentilla flagellaris were 986.0 cfu·kg-1 soil, which was the highest one among the 26 plant species, while that of the lowest one was Polygonum aviculare, with 452.3 cfu·kg-1 soil. The diversity of AM fungal species in the rhizosphere of Taraxacum mongolicum was the richest, with the Shannon diversity index of 1.43. pH value had a significantly negative correlations with spore density and species richness (P<0.05), while soil organic and total nitrogen content correlated significantly positively with Shannon-Weiner (P<0.05), and had a highly significantly positive correlation with spore density and species richness (P<0.05). Total phosphorus content had a significant positive correlation with spore density, species richness and Shannon-Weiner (P<0.05).
Effects of compound medium on seven herbaceous flower species
Zheng-ru XU, Mei WANG, Hong-gang XU, Le-le LIU, Xiao-dong CAO, Gui-feng YANG
2015, 9(12): 2021-2027. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0391
[Abstract](748) [FullText HTML] (24) [PDF 1410KB](437)
In order to enrich the species diversity of urban green space, the biological characteristics of seven herbaceous flower species and the suitable growth substrate were explored. The effects of different proportional compound substrates including peat, vermiculite and perlite on the growth of seven herbaceous flowers were studied by randomizing block field experiment. The results showed that seven herbaceous flowers all grew well and could exhibit their excellent ornamental traits. The best ornamental florescence period was 28.7~93.7 d, and the evergreen period was 178.3~246.3 d. The compound substrate (peat:perlite:vermiculite=7:2:1) was optimal for growth and development of seven herbaceous flowers. Compared with the control, the emergence rates of Lavandula angustifolia cv. Grace and Echinacea purpurea cv. Purple were significantly better in intelligent greenhouse (P<0.05), and all reached 94.4%. The plant height, root length and root number of Delphinium grandiflorum cv. Red hat and Verbena hybrida cv. Crystal were higher than the control, the growth and development of other flowers were good as well.
Biological traits and competition mechanism of Vallisneria natans in the mining subsidence area
Yu-yun ZHANG, Yang WAN, Huan-xin TIAN, Jing-jing LIU, Zhong-ze ZHOU
2015, 9(12): 2028-2036. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0215
[Abstract](712) [FullText HTML] (23) [PDF 1630KB](374)
The mining subsidence wetland has obvious characteristics of dynamic, high ground-water level and ecological frangibility. Exploring the biological characteristics and competition mechanism of artificially constructed aquatic plant community is beneficial to recover aquatic vegetation in mining subsidence wetland. This study takes the dominant species of Vallisneria natans as an example to analyze its biological traits and competition mechanisms in Panji District of Huainai City by means of field survey and sampling quadrat investigation. The results showed that V. natans in subsidence area have same biological characteristics (reproductive pattern, pollination mechanism and life history) as plants in shallow lakes, but sexual reproduction was the dominant reproduction way for V. natans in study area. V. natans could grow with current-year Ass. Typha angustifolia community with low biomass; however, V. natans has a competitive disadvantage with two or more years Ass. T. angustifolia community and V. natans would gradually disappeared when coverage of T. angustifolia was ≥90%. V. natans had poor competitiveness with floating plant Ass. Nymphoides peltatum and Ass. Marsilea quadrifolia in mining subsidence area with coverage, plant height and biomass decreasing. V. natans also had poor competitiveness with submerged plants Ass. Potamogeton malaianus while could coexist well with Ass. Hydrilla verticillata, Ass. Myriophyllum verticillatum, Ass. Najas marina, and Ass. Ceratophyllum demersum by inhabiting different water layers. In conclusion, V. natans have obvious competition advantages at the aquatic plant community in identical water layer with similar growth form, while poorly compete to plants with different growth form, especially emerged plants and floating plants.
Problems and countermeasures of exotic invasive plants in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
2015, 9(12): 2037-2046. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0236
[Abstract](987) [FullText HTML] (166) [PDF 1931KB](409)
With the development of global economic integration, invasive plant species have posed serious threats to native ecosystems, public health, and regional economies. In the present paper, the exotic invasive plants were summarized and analyzed based on many years of practice and collected literatures, and the current status, occurrence characteristics, damages and trends of the invasive alien plants were clarified in Inner Mongolia. The results showed that there were total 45 invasive plant species in Inner Mongolia, which belong to 16 families and 36 genera. Among these 45 invasive plant species, 43(79.5%) species belonged to annual or biennial herb; 19 (42.2%) and 18 (40%) species originated from America and Europe, respectively. Although the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region has achieved some success in the prevention and control of invasive alien plants, there were still many problems including lack of attention, imperfect related laws and regulations, insufficient supervision and investment, imperfect assessment and early warning mechanism. Therefore, the following measures were proposed which included increasing capital investment, raising awareness of prevention, making risk assessment of invasive plants, early warning monitoring system, improving the level of scientific research and testing technology, construction information platform and strengthen foreign exchange to ensure the ecological security of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and the safety of people's lives and property, maintain social harmony and stability.
Construction of DNA fingerprinting of Stylosanthes standard cultivars for DUS testing
Xi-peng DING, Long ZHANG, Xiao-yan LUO, Lin-ling YAN, Guo-dao LIU, Chang-jun BAI
2015, 9(12): 2047-2056. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0441
[Abstract](831) [FullText HTML] (92) [PDF 2046KB](357)
DNA fingerprinting of Stylosanthes standard cultivars for distinctness, uniformity and stability (DUS) testing was constructed to facilitate the identification of Styosanthes cultivars. The genetic diversity analysis and DNA fingerprinting construction of 15 Stylosanthes standard cultivars for DUS testing were performed using 25 SSR markers. The results indicated that there were total of 132 alleles were generated from 25 SSR markers among these 15 standard cultivars. The number of alleles generated from each SSR marker ranged from 3~9, with an average of 5.280 alleles. The polymorphic information content per SSR marker varied from 0.393 to 0.847, with an average of 0.638. The 15 standard cultivars could be successfully distinguished by DNA fingerprinting, which was constructed based on these 25 SSR markers. The DNA fingerprinting QR code for each Stylosanthes standard cultivars was constructed. The results could provide important reference for application of SSR marker in Stylosanthes DUS testing.
Study on pollen viability of diploid Allium caeruleum
Yan-po XI, Chen-yi LIN, Jun-xia LIU, Xin-ling SUN, Liang BAO, Mei XUE, Hui WU
2015, 9(12): 2057-2063. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0209
[Abstract](797) [FullText HTML] (90) [PDF 1880KB](345)
In order to provide scientific basis for the conservation of the plant resources, the pollen longevity of diploid Allium caeruleum from Yamalike mountains, Urumqi, Xinjiang was studied. The results indicated that MTT staining and in vitro germination methods were suitable for the pollen viability detection of diploid A. caeruleum, while benzidine α-naphthol staining, TTC staining, carmine acetate dyeing, I2-KI staining, pollen staining and red ink staining methods were not suitable. The optimal medium for in vitro germination method was sucrose 100 g·L-1+boric acid 80 mg·L-1. The pollen longevity of different blossoming phenophases was about 60 hours. The pollen had the high viability at the beginning of anthers shedding and had maximum viability at 4 h after anthers shedding. The pollen viability and germination rate remained two peaks. There was a very significant positive correlation (P<0.01) between the pollen viability and pollen germination rate at the same blossoming phenophase. The pollens of diploid A. caeruleum from Yamalike mountains are fertile with short longevity .
Seed polymorphism and germination behavior of Salicornia europaea inhabiting in the area of Ayding Lake, Xinjiang, China
Meng-hao WEI, Jun-hua HUANG
2015, 9(12): 2064-2070. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0098
[Abstract](868) [FullText HTML] (83) [PDF 3230KB](404)
Salicornia europaea belongs to Chenopodiaceae. The present research studied the seed morphology, distribution, germination characteristics and other aspects of S. europaea in the Turpan Aydin Lake. The results showed that there are three types of glasswort seeds (type A, type B and type C). Type A seeds were mainly distributed in the central position of flowers spikes with the diameter of (2.496±0.264) mm and were easily to break away from the parent plants and spread to the far distance by wind. Type A seeds could germinate in a relatively wide temperature range with higher germination percentage (>80%). Type B seeds were mainly distributed in upper and middle spikes of flowers on a side with the diameter of (1.709±0.181) mm, and were easily to detach from the parent plants and spread near the parent plants or to the far distance by wind. Type B seeds germinated under variable temperature conditions with slightly lower percentages and germination rates than type A seeds. Type C seeds were mainly distributed in the lower part of the flower spikes beside a random cloth with the diameter of (1.115±0.085) mm and were not easily to fall off from the parent plants and only scattered the bottom or near parent plants which can form the seed bank in the soil. Type C seeds had lower germination percentage (<10%) and higher dormancy rate.
Effects of nitrogen application on Phleum pretense pasture's forage yield and quality
Kai-hu YANG, Lei YU, Qian-bing ZHANG, Liang-jun LUO, Guo-lin YANG, Hai-xiu HE
2015, 9(12): 2071-2077. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0149
[Abstract](692) [FullText HTML] (136) [PDF 1434KB](385)
By measuring forage production and nutrient of Phleum pretense under different nitrogen application rates during the heading, flowering, early seeding, late seeding and regeneration stage, the effect of nitrogen application rate on the yield and quality of P. pretense was analyzed in Yili, Xinjiang. The results showed that nitrogen application could significantly increase hay yield and crude protein (P<0.05). When the nitrogen application rate was 270 kg·ha-1, hay yield reached 7 133.6 kg·ha-1 which increased by 44.1% comparing with the yield of control (4 952.2 kg·ha-1). When nitrogen application rate was 180 kg·ha-1, crude protein content reached 6.48% which increased by 2.05 percentage points comparing with the content of control (4.43%). Plant height of P. pretense increased with nitrogen application rate increasing. The higher the rate of nitrogen, the lower the nitrogen use efficiency. The results indicated that nitrogen 270 kg·ha-1 is the most beneficial to increase forage production of four fertilizer level, and nitrogen 180 kg·ha-1 is the most beneficial to improve nutritional quality.
Screening of the pasture mixed sowing combination in Shangri-la alpine region of Yunnan
Fu-jin YUAN, Mei-fen HUANG, Xiang-long LIAO, Wen-rong WU, Mei YU, You LI, Shi-ming XUE, Xin WANG, Ji-zhong LI
2015, 9(12): 2078-2082. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0154
[Abstract](739) [FullText HTML] (66) [PDF 1422KB](363)
In order to improve the forage production capacity in Shangri-la alpine region, we carried out mixed sowing combination experiment in Xiaozhongdian Town. The experiment set five mixed sowing combination (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5) using randomized blocks design to measure hay yield and their component in consecutive two year and analyze the nutrient content of mixed sample in the second year. The results showed that A1 and A5 hay yield significantly higher than that of A2, A3 and A4 (P<0.01); community composition of A3, A1, A5 had strong stability with little change between two years; crude protein content of A2, A4 and A5 was higher (>24%). Based on the performance of three index, A1(Dactylis glomerata cv. Anmba+Trifolium repens cv. Grasslands huia+T. pratense) and A5 (D. glomerata cv. Anmba+Lolium perenne cv. Yatsyn+T. repens cv. Haifa+Cichorium intybus cv. Puna) were suitable for sowing application in Shangri-la alpine region.
Effects of root cutting on tuber yield and quality in Helianthus tuberosus
Xun TIAN, Tie-xia ZHU, Ri-na WU, Hui LIU, Kai GAO
2015, 9(12): 2083-2088. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0253
[Abstract](793) [FullText HTML] (67) [PDF 1427KB](402)
Taking red skin Jerusalem artichoke as the test material, two root cutting stages (vegetative growth stage and squaring stage) and five root cutting radius(20, 40, 60, 80, and 0 cm) have been designed to investigate the effect of root cutting on tuber yield and quality of Jerusalem artichoke in this study. The results showed that tuber yield was significantly improved by cutting root (P<0.05) and the highest tuber yield was obtained at 20 cm cutting radius in squaring stage. Cutting treatment significantly increased the soluble sugar content of tuber. Under the treatment of 80 cm during vegetative growth stage, tuber acquired the maximum soluble sugar content while under the treatment of 20 cm soluble sugar content was minimum. Caloric value of tuber was significantly decreased by the treatment of 40 cm cutting during vegetative growth stage and 80 cm cutting during squaring stage, and the rest treatments had no significant influence on it. All treatments had no significant influence on ash except the treatments of 20 cm, 60 cm cutting during squaring stage and 80 cm cutting during vegetative growth stage.
Effects of sowing date and sowing rate on yields and agronomic traits of grass pea intercropped with citrus
Wen-bin HAN, Sheng-mao REN, Yang-chun LUO, Xue-qing MA, Shu-guo XIE, Wei-dong CAO
2015, 9(12): 2089-2093. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0431
[Abstract](752) [FullText HTML] (107) [PDF 1387KB](380)
A consecutive two-year split-plot experiment was carried out to study the effects of different sowing date and sowing rate on fresh grass yield, seed production and agronomic traits of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) intercropped with citrus. The results showed that sowing date and rate had significant effects on fresh grass yield and seed yield of grass pea (P<0.05), and the effect of sowing rate was greater than that of sowing date. Fresh grass yield and seed yield of grass pea decreased prominently as the sowing date postponed (P<0.05). The highest fresh grass yield (29 406.0 kg·ha-1) and seed yield (1 616.1 kg·ha-1) were obtained from sowing on 20th and 30th September, respectively. The agronomic traits including plant height, branch number per plant, nodule number per plant, ripening rate and thousand seed weight with the treatment sowing on September were better than those with the treatment sowing on October. Maximum yields occurred with an intermediate sowing rate of 45 kg·ha-1, and the effect of excessive sowing rate on agronomic traits and yields of fresh grass and seed were negative. In general, the most suitable sowing date was September and sowing rate was 45 kg·ha-1 for grass pea. intercropped with citrus in Xichong County, Sichuan Province
Niche characteristics of herb populations within three forest types in hilly red soil region of southern China
Gao PAN, He-ping ZHANG, Deng PAN
2015, 9(12): 2094-2106. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0246
[Abstract](848) [FullText HTML] (45) [PDF 1537KB](407)
The niche theory has been successfully used to explain competition mechanisms among the coexisting species in natural communities, which is significant for understanding of the coupling between plant community construction and environmental factors. The niche characteristics of herb populations were examined within coniferous forest(CF), broad-leaved forest(BF) and mixed broadleaf conifer forest(MF) in hilly red soil region of southern China, using Levins niche breadth, Pianka index of niche overlap and niche similarity formula, from the perspective of the growth status in different forest communities in herbage species. Results showed, the mean niche breadth of all herbage species in the studied forest communities was in order CF(0.572)>MF(0.508)>BF(0.424). The niche breadth of Tetrastigma formosanum, Lophatherum gracile, Dryopteris sp., Serissa japonica and other herbaceous plants in CF were higher than that in MF and BF. The niche overlap did not always correlate to niche breadth. Larger niche overlap or even completely overlapping might occurr between the species with narrow niche breadth. There was a significant positive correlation between the niche breadth and the important value of the main herbaceous plants in CF and BF(P<0.01),with the correlation coefficients of 0.758 and 0.918, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between the niche breadth and the important value of the coefficient of variation of herbage species in three forest communities(P<0.01), with the correlation coefficients of -0.996, -0.967 and -0.963, respectively. Our study suggested the CF and MF were still in an instability state at present stage of community succession due to high niche overlap among herb populations and high spatial heterogeneity of environmental resources in study region.
Study on compound cropping systems of food and forage in North China Plain
Peng-fei SHI, Dong-yu YANG, Yuan-yuan ZHENG, Ming-yuan LIANG, Jing DANG, Gui-yan WANG
2015, 9(12): 2107-2113. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0241
[Abstract](896) [FullText HTML] (74) [PDF 1424KB](369)
The shortage of high quality roughage has become the limited factors in the large-scale mixed farm in North China Plain. The present study constructed the compound cropping systems which adapt to the demands of the livestock and improve the productivity of the mixed farm, and also can provide the scientific basic for cropping structure adjustment. According to the practice, seven compound cropping systems were built with food and forage crops. Combined field experiment and laboratory measurement, the production effect, the light energy use efficiency and the yields of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), general energy (GE), net energy (NE) of these seven systems were compared. Compared with the compound cropping system of winter wheat-summer maize (CK), the yields of dry matter production of the compound cropping system of spring maize-summer maize increased 5.95%, the light energy use efficiency, temperature efficiency and the radiation use efficiency of whole year in this system increased 52.00%, 49.55%, 56.25%, respectively. The nutrient and energy yields of the compound cropping system of sorghum sudangrass-ryegrass were the highest, and also had the higher light use efficiency. Compared with the systems of spring maize-ryegrass, spring maize intercropping alfalfa and spring maize-summer maize, the yield of CP of the compound cropping system of sorghum sudangrass-ryegrass increased 65.92%, 80.65% and 132.03%, respectively. The yield of NE of the compound cropping system of sorghum sudangrass-ryegrass increased 21.63% compared with CK, and increased 21.50% and 24.08%, compared with the systems of spring maize-summer maize and spring maize-ryegrass. The cropping systems of spring maize-summer maize, sorghum sudangrass-ryegrass, spring maize-ryegrass and spring maize intercropping alfalfa were the important supplement cropping systems of winter wheat-summer maize, and also adapted to the development of the mixed farm in North China Plain, with high-yielding and high light use efficiency cropping systems.
Foundation, prospects and suggestions for the development of the forage industry in southern China
Guo-gang WANG, Ming-li WANG, Ji-min WANG, Chun YANG, Wu-jing WANG
2015, 9(12): 2114-2121. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0349
[Abstract](1672) [FullText HTML] (825) [PDF 1443KB](525)
Forage and grass are important material basis for the development of animal husbandry. Accelerating the development of the forage grass industry is an effective method to reduce the food security pressure on feed grain. However, northern China is currently under great pressure to produce forage grass. In the present study, we firstly describe the importance of the forage industry development in southern China. And then we present and analyze the current situation and development of the forage industry in southern China, and evaluate their development potential, market prospects and social ecological effects. The study results indicate that southern China possesses abundant natural resources for development of the forage industry. Moreover, pasture planting has already reached a relatively high scale, and the exploration forms the planting pattern suitable for the regional characteristics. Due to the strong demands for commodity forage, the development of the forage industry in southern China has great potential and social and economic effects. However, southern China also faces many other problems, such as uneven land, low technology, and poor policies and management systems. Finally, from the perspectives of macro strategic positioning, policy and system supply, technical support system, and project implementation, we propose the development countermeasures and suggestions for China's forage grass industry in the near future.
Rumen degradation characteristics of different neutral detergent fiber/starch ratio diets in dairy cattle
Dan ZHU, Pei-hua ZHANG, Meng ZHAO, Shi-jie LIU, Kai-zhan ZHANG, WILLIAM P. Weiss, Deng-pan BU
2015, 9(12): 2122-2130. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0210
[Abstract](1413) [FullText HTML] (61) [PDF 1576KB](477)
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the rumen degradation characteristics of four different neutral detergent fiber/starch ratio diets. Silage maize, oat grass and corn grain were used to adjust the NDF/Starch ratio. Four total mixed rations were fed with different NDF/Starch in ratios of 0.86(Ⅰ),1.13(Ⅱ),1.56(Ⅲ) and 2.38(Ⅳ), respectively. Three healthy Holstein cows in midlactation (600±21 kg body weight) with permanent ruminal cannulas were selected as experimental animals, and the rumen degradation rates of dry matter (DM),organic matter (OM),crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of four rations were measured using nylon bag method. The culture time of rations in the rumen was 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h, respectively. The results showed that differences were found in common nutritional components, and rumen effective degradability of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF among four different neutral detergent fiber/starch ratio diets. Ranking of the rumen effective degradability of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF among four diets from high to low was group Ⅰ>Ⅱ>Ⅲ>Ⅳ, Ⅰ>Ⅱ>Ⅲ>Ⅳ, Ⅱ>Ⅰ>Ⅳ>Ⅲ, Ⅰ>Ⅱ>Ⅳ>Ⅲ, Ⅰ>Ⅳ>Ⅲ>Ⅱ, respectively. In conclusion, in order to provide a basic parameters and theoretical foundation in formulating rations of dairy cows and use feed resources more effectively, ruminal degradation characteristics of rations are dissimilar, dietary ratio of NDF/Starch between 0.86 and 1.13, have the higher nutritive value among the four types of testing rations.
Optimization on laccase processing technology of Carex meyeriana fibers
Chun-hong WANG, Xin-min YUE, Su-yue BAI, Ying WANG, Jun RAN
2015, 9(12): 2131-2138. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0130
[Abstract](898) [FullText HTML] (72) [PDF 2334KB](335)
In order to extract more excellent properties of Carex meyeriana fibers applied in textile processing, this study adopted the laccase to treat C. meyeriana fibers. We used laccase dosage, pH, temperature as exploring factors, and the lignin content, fiber diameter, fracture strength as the evaluation index for response surface method to optimize the laccase treatment process. The results revealed that the optimize levels were 14% dosage of laccase, 5.5 of the pH and 47 ℃ of the temperature, and the lignin content, diameter and fraction strength was 7.71%, 40.06 μm and 203.46 MPa, which decreased 60.86% and 53.04% and increased 34.94% comparing to before treatment, respectively. We also tested the C. meyeriana fibers acquired by the optimized process through super depth of field, scanning electron microscope, FTIR and XRD. The super depth of field showed that the C. meyeriana fibers became finer, more uniform and softer; The Scanning electron microscope test and FTIR test showed that the pectin on the C. meyeriana fibers had further removed; The XRD test showed that the crystallinty increased from 57.09% to 64.53%. The above results indicate that the laccase treatment could improve the performance of the C. meyeriana fibers and be benefit for the application in textile processing.
Comparison of different grazing systems on subalpine meadow of tianshan Natural Heritage
Ke WU, Ting XU, Hong-jun XU, Chi ZHANG, Wen-xuan XU, Wei-kang YANG
2015, 9(12): 2139-2145. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0332
[Abstract](809) [FullText HTML] (67) [PDF 1425KB](349)
With exceptional diversity of species, Kalajun subalpine meadow is part of the Tianshan World Heritage Sites. At the end of July to early August 2014, the effect of three current grazing systems——Banning Grazing, Limiting Grazing and Grazing, on plant communities and soil nutrients were studied. And the results showed that: compared with Grazing area, the Banning Grazing area has notable higher total plant species number, vegetation coverage and aboveground biomass (P<0.05), while there was no significant change on species diversity of the community (P>0.05). Moreover, the Limiting Grazing area not only has most abundant plant species and the highest species diversity, the value of vegetation cover and aboveground biomass were also very close to the Banning Grazing area. Banning Grazing decreased the soil nutrient level, and generally, the soil nutrient level was the highest at Grazing area and the lowest at Banning Grazing area. Therefore, the Banning Grazing is not the best way to recover the subalpine meadow, and the Limiting Grazing is comparatively better on sustainable management of Kalajun subalpine meadow.
Herdsmen's decision to enter cooperatives economy organization in the view of industrial chain——Based on a questionnaire survey to herdsmen in four provinces
Peng-fei GE, Ping LYU, Xun YANG
2015, 9(12): 2146-2154. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0383
[Abstract](674) [FullText HTML] (71) [PDF 1476KB](388)
Accelerating the construction of grassland animal husbandry industry chain is an effective way to increase herdsmen's income. Herdsmen cooperatives that have a connecting and coordinating role is the key link in the chain of grassland livestock industry. This study conducted a field survey in pastoral areas of Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, and Gansu, and analyzed herdsmen's decision to enter cooperatives economy organization and its influencing factors by establishing a structural equation model. The results showed that herdsmen's own factors, production factors and subjective factors influenced each other, and herdsmen's education level, the management cost and their cognition to the cooperative are the most influential factors to the behavior of their participation to cooperatives. Statistic analysis indicated that all parameters except cost's impact in this study had significant effect (P<0.05).
China's fodder production situation and countermeasure analysis
Xin-yi LI, Jia-ting WANG, Tian-hu HAN, Gang CHEN
2015, 9(12): 2155-2166. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2015-0310
[Abstract](1324) [FullText HTML] (292) [PDF 1482KB](601)
Fodder is the base for feeding livestock, such as cattle and sheep. In this paper, we summarized the data from Chinese prataculture statistics, and monitoring reports of grassland protection and construction projects, and Chinese animal husbandry statistical data. Otherwise, we combined our on-site investigation information with the above summarized data and reviewed the situation and development of Chinese fodder production since the 21st century. In general, Chinese fodder production tends to grow forward with low develpment level, which could not meet the requirement for developing advanced animal husbandry industry. Therefore, we suggested to strengthen the artificial fodder construction, and enforce the national support from strategic planning and relevant policy.