Welcome Pratacultural Science,Today is

2014 Vol.31(9)

Display Mode:          |     

Influence of terrain and grazing intensities on soil humus composition
Ji-ya HU, Mei HONG, Hai-shan DE, Zhong-wu WANG, Guo-dong HAN
2014, 8(9): 1603-1609. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2013-0644
[Abstract](1736) [PDF 788KB](407)
In this experiment, the effects of terrain and grazing intensities on soil humic acid(HA), fulvic acid (FA) and the ratio of HA/FA in the light chestnut soil samples from Stipa breviflora desert steppe were analyzed and the relationship between soil humic acid, fulvic acid and soil organic carbon were discussed. The results showed that the contents of HA and FA in light chestnut soil were lower. Both HA and FA decreased with altitude rising and significantly decreased (P<0.05) with the grazing intensity increasement. With altitude rising, the ratio of HA/FA in soil decreased. The graze intensity had effects on the ratio of HA/FA in soil and the heavy graze had significant impacts (P<0.05) on the ratio of HA/FA in soil. With altitude rising, the correlation between each composition of soil humic and organic matter increased with altitude rising and decreased with the grazing intensity increasement. These results suggested that the studied region was suitable for lightly grazing and the stocking rate should be adjusted according to the different terrain.
Vertical distribution character of soil inorganic phosphorus in mountain meadow system of WuGong Mountain
2014, 8(9): 1610-1617. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0583
[Abstract](869) [PDF 657KB](423)
The spatial distribution of soil inorganic phosphorus and the correlation between soil inorganic phosphorus and soil available phosphorus along the different altitudes (the altitude range from 1 600~1 900 m) and different soil depths were analyzed in mountain meadow system of Wugong Mountain. The soil inorganic phosphorus (P) content ranged in 175.48~524.06 mg·kg-1, significantly increased (P0.05) with the increase of altitude and decreased gradually with the increase of soil depth. There was a vertical distribution law and surface gathering character. The range of variation in water-soluble P, Al-P, Fe-P, O-P, Ca-P was 0.423~4.781, 16.27~90.72, 54.13~344.34, 19.66~90.32, 15.12~76.21 mg·kg-1, respectively. There were also vertical distribution and surface gathering character in each proportions of inorganic phosphorus. The percentage of Fe-P was the highest which followed by Al-P, O-P, Ca-P and water soluble P. There was a significantly positive correlations between soil available P and Al-P which suggest that Al-P was the potential resource for available P in this area. This research revealed the spatial distribution of soil inorganic P and the correlation between available P and soil inorganic P, determinate the resource of soil P which provided a guidance for vegetation restoration in mountain meadow ecosystem.
Effects of fencing on soil active organic carbon and carbon pool management index in mountain meadow steppe
Guang-yu GUAN, Yan-min FAN, Hong-qi WU, Fang GUI, Kang-ning LI, Fei LI
2014, 8(9): 1618-1622. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2013-0645
[Abstract](1312) [PDF 475KB](472)
The influence of fencing enclosure on soil organic, soil active organic carbon and carbon pool management index in the northern slope of Mount Tian’s meadow steppe were studied with free grazing treatment as control. The results showed that the contents of soil total organic carbon and active organic carbon increased significantly at 0-5 cm and 20-40 cm soil layers after eight years enclosed(P<0.05). Soil total organic carbon and active organic carbon decreased with the increase of soil depth, and soil active organic carbon of grazing treatment converted to stable carbon pool more quickly than that of fencing treatment. The soil carbon pool management index of enclosed grassland was over 100 in each soil layer, and increased with the increase of soil depth, suggesting the fencing enclosure enhanced soil quality and improved the grassland ecological environment.
Correlationship between plant species diversity and its main environmental factors in Baotianman Nature Reserve
Chuan-yang XU, Zhi-chao CHEN, Cheng-yuan HAO
2014, 8(9): 1623-1627. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0261
[Abstract](2000) [PDF 409KB](429)
Research on plant species diversity and its correlation with environmental factors have been one of the important contents in geography and ecology. By means of investigation method, the statistical analysis and calculation on species number of arbor, shrub and herb in 23 plots in Baotianman Nature Reserve on south slope of Fu’niu Mountain, as well as Margalef and Shannon-Wiener indexes of arbor were carried out. On these bases, the main environmental factors influencing on species diversity were screened out by principal component analysis (PCA),and the Pearson correlation was used to analyze the correlation between plant diversity and environmental factors. According to the PCA, the main ingredient was not clear in explaining the spatial variation pattern of vegetation species diversity. However, correlation analysis results showed that the correlationship between soil properties and plant diversity was the most strong, followed by topographic elements and meteorological elements. Among the 15 environmental factors, there was the most significant relationship between soil organic matter and plant diversity. For the three plant type, herbage has the most strong correlation with environmental factors, then arbor and shrub.
Spatial and temporal variations of Black Soil Type degraded grassland in the Three River Source Region
Xia ZHU, Zhen-hua CHAO, Yong-shun YANG, Xiao-ming ZHANG
2014, 8(9): 1628-1636. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2013-0535
[Abstract](1945) [PDF 2400KB](531)
The Black Soil Type Degraded grassland can lead to rapidly ecological environment deteriorated in Three River Source Region. The accurate and timely investigation of the spatial and temporal variations characteristics played an important role for the protection of ecological environment in Three River Source Region. The comparisons of the QuickBird images on June 29, 2007 and the Landsat TM images on July 1, 2007 in Dari County in Qinghai showed that Landsat TM images had low interpretation precision although it was still enough for the present area monitor. The spatial and temporal variations of Black Soil Type Degraded grassland in 2000, 2007, and 2011 were analyzed using Landsat TM data. From 2000 to 2007, the total areas of the non black soil patch decreased and the areas of the black soil patch increased which suggested that the grassland tended to degrade From 2007 to 2011, the total areas of the non black soil patch increased and the areas of the black soil patch decreased which suggested the grassland degradation and black soil patch extension trend were effectively inhibited. These inhibitions suggested that the ecological protection and construction in Three River Source Region had achieved remarkable success in comprehensive treatments of Black Soil Type Degraded grassland.
Spectral channels selection of weed identification in the field
Ying LI, Huai-liang CHEN, Xiu-ping WANG, Wen-song FANG
2014, 8(9): 1637-1644. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0216
[Abstract](865) [PDF 2269KB](393)
A Weed identification system in the field was investigated by hyperspectral channel selection and wide-band channel selection using ground imaging spectrometer data. Sensitive hyperspectral channels to biochemistry character were selected by using the Bhattacharyya distance method. The classification accuracy can achieve 96% by utilizing 344 dimension spectrometer data with 10 selected hyperspectral channels. The classification accuracy can achieve around 80% by using 3~4 stimulated wide-band channels and can achieve more than 85% by using 5~7 stimulated wide-band channels. These results provide references for sensor and channel selection in weed identification in the field.
Drought monitoring analysis based on FY-3/MERSI data
Tao HAN, You-yan JIANG
2014, 8(9): 1645-1652. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0033
[Abstract](2034) [PDF 2499KB](515)
In the present study, drought monitoring in rain-fed agricultural regions of eastern Gansu was comparative analyzed using the 250 m resolution data of MERSI which carried by the Chinese new generation of meteorological satellite FY-3 with three drought remote sensing monitoring models combined with precipitation, temperature and meteorological drought data of the same periods. The drought monitoring models based on FY-3/MERSI data can objectively reflect space distribution and dynamical development of droughts. The drought monitoring models were obviously different. The drought monitoring models were significantly correlated with soil relative moisture in 0-10 cm, 0-20 cm and 0-50 cm layer(P0.01). PDI was significantly negative correlated with the soil relative moisture, whereas VSWI and MSAVI were significantly positive correlated with soil relative moisture. MSAVI had a more significant correlation with soil relative moisture in 0-10 cm than VSWI and PDI although the correlation coefficient of all these 3 models were more than 0.84; PDI was more significantly correlative with soil relative moisture in 0-20 cm and 0-50 cm than VSWI and MSAVI although the correlation coefficient of all these 3 models were more than 0.82. The soil relative moisture in 0-20 cm was more significantly correlative with PDI and MSAVI than that in 0-50 cm although all of the correlation coefficient were more than 0.83; The soil relative moisture in 0-10 cm was more significantly correlated with VSWI than that in 0-20 cm and 0-50 cm although all of the correlation coefficient were more than 0.83. Briefly, PDI was most sensitive to drought variation among these three monitoring models which was most suitable for regular operation over this region, especially in spring.
Errors analysis of grassland biomass investigation based on MODIS data
Xu-xiao ZHANG, Chuan-jiang TANG, Su ZHOU, Xin-yue ZHANG
2014, 8(9): 1653-1658. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0638
[Abstract](1681) [PDF 478KB](407)
There were many procedures involved in grassland biomass remote sensing monitoring from ground surveys to remote sensing analysis which resulted in systematic errors accumulated from system error existed in each procedure even excluding accidental error. There were 3 possible reasons for these errors. The first reason was that low resolution of remote sensing image, noise and the damage during the processing of information. The second reason was that the uncertainty and one-sidedness of ground sampling information. The third reason was that the limitation of the current remote sensing monitoring service range and low developing level of science and technology. In the present study, we combined with the current widely applied methods of grassland monitoring, then summarized and analyzed the various error sources and the impact on monitoring results.
Effects of different trample intensities on quantitative characteristics and physiology indices of Thymus mandschuricus
Ling WANG, Gui-ling LIU, Zhen-ya ZHU, Shao-peng YAN
2014, 8(9): 1659-1665. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0106
[Abstract](1272) [PDF 608KB](418)
Thymus mandschuricus, as an endemic species, is a kind of perfect wild fragrant ornamental ground cover plant with water-saving and drought-resistance characteristics. The plant has a wild prospect at the aspect of landscaping and the restoration of vegetation in arid areas. T. mandschuricus was introduced and planted by Northeast Forest University with the necessary of popularizing and applying new cover plant species. Trample device was employed to simulate human trample on T. mandschuricus. The results showed that low frequency and light trample intensity had less effects on biomass of T. mandschuricus. Moderate and severe trample intensity had significant effects on the aboveground biomass and ornamental characteristic. Light trampled plots were not different with the control plots and recovered within 4~7 days. However, moderate and severe trampled plots were significantly different with the control plots. The moderate trample plants plots were recovered within 30 days. The malondialdehyde (MDA), soluble carbohydrate, soluble protein, and proline of T. mandschuricus increased with the increase of trample intensity which suggested that T. mandschuricus has strong tolerance to trample. However, plant physiological indices increased significantly under severe trample stress and the branches suffered heavily damage which could not be recovered in one year. Light trample intensity had less effects on quantitative characteristics and physiology with increase of trampling circulation. Moderate and severe trample had significantly effects (P<0.05) on quantitative characteristics and physiology with increase of trampling circulation. The flexibility of T. mandschuricus branches provided strong tolerance to trample which was different with general woody ground cover plants.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity and its relationship with soil environmental factors in oasis alfalfa planting of Shihezi
Ai-tian REN, Wei-hua LU, Jie-jing YANG, Chun-hui MA
2014, 8(9): 1666-1672. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2013-0624
[Abstract](1562) [PDF 490KB](467)
The aim of this study was to measure soil nutrient content, the diversity of alfalfa rhizosphere AM fungi and its relationship with soil factors in each sample site. The results showed that there were 3 genera and 21 species of AM fungi in the vegetation rhizosphere soil of total sample areas, including 6 species of Acaulospora, 14 species of Glomus, 4 species of Scutellospora. Glomus appeared as the dominant species which was present at all research sites. Spore density significantly and negatively correlated to the soil available phosphorus and alkali-hydrolysis nitrogen (P0.01), and did not correlate with soil available potassium, pH and organic matter.
Advances in the interactions of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizosphere microorganisms
Feng ZHANG, Ting-yu DUAN, Fei-yang YAN, Fang LI
2014, 8(9): 1673-1685. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2013-0682
[Abstract](1587) [PDF 633KB](840)
Arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM) fungi widely exist in grassland agro-ecosystems, and is the main member of soil microflora and one of the important functional group in ecosystems as well. Together with other microorganisms, AM fungi is acting a significant role in grassland agro-ecosystem. Progress of interactions of AM fungi and rhizosphere microorganisms both at home and aboard were reviewed in the present paper. The relationship between AM fungi and rhizosphere microorganisms is complex, which mainly contains competition, symbiosis and commensalism. AM fungi competes for infection site and photosynthate with the pathogens invading from root, and regulates proteins that course of disease related, and increases the absorption efficiency of water and nutrient, and secretes biophylaxis materials, thus the host plant’s disease-resistance can be promoted and the root system colonization of pathogen nematodes can be reduced. The relationship between AM fungi and rhizosphere beneficial microbes are symbiosis, commensalism and synergy of plant growth promoting. At present, interaction mechanisms of AM fungi and rhizosphere microorganisms are desiderated to be studied to reveal the relationship between AM fungi and rhizosphere soil microbes for using and regulating of the soil ecosystem, promoting the absorption of plant nutrients, improving plant resistance to a variety of stress and maintaining sustainable development and utilization of the grassland agro-ecosystems.
An overview of study on legume plant locoweed endophyte
Zhen CUI, Yan-zhong LI
2014, 8(9): 1686-1695. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2013-0513
[Abstract](2299) [PDF 834KB](490)
Locoweed is a common name for the poisonous plants of Astragalus and Oxytropis genera which have swainsonine and cause some livestock clinical disorders, such as locoism. Locoweed has caused enormous economic loss to many countries such as China and USA. Endophytes were firstly discovered and isolated from locoweed in 1999 which was also the first report about endophyte in legume plants and explained the reason about the poison of locoweed. Since then, 15 species of locoweed around the world have been identified as the host of endophyte, including 7 species in Oxytropis genus and 8 species in Astragalus genus. The taxonomy of locoweed endophyte has go through changes which was first identified as Alternaria, and was replaced in Embellisia based on its morphology characters by Braun in 2003 and further was rename as Undifilum- a total new genus in 2009. Until now, there are total 4 species in this genus in which 3 species are locoweed endophytes. Most of the isolated locoweed endophytes have not been identified and named. The studies about biological characteristics of locoweed endophyte, such as distribution, sporulation and transmission are critical reference for controlling the locoism of livestock. This paper reviewed the researches about the habitats, hosts, morphology, physiology and molecular biology of locoweed endophyte, and put forward some highlights that should be paid more attentions in the future researches.
The applications of somaclonal variation on germplasm improvement of turfgrasses
Yan-ming DENG, Xiao-qing YE, Xin-ping JIA, Li-jian LIANG
2014, 8(9): 1696-1706. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0042
[Abstract](1635) [PDF 600KB](698)
Somaclonal variation has been one of the hot topics in turfgrass breeding. The present paper reviewed the domestic and foreign researches about the applications of somaclonal variation on several main turfgrasses germplasm innovations and summarized the technologies of embryogenic callus induction and the high frequency plantlets regeneration. The present review focused on the directed mutagenesis from the incubation and selection under stressed conditions such as cold, salt and heat, the non-directed mutagenesis from the combination of in vitro culture and ray irradiation, and the molecular technologies including marker to identify the regenerations. In addition, this review also discussed the problems of somaclonal variation applied on turfgrass resistant breeding which included low variation frequency, unsatisfied traits improvement, incomplete mutants detection and uncertain variation mechanism. Finally, the future research directions were discussed and put forward.
Cloning and sequence analysis of Actin gene fragment from Reaumuria soongorica
Shu-yi ZHAO, Tian-hui BAI, Ai-ke BAO, Pei WANG, Ping-ping GUAN
2014, 8(9): 1707-1711. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0641
[Abstract](1373) [PDF 1840KB](442)
Actin gene is the most common and important house-keeping gene for analyzing plant functional gene expression patterns. In the present study, the total RNA was extracted from the shoot of salt-secreting super xerophyte Reaumuria soongorica, degenerate primers were designed based on the conserved nucleotide sequences of the Actin genes from other higher plants. Actin gene fragment was obtained by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The sequence analysis indicated that the Actin gene fragment from R. soongorica contained 598 bp, encoding 198 amino acid residues. Multiple alignment with Actin gene sequences from other plants in the GenBank showed that Actin gene fragment from Reaumuria soongorica had over 82% nucleotide sequence similarity and over 90% amino acid sequence homology with other plants. These results indicated that the cloned gene was Actin gene fragment, which was named as RsACT. The phylogenetic tree reconstructed based on the amino acid sequences suggested there might be most closed relationship between RsACT and the actin from Gossypium hirsutum and Populus trichocarpa.
Cluster buds induction and plant regeneration technology of Iris ensata embryo
Chun-hui ZHUANG, Xun CHEN, Yao FU, Bai CAO, Ling WANG
2014, 8(9): 1712-1717. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0133
[Abstract](1594) [PDF 789KB](415)
The embryos of Iris ensata were used as explants to study cluster buds induction and plant regeneration. The optimal culture medium for cluster buds induction was MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg·L-1 6-BA purine, 0.6 mg·L-1NAA, and 2.0 mg·L-1KT. The greatest multiplication coefficient for bud induction (9.61) was achieved after induction for 60 days. The optimal root induction culture medium was MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg·L-1 NAA which had a rooting rate of 100%. The present study facilitated effective development and utilization of I. ensata germplasm, and provided sterile technology for germplasm conservation, breeding and other asexual reproduction researches.
Sample preparation for alfalfa relative DNA content analysis by flow cytometry
Qian LIU, Zhen-wu WEI
2014, 8(9): 1718-1723. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0096
[Abstract](1596) [PDF 1077KB](1023)
In order to select optimum extract methods for high purity alfalfa nuclear suspensions for flow cytometry(FCM), the nuclei suspension of Huaiyin alfalfa (Medicago sativa cv. huaiyin) was isolated either mechanically or by mixed enzyme solutions. The appropriate preparation method was selected based on the suspensions quality. LB01 buffer can extract larger number of nuclei with intact cell morphology and internal structure which performed best among these 5 buffers. Both of the nuclear suspensions prepared by two mixed enzyme solutions showed clear peaks on the histograms and had more nucleus. The nuclear suspension prepared by enzyme solution I was better than enzyme solution Ⅱ. However, the enzymatic methods were time-consuming and produced more impurities in the nuclear suspension. In conclusion, the mechanically extraction with LB01 buffer was appropriate method to prepare nulear suspensions for alfalfa nuclear DNA content analysis by FCM.
Response of photosynthesis in leaves of Sorghum bicolor×S. sudanense seedlings to phenanthrene polluted soils
Jun-nan DING, Hui-hui ZHANG, De-fu CHI
2014, 8(9): 1732-1738. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2013-0637
[Abstract](1301) [PDF 929KB](483)
In the present study, the effects of phenanthrene (Phe) polluted soils on celerity chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics parameters of Sorghum bicolor×S. sudanense seedlings were studied. The results showed that these parameters such as Fm, Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo and PIABS of the studied plants decreased with the increase of Phe concentrations which indicated that the Phe in soils inhibited the PSⅡ photochemical activities of these studied S. bicolor×S. sudanense seedlings. The study about electronic supply and transmission capacity of electronic donor side and receptor side of the PSⅡ showed that the fluorescence intensity increased and the activity of oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) decreased over 0.3 ms (K point) of OJIP curve in studied samples. Phe stressing also caused the the fluorescence intensity increasement at the J point and I point on the OJIP curve in the leaves of Phe stressed S. bicolor×S. sudanense seedlings which indicated that Phe stress reduced the electronic acceptance ability at the electronic receptor side of PSⅡ and blocked the electronic transmission from QA to QB. The optical energy absorption and distribution in leaves of S. bicolor×S. sudanense seedlings were significantly influenced by Phe stress. With the increase of Phe concentration, the ratio of optical energy absorbed by PSⅡ reaction center and used for electron transfer after QA- as well as the energy absorbed by each unit reaction center and used for electron transfer reduced in the leaves of treated S. bicolor×S. sudanense seedlings. It indicated that the proportion of optical energy captured by reaction center and used for photochemical reaction reduced and the proportion of invalid heat dissipation increased. Based on these results, it could be suggested that there were three important reasons for the reduction of PSⅡreactive center activity in leaves of S. bicolor×S. sudanense seedlings in the Phe stress soil which included the damage of OEC at electron donor side of PSⅡ, the electron transfer ability reduction at the electron acceptor side of PSⅡ and the change of the distribution and utilization of optical energy.
Effects of sodium nitroprusside on physiological characteristics of oat seedling under salt stress
Hai-ping LI, Qing-ping ZHOU, Hong-bo YAN, Guo-ling LIANG, Yong LIU
2014, 8(9): 1739-1745. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2013-0617
[Abstract](2618) [PDF 673KB](439)
Effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on physiology response of 3 Avena sativa cultivars seedling including Qingyan No.1, Qingyin No.2 and Lena to 150 mmol·L-1 NaCl stress were studied by measuring the contents of chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes.The results showed that application of different SNP concentrations (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mmol·L-1) after NaCl stress treatment improved the activities of SOD, POD and CAT and the contents of chlorophyll and reduced MDA contents in all of the three studied oat cultivars compared with salt stress seedling without SNP which indicated that SNP can relieve the damages of salt stress on oat seedlings. However, these relieve effects depended on the SNP concentration and cultivars so that the effects of 0.10 mmol·L-1 SNP treatment were best and Qingyin No.2 performed best.
Effects of nitrogen applications on seed yield of Cleistengenes songorica
Cun-zhi JIA, Yan-rong WANG, Xin-yong LI
2014, 8(9): 1746-1751. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0322
[Abstract](1855) [PDF 480KB](468)
The present experiments were conducted to study the effects of different nitrogen application rate and periods on seed yield and yield components of Cleistengenes songorica in 2013. Seed yields of C.songorica significantly increased (P0.05) with the increasing nitrogen application rate which maximized at 100 kg N·hm-2 application rate with 1 696.8 kg·hm-2. Meanwhile,fertile tillers per unit area and seeds per spikelet were significantly influenced by nitrogen application rate which also maximized at 100 kg N·hm-2 application rate with 3 075.77·m-2 and 40.53·spikelet-1, respectively. The number of fertile tillers per unit area was the most important component for seed yield.
Effects of irrigation on mixed sowing of leguminous and graminaceous forages
Lin ZHU, Shu-xin ZHENG, Xing XU, Zhi-jun HOU
2014, 8(9): 1752-1760. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2013-0613
[Abstract](1502) [PDF 601KB](401)
Yield performance and inter-specific competitive relationship for single sowing by two leguminous forages (Medicago sativa and Astragalus adsurgens) and three graminaceous forages (Aromus inermis, Elymus dahuricus and Agropyron cristatum) and mixed sowing between the two families forages were studied under three water conditions in Ningxia Central Semi-arid Belt. The two-year results showed that the yield for the combination between M. sativa and graminaceous forages was slightly lower in medium water condition (T2) and higher in the least water supply treatment (T1) and well watered conditions (T3) than single sowing yield of M. sativa. The yield for the combination between A. adsurgens and graminaceous forages was higher than that of single sowing of A. adsurgens. The single sowing yield of M. sativa was higher in 2011 and under well watered conditions (T3) for the first and second harvestings in 2012 and lower under the least water supply treatment (T1) in 2012 compared with that of A. adsurgens. The mixed sowing yield of M. sativa was less than its single sowing yield in 2011 and under T3 water condition in 2012 but higher than its single sowing yield under T1 condition in 2012. The mixed sowing yield of A. adsurgens was higher than its single yield in 2011 and 2012. The single sowing yield of M. sativa was higher in 2011 and under T3 water condition in 2012 and lower significantly under T1 in 2012 than that of A. adsurgens. The mixed sowing yield of M. sativa was less than its single yield in 2011 and under T2 and T3 for the first harvesting and higher under T1 in 2012. The mixed sowing yield of A. adsurgens was higher than its single sowing yield under T2 and T3 in 2012 for the second harvesting. For the third harvesting in 2012, the mixed sowing yield of A. adsurgens was lower under T3 and higher under T2 and T3 than its single sowing yield in 2012. When being sown with graminaceous forages, M. sativa dominated over the graminaceous forages. To the contrary, the proportion, CR (competitive rate) and plant height of graminaceous forages in mixed sowing combinations between A. adsurgens and graminaceous forages tended to be stable. Moreover, the combinations with RYT1 for the mixed sowing between A. adsurgens and graminaceous forages were more than those between M. sativa and graminaceous forages. To summarize, mixed sowing combinations between A. adsurgens and graminaceous forages are suggested to be adopted during the plantation of grassland in Ningxia Central Semi-arid Belt.
Introduction and selection of 5 alfalfa cultivars in Longdong Region
Hong CAO, Sheng-fa MA, Yong HAN, Zheng-wu CHEN
2014, 8(9): 1761-1766. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2013-0511
[Abstract](1795) [PDF 462KB](498)
The preliminary study about drought resistance and comparative trials of 5 alfalfa cultivars were carried out in Eastern Gansu Province during last 3 years. The studied cultivars included WL-343HQ, WL-903HQ, Surprise, Pioneer and Post Mark. The results showed that all of these five alfalfa cultivars could pass through winter safely which had wintering rates of above 90% except that variety of WL-343 HQ had wintering rates of 84.7%. The Pioneer had the highest production with the average hay yield of 8 789.4 kg·ha-1 which follow by WL-343HQ, Surprise, Post Mark, WL-903HQ. The Pioneer had the lowest stem-leaf ratio, water loss rate, malondialdehyde and highest proline content which suggested this cultivar had good quality and drought resistance. Among these studied cultivars, the Pioneer had optimal performance and was suitable for promoting in Longdong area as the preferred cultivars.
Effects of phosphorus fertilizing on growth and root morphology of Amorpha fruticosa
Dong-mei ZHANG, Xin SONG, Li-jing ZHANG, Xiao-wei HU, Xiao-long
Yan-hui ZHANG
2014, 8(9): 1767-1773. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0052
[Abstract](1553) [PDF 512KB](383)
The soil culture experiments were employed to study the effects of different phosphorus levels on the growth and root morphology of Amorpha fruticosa, and provided the reference for the determination of the suitable planting areas and phosphorus application in the Loess Plateau region. The results showed that the growth of leaf and the development of root were the best with 52.5 mg·kg-1 phosphorus treatment based on the results that both the characters of plant growth, including plant height, ground diameter, total biomass, shoot and root biomass, and characters of plant root morphology, including average diameter, total length, total surface area and total volume were the largest. The root-shoot ratio reached the largest with 17.5 mg·kg-1 low phosphorus treatment which suggested that A. fruticosa responded to low phosphorus stress through maintaining large proportion of roots. Phosphorus level of 52.5 mg·kg-1 was the optimal soil phosphorus concentration for the growth of A. fruticosa. A. fruticosa could grow well in the soils with low phosphorus content.
Fatty acid characteristics of forage and its influence factors
Xiao-qing SUN, Zhu-xin MAO, Hua FU, De-jun HUANG, Qian LI
2014, 8(9): 1774-1780. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0130
[Abstract](1586) [PDF 492KB](465)
Fatty acid is an important physiological active matter of plants, which plays an important role in stress resistance of forage. This paper reviewed the influence of genotype and environment factors on fatty acid composition and content of forage. A lot of research shows that, fatty acid characteristics are mainly determined by genotype, and environment factors could also adjust the fatty acid composition and content to enhance the adaptability of forage to different environments. The regulation was carried out by altering fatty acid content, fatty acid saturation or fatty acid unsaturation. In addition, fertilizer has some influence on fatty acid of forage, while which related with fertilization date and application rate.
Non-use value assessment of the Xinglong Mountain National Nature Reserve in Lanzhou, Gansu Province based on the contingent valuation method
Hui-ling WANG, Ya-nan PAN, Lin-rui LEI
2014, 8(9): 1781-1787. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2013-0674
[Abstract](1073) [PDF 556KB](333)
Using the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), the non-use values and the main influence factors of Xinglong Mountain National Nature Reserve in Gansu Province were estimated and analyzed. The study showed that the non-use value (NUV) of Xinglong Mountain Nature Reserve was estimated to 9 210 million per year, of which its existence value, heritage value and option value was 44.02%, 42.39% and 13.59%, respectively. The reference analysis showed that WTP(willingness to pay) was positively correlated with satisfaction and willingness to pay about Xinglong Mountain Nature Reserve. Using the Logit and Probit model, willingness attitudes have the closest relationship with respondent’s age and income, especially for age.
A review of ecological benefits of silvopasture systems
Lei-yi ZHANG, Jing-ru ZHANG, Fang LIU, Bin YAO
2014, 8(9): 1789-1797. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0030
[Abstract](2097) [PDF 558KB](521)
At present, the highly development and utilization of environmental resources has caused seriously ecological and environmental problems, however, the silvopasture systems have great potential in improving ecological environment and realizing sustainable development which can be applied as a method of importantly ecological restoration. The present paper summarizes the home and abroad research about silvopasture systems in the recent five years which including photosynthetic characteristics, microclimatic effects, biodiversity and soil function etc. Based on the problems and defects existing in the research of current silvopasture systems, we consider that the future research of silvopasture systems should be focused on comprehensive evaluation of the ecological benefits, mechanism of carbon sequestration in the ecosystem, the genetic diversity of soil microorganisms, mechanism of soil restoration and the model of quantitative systems etc.
Empirical research on operating efficiency and influence factors of Rural Credit Cooperatives in Gansu Province
Yu CHEN, Lin-juan YANG, Juan-juan ZHANG
2014, 8(9): 1798-1804. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2014-0222
[Abstract](983) [PDF 486KB](348)
The Rural Credit Cooperative is a significant component of rural financial system of Gansu Province. Researches about the rural credit cooperative’s operating efficiency are the keys of solving its development bottleneck and promoting its agriculture supporting ability. This study calculated the operating efficiency of Rural Credit Cooperative in Gansu Province during 2005 and 2012 using the DEA with unanticipated outputs. The results showed that credit cooperative’s operating efficiency gradually increased which had positive correlations with loan-to-deposit ratio, peasants’ per capita net incomes and loan market share, and had negative correlation with scale of asset and ratio of operating expenses based on multiple linear regressions. It suggested that completing management mechanism, innovating service and products, developing high quality customer and speeding up building competitive rural financial market.