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Grazing played a significant role in the land usage and management of the Tibetan plateau. With the change in global climate, the impacts of different grazing intensity on net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of alpine meadow ecosystems in Qinghai-tibet plateau were different. In order to reveal the variations of gas exchange under different grazing intensities and provide the basic data for the carbon balance calculation of ecosystem, gas exchange under different grazing intensities were measured by infrared analyzer (Li-6400) with a transparent and closed chamber. With respect to NEE, the obvious seasonal changes were observed for ecosystem total respiration (Reco) and gross primary production (GPP). The varying curve of NEE performed as U-shaped and the varying curves of both Reco and GPP performed as single peak value wave. Values of NEE were negative from mid-May to mid-Sep, which indicated that alpine meadow ecosystem was carbon sink area at this stage. With 50% grazing intensity, NEE and GPP had the highest value which showed that moderate grazing was optimal to maintain higher level of carbon sinks for the Qinghai-Tibet plateau alpine meadow ecosystem.
In this study, we modeled the aboveground biomass of the alpine meadow on the Northern Tibetan Plateau using seven models (i.e.linear,logarithmic,quadratic,cubic,power,growth,exponential) and three vegetation indices (i.e. normalized difference vegetation indices, NDVI; green normalized difference vegetation indices, GNDVI; soil adjusted vegetation indices, SAVI) obtained from an agriculture digital multispectral camera. Among all the vegetation indices, NDVI had the best, SAVI had the better and GNDVI had the worst fitting capability. Among all the models, the linear and exponential models of NDVI and the linear and power models of SAVI had an excellent fitting and estimating capability.
Soil of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layer were sampled from 6 different cultivated grassland in arid and saline-alkali area of Ningxia to analysis their physico-chemical properties, nutrient content and soil microbial quantity and screen the best grassland to improve soil quality. The results showed that soil moisture content, bulk density, pH in 0-20 cm layer were lower than that in 20-40 cm layer in the cultivated grassland. Soil nutrient and soil total salt content in 0-20 cm layer were higher than that in 20-40 cm. Leguminous pasture grassland performed better in increasing soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen in both sampled layers and reducing soil salinity in 20-40 cm compared with other gramineae pastures. Gramineous pastures performed better in improving water conservation, reducing soil bulk density and increasing soil available phosphorus in 20-40 cm soil compared with other leguminous pastures. The ability of legume to improve the soil quality decreased in the following order: Medicago sativa＞Astragalus adsurgens＞Melilotus offcinalia. The ability of gramineae to improve soil quality decreased in the following order: Elymus cylindricus＞Agropyron cristatum＞A.cristatum×A.mongolicum. For all of the studied cultivated grassland, there were more soil bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi in 0-20 than in 20-40 cm. The numbers of these 3 tested microorganism also varied with cultivated pasture. For leguminosae, the number of microorganism decreased in the following order: M.sativa＞A.adsurgens＞M.offcinalia. For gramineae, the number of microorganism decreased in the following order E.cylindricus＞A.cristatum＞A.cristatum×A.mongolicum. Soil water content in 0-20 cm was significantly positive correlated with numbers of fungi (P0.05). Soil pH value and the number of actinomycetes and fungi in 20-40 cm were significant negative correlated (P0.05). Soil total salt contents in both layers were negatively correlated with the numbers of bacteria, actinomyces and fungi. Organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were significant positive correlated (P0.01) with the numbers of bacteria, actinomyces. Available phosphorus and available potassium were significantly positively correlated with the number of fungi (P0.01).
The soil nutrients of Amorpha fruticosa cultivated in Lhasa, Tibet were measured in continuous three years from 2010-2012 when the plants were 1-year-age, 2-year-age and 3-year-age, respectively. The test indices included total nitrogen, total phosphorus, soil organic carbon, nitrate nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, pH and available phosphorus from the rhizosphere and bulk soil. The results indicated that all parameters of the 1-year-age and 2-year-age A.fruticosa showed the positive rhizosphere impacts. However, all parameters except with pH and available phosphorus of the 3-year-age A. fruticosa didn’t show positive rhizosphere impacts. There was no significant variation of soil total nitrogen and phosphorus in rhizosphere and bulk. With the extension of cultivation years, the nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen of both rhizosphere and bulk soil increased, however, the pH values and available phosphorus decreased. The organic carbon of bulk soil increase with the extension of cultivation years, however, the organic carbon of rhizosphere soil increase in the second year and decrease in the third year. The total phosphorus of rhizosphere soil had a extremely significant positive correlation with total nitrogen and available phosphorus (P0.01). The pH values of rhizosphere soil had a significant negative correlation with the ammonium nitrogen (P0.05) and had a significant positive correlation with available phosphorus (P0.05). The ammonium nitrogen of rhizosphere and bulk soil had a significant positive correlation with the nitrate nitrogen (P0.05). The ammonium nitrogen of bulk soil had a significant negative correlation with the pH values and available phosphorus (P0.05). The pH values of bulk soil had a negative correlation with ammonium nitrogen (P0.05) and a positive correlation with available phosphorus (P0.05).
Based on field-orientation observation, soil respiration variations and its relationship of enclosure which is the control plot, and grazing land, mole-hills and ant-hills in different biotopes through the method of comparative analysis were analyzed in the Haibei region of Qinghai Province from June to September in 2012.The main results were as followed:1) Seasonal dynamics of each treatment were apparent, which was enclosure treatmentmole hill treatmentgrazing treatmentant tower treatment.2)Soil respiration in different months showed: differences of mole hill treatment and enclosure and grazing treatments were not significant in June and July; differences of ant tower and other treatments were significant (P0.05) in other moths; difference of grazing treatment was not significant compared with enclosure treatment except the soil respiration in July.3)Soil respiration rate was positively correlated with soil temperature,and the most significant one was control treatment, the correlation coefficient of 0.851.The Q10 were followed by 2.39, 4.66, 2.03 and 2.29, respectively.4)There was no significant correlation between SRR and soil water content.
In the present study, the relationship between vegetation diversity and functional diversity of soil in natural Pinus koraiensis forest of Lesser Kingan was examined. The correlations between vegetation diversity, soil physicochemical properties, soil enzyme activities and soil functional diversity were determined. The results showed that vegetation diversity was correlated with both soil enzyme activities and soil functional diversity. There were correlations between enzyme activities and plant diversity indexes for trees. Species richness index S was extremely negatively correlated with phosphatase (P0.01) and positively correlated with cellulose (P0.01). β-glucosidase was positively correlated with index Jsw (P0.05). For shrubs, cellulose and urease were positively correlated with index S(P0.05), cellulose was positively correlated with species diversity index H′(P0.05). For herbs, index S was positively correlated with β-glucosidase (P0.01) and negatively correlated with phosphatase (P0.05). Soil functional diversity index H showed a positive correlation with index S and index H′ in trees (P0.05) and showed a positive correlation with index S and index H′ in herbs (P0.01). It is suggested that vegetation diversity of natural P.koraiensis forest affect functional diversity of soil by enzyme activity, and there was a significant correlation between them.
In the present paper, the biological characteristics and nutrition utilization ability of Corticium rolfsii isolated from Hordeum vulgare were studied. The basidiospore of C.rolfsii can germinate at temperature range from 5 to 30 ℃ and pH range from pH 4.53 to pH 9.18. The optimal germination conditions were 20 ℃ and pH 5.59 which had 76.5% germination ratio after 48 hours. The basidiospore can germinate in free water, however, it cannot germinate at relative humidity 100%. The basidiospore germination rates did not significantly improve under both nutrient solutions including sucrose, soil and leaf and light treatment. Under 15.5～21.0 ℃ and relative humidity 31%～71% conditions, the basidiospore still can germinate even after 69 days. The mycelia of C.rolfsii grew normally on media with carbon source such as starch, glucose, sucrose, fructose, cellulose, maltose, lactose, sorbitol, galactose, mannose, and xylose and nitrogen source such as urea, tyrosine, ammonium nitrate, threonine, ammonium carbonate, ammonium sulfate and glutamate. The mycelia of C.rolfsii grow grew slowly on media with sorbose and ammonium carbonate .
The nitrogenase activities of endophytic diazotrophs in Cyndon dactylon were studied by acetylene reduction assay (ARA). The results showed that 24 endophytic diazotrophs had been obtained using N-free medium. Significant differences in nitrogenase activities were observed among the endophytic diazotrophs, ranging from 3.45 to 383.05 μmol·h-1·mL-1. Nitrogenase from the strains of GC-1 had the highest activity. Nine strains with higher nitrogenase activity were identified as Klebsiella,Enterobacter,Pseudomonas,Pantoea and Rhizobium, respectively, by morphological, physiological-biochemical characterization and 16S rDNA sequence analysis.
Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi(Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus intraradices)on growth and physiological response of two species of cool-season turfgrass, Festuca arundinacea and Poa paratensis grown in pots with different NaCl treatment (0, 0.8%, 1.2% and 1.6%) were investigated under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the efficiency of inoculation of AM fungi to increase salt tolerance of F.arundinacea and P.paratensis. There was significant decrease in mycorrhizal colonization, mycorrhizal dependence, plant growth, chlorophyll relative content, salt tolerant coefficient and appearance quality with NaCl concentration increase. All the inoculation treatments with AM fungi could promote the growth, chlorophyll relative content, salt tolerant coefficient and appearance quality of F.arundinacea and P.paratensis plants, and enhance the salt tolerance of the plants. The mycorrhizal colonization and efficiency of dual inoculation of AM fungi were superior than that of the other treatments.
Tall fescue(Festuca arundinacea)is a promising species for remediation of lead (Pb) contaminated soils by phytoextraction. In order to select the genotypes with higher Pb tolerance or high accumulation ability, the growth response, Pb uptake and translocation characteristics of 18 tall fescue genotypes were studied under hydroponic culture with 500, 1 000, 1 500 mg·L-1 of Pb. The results indicated that all of the tested tall fescue genotypes were tolerant to 500 mg·L-1 of Pb. When the Pb concentrations were 1 000 and 1 500 mg·L-1, there were significant variation in turf quality, Pb uptake and translocation among genotypes (P＜0.05). Shoot Pb concentrations in ‘Kentucky-31’,‘PI232876’, ‘PI634229’ and ‘AST7001’ were more than 35 mg·g-1 DW (dry weight). Meanwhile, the translocation factors of these 4 genotypes were higher than others (0.42). Among all the genotypes, ‘Silverado’ had the least shoot Pb concentration (3.34 mg·g-1 DW) and translocation factor (0.03). However it was the most tolerant to high Pb concentration and grew normally in nutrient solution containing 1500 mg·L-1 Pb without suffering phytotoxicity. This work provided new plant genotypes for revegetation or phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soils.
In order to analyze the Nicotiana sylvestris N’ gene-mediated tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) resistance signaling pathways and breed plant resistance species to TMV, eight genes including PAD4, EDS1, Rar1, Sgt1, NPR1, Jar6, COI1, CTR1 were selected as candidate genes. Total RNA of N.sylvestris was extracted as templates and eight genes fragments were cloned by RT-PCR. After digesting with appropriate enzyme, ligase and transformation, RNAi vectors of the eight genes were successfully constructed. The RNAi vectors can be used for genetic transformation experiment after their structure were confirmed by the same enzyme digest. These vectors laid foundation for analyzing the N’ gene-mediated TMV resistance signaling pathways.
Four ESTs encoding CBL from Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium were identified in our previous study.Four CBL genes were isolated from C.lavandulifolium and named after ClCBL1-4 using RACE method. The multiple sequence alignment analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and C. lavandulifolium CBL sequences suggested that all of the ClCBL1-4 proteins coding sequence contained four EF-hand motifs and the ClCBL1 protein coding sequence had N-terminal myristoylation sequence. The expression patterns of ClCBLs were analysis under salt,drought,cold,heat and ABA treatments as well as under normal conditions in different developmental stages. The results suggested that ClCBLs might play important roles in C. lavandulifolium’s responses to abiotic stresses because ClCBLs can be induced under different stresses.
Mitocondiral nad1 gene and chloroplast fragment trnT-trnL of Spartina alterniflora were amplified and sequenced for 20 samples collected from the Middle, Northern and Southern populations with phenotypic variations in coastal areas of China and the population genetic diversity were determined. Based on 3 polymorphic sites from the sequencing fragment, 20 samples of S.alterniflora were divided into 4 haplotypes. The Haplotype diversity and Indel Haplotypes diversity was 0.189 and 0.542, respectively. The mean of Nei’s genetic distance among populations was 0.028. Coefficient of gene differentiation between populations (Gst) between Southern population and Northern population or Middle population was 0.015 2 or 0.004 15 and both of the fixation index(Fst)was 0. Genetic diversity completely came from within-population variations. The results indicated that S.alterniflora in China had very low genetic diversity and no genetic differentiation between these three populations. Phenotypic plasticity might explain more phenotypic variation of S.alterniflora along the coastal line of China. Moreover, S.alterniflora in Chong Ming Island showed different genetic features from other populations.
Seed germination tests were conducted to investigate dormancy and the methods of breaking dormancy of Solanum rostratum. Optimal conditions (combination of temperature, illumination and germination-bed) were selected for seed germination examination of the species. The results showed that seeds of S.rostratum had deep dormancy. Gibberellins (GA) treatment can effectively break the dormancy. Scarification of seed coat could partially break seed dormancy. The most optimal germination temperature was 30 ℃ constant temperature. Illumination had no effect on seed germination. Combined considering germination rate and germination speed, the optimal germination conditions were recommended as 30 ℃ constant temperature with appropriate illuminationon on Top-Paper germination bed. The first time to record germination was the 7th day after bedding and the last time to record was the 14th day after bedding. The normal seedling of S.rostratum should have a pair of well developed cotyledons, one taproot, and several lateral roots belonging to epigaeous dicotyledons seedling.
The interaction effects of temperature and soil moisture on seedling growth of Vicia sativa were studied using the pot experiment to determine the optimum temperature and soil moisture at seedling stage. There were total 20 treatments including five soil moisture contents (50% FMC, 60% FMC, 70% FMC, 80% FMC, and 90% FMC, FMC means field maximum capacity) and four temperatures (10, 15, 20 and 25 ℃). At seedling stage, V.sativa was greatly affected by temperature and soil moisture. Under all of the four temperatures, 80% FMC and 90% FMC soil moisture content were not beneficial for seedling growth of V.sativa because both the germination rate and the dry weight of total biomass of 80% FMC and 90% FMC decreased significantly (P0.05) compared with the 70% FMC soil moisture content. Under 70% FMC soil moisture content and 20 ℃ treatment, V.sativa performed best which had the highest germination rate of 96.87% and the highest total bimass of 3.0833 g and showed significant difference (P0.05) with every other treatment. It suggested that the growth conditions of moisture content between 50% FMC and 70% FMC and temperature at 15～20 ℃ were optimum for V.sativa seedling.
The regrowth mechanism of ryegrasses (Lolium multiflorum) with different stubble heights was investigated. Experiments with different photoperiod were conducted. Results showed that the plants in darkness with low stubble height had significant lower leaf regrowth biomass (P＜0.05) compared with the plants with high stubble height and root clipping. Total biomass index which showed the variation of total organic substances during regrowth with single stubble was used to evaluate leaf regrowth with different stubble heights with the minimized influence of stubble stored organic substances. The plants with light, single clipping and low stubble height had higher total biomass index. The plants with light, frequent clipping and high stubble height also had higher total biomass index. Concentrations of zeatin and zeatin riboside (Z+ZR) and abscisic acid (ABA) in leaves and xylem sap from the plants with light were measured and showed that total biomass index had positive correlation with leaf Z+ZR concentrations which adjusted by roots. It can be concluded that root-induced leaf cytokinin was critical factor affecting ryegrass regrowth at different clipping heights
In the present study, SPAD values of different positions on the same leaf were measured using the equipment SPAD-502(Soil Plant Analysis Development) for 5 herbage grasses, including Avena sativa cv. Qinghai No.1, A.sativa cv. Qinghai, Secale cereal, Lolium multiflorum cv. Tetragold, and L.multiflorum cv. Changjiang No.2. The results indicated that SPAD values of A.sativa cv. Qinghai No.1 and A. sativa cv. Qinghai were significantly higher than that of S.cereal,L. multiflorum cv. Tetragold and L. multiflorum cv. Changjiang No.2. Moreover, the SPAD value stabilization varied from position to position on the same leaf. SPAD value from the same leaf declined from the tip to the middle part and to the bottom of a leaf. The measured SPAD values at the middle part of a leaf were more stable than those from the tip and the bottom which could be used as the appropriate candidate part for SPAD measure.
Effects of different concentrations of plant growth regulator (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) on seedling growth and physiological response under aluminum (Al) stressed alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were studied. The results showed that Al-stress significantly inhibited the alfalfa growth which indicated by the root elongation, lateral root number, under-ground biomass and above-ground biomass reduction. IAA concentrations in root tip and apical tip significantly decreased (P0.05) under Al stress. The inhibition of alfalfa growth under Al stress was alleviated by exogenous spraying IAA which indicated by the root elongation, lateral root number, under-ground biomass and above-ground biomass increase. Exogenous application of IAA also significantly decreased (P0.05) Al content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage in the roots of Al-stressed alfalfa, as well as significantly increased (P0.05) the chlorophyll content. The optimum concentration of IAA was 6 mg·L-1 whose parameters had significant difference with that of Al-treatment along (P0.05).
The ultra-structure and photosynthetic physiology of Potentilla leucophylla and P.verticillaris under different dehydrate stresses were studied with electron microscopy. Under light dehydrate stress, the ultra-structure of two P.species had minor damage. The photosynthetic indices including stomatal conductance (Gs), net photosynthetic rate(Pn), transpiration rate(Tr), intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci) and water use efficiency (WUE) also decreased, especially Gs decreased significantly which showed that stomatal limited photosynthesis. Under moderate and severe dehydrate stresses, the ultra-structure of two P.species had serious damage; simultaneously. The photosynthetic indices had different performance. Pn decreased further, Tr,Gs and WUE decreased rapidly and Ci increased slowly. Non-stomatal limitation played a major role in this progress. Both Potentilla species have drought resistance based on the the structural and physiological indices although P.verticillaris had slightly stronger drought tolerance than P.leucophylla.
To investigate the potential of winter wheat to provide grain and forage in a rape and winter wheat rotation system, various cutting treatments were conducted on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) following either Brassica campestris (BW) or fallow (FW) in the rain-fed region of the Loess Plateau. Cutting treatments were winter mowing (Cut1), spring mowing (Cut2) or no mowing (Uncut). We measured water status in the wheat growing period, the yield and quality of mowed forage, and grain yield and its components at harvest time. The forage yields of winter wheat after winter mowing and spring mowing under BW rotation were higher than that under FW rotation, whereas forage nutritive values of winter wheat between these treatments had no significant difference. In the BW rotation, the forage yield after spring mowing was significantly higher than that after winter mowing. The forage after both winter mowing and spring mowing had high nutritional value with more than 20% crude protein content and more than 151% relative feed value (RFV), however, micronutrient level was relatively low which cannot meet the daily requirement of livestock. Compared with FW, the grain yield of winter wheat under BW rotation decreased, especially grain yield decreased by 20.9% after spring mowing which most come from that the reduction of the numbers of panicles per unit of area. In the BW rotation system, the grain yields after winter mowing and spring mowing were lower than that without mowing. Dual-purpose usage of winter wheat for grain and forage in a rape and wheat rotation system could provide high-quality forage production without significant reductions to grain yield. Spring is the most appropriate time to harvest winter wheat for forage under this system.
A pot experiment was conducted to study the response of the growth characteristics, reproductive allocation pattern of Elymus nutans to competition density and nutrient addition. The plant height, leaf length, panicle length, tiller number and each organ biomass of E.nutans had competition-density effects under different planting densities. Biomass allocation of each organ were constrained by the density and the reproductive biomass allocation reached the highest of 10.46% under lower density (20 seed·m-2). There were significant effects of high nitrogen fertilizer on each organ biomass. Meanwhile, the effects of nitrogen fertilizer on reproductive biomass showed the trend of the inverted “V” type. Each growth index of E.nutans was significantly positive (P0.01) correlated with each other under individual treatment of planting density or nitrogen fertilizer. There was “shift” trade-off relationship for resource allocation of each organ of E.nutans.
The quantitative characters and biomass of clonal population of Setaria viridis and S.glauca from recent abandoned cropland were studied. The results indicated that the component quantitative characteristics within each species was significantly different, and both plant species had high phenotypic plasticity. Coefficients of variation in spikes of S.viridis was 123.48% and that in leaves biomass of S.glauca was 84.43% which were highest quantitative characteristics of each, respectively. For the clonal population of S.viridis, both the relationship between total tiller number, reproduction tiller number, total plant height and total biomass and the relationship between each component biomass and total tiller number performed as a positive power function. However, there were linear relationship in the S.glauca clonal population. Both S.viridis and S.glauca population had the highest stem biomass allocation (37.72%, 47.74%) and lower spike biomass allocation(15.04%, 10.82%) .
In some ecosystems such as arctic tundra, alpine meadow and boreal forest where nitrogen mineralization is strongly limited, it is found that many plants are able to directly absorb organic nitrogen (N) in soil. This phenomenon urges people to rethink the traditional concept of terrestrial N cycling based on N mineralization. In this review, we analyze the recent work about the types of organic N that plants can absorb, the roles of mycorrhiza in these nutrition-acquiring processes and experimental designs and methods utilized in theses studies. The organic N sources that plants can absorb include free amino acids and low molecular weight peptides. The roles of mycorrhizal fungi and saprotrophic fungi are important during the process of obtaining N sources in polyphenol-protein complexes by plants. The design of organic N uptake experiments could be performed with the help of isotope techniques and mathematic models. In the future, how to examine the uptake of organic N by plants under field conditions needs to be carefully considered in research.
Seed germination and seedling growth played an important role in plant life cycle and were the most sensitive period to environmental factors. The research of salicylic acid for seed germination and seedling growth were reviewed in this paper which includes the tolerance of seeds and seedling to some environmental stresses such as salts, drought, heat, chilling and heavy metal. The comprehensive analysis showed that salicylic acid provided effective protections for seed germination and seedling growth by increasing osmotic substances, activating antioxidant enzyme and α-amylase to maintain the stability of membrane structure under stress although these protections cannot completely clean up the damages. Salicylic acid had dual effects on the seed germination and seedling growth whose optimum concentration was effected by plant species, treatments time, and stress. The explanation of the mechanism how salicylic acid improve plant tolerance to environmental stresses in seed germination and seedling growth stages could provide a theoretical basis for agriculture production.
The pest insects seriously occur in natural grassland, which caused serious damage to the animal husbandry in China. During the past ten years from 2003 to 2012, the damage grassland of annual averaged 20.99 million hectares and the pasture lost annual averaged 9.45 billion kg by the pest insects. The pest insects damage in natural grassland reduced gradually by disaster prevention and control measures organized by the ministry of agriculture of China. Compared with 2003, the damaged area of pest insects decreased by 34.7% in 2012. Grasshoppers’ damage significantly decreased and the other pest insect’ damage decreased except with that grassland caterpillars’ damage decreased since 2008 although its damage increased from 2003. The main reasons which lead to the heave pest damage included less annual prevention area, weakly monitor and warming and less support in science and technology. Some suggestions on how to effectively control the pest insects were also put forward in this paper.
One lactic acid bacteria strain L2 with low temperature resistant and more lactic acid production was isolated and selected from corn silage and fresh kimchi. The strain was identified with morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization according to the Bergey′s manual of systematic bacteriology. The culture conditions of this strain were optimized as 3.1% (v/v) inoculation amount, initial pH 6.4 and temperature of 18.4 ℃ with Box-Behnken Design.
In order to explore the influence of balance between forage and livestock on the production and income of setting herdsmen, the four successive years (2009-2012) production data of the demonstration households which met the requirements of livestock balance by adjusting and optimizing the structure of livestock and other methods in the Ashili County, Changji City herdsman were collected and analyzed. This investigation showed that the income of animal husbandry in 2010, 2011 and 2012 increased by 126%, 263% and 289%, respectively, compared with 2009. The inputs of animal husbandry in 2010, 2011 and 2012 also increased by 50.8%, 103.9% and 75.6%, respectively, compared with 2009. The ratio of income and inputs in 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 was 1∶1.34, 1∶1.70, 1∶1.71 and 1∶2.79, respectively. The net income of demonstration households gradually increased which was 51 809.20, 124 439.90 and 182 810.00 CNY in 2010, 2011 and 2012. The comprehensive analysis showed that this forage and livestock balance was effective to improve production efficiency and protect the ecological environment.
With the increasing market gap between alfalfa production and new political supporting, domestic alfalfa industry will accept new challenge. Furthermore, alfalfa enterprises play a core role in the process of alfalfa industrialization. Based on investigation and studies of 49 alfalfa enterprises in Gansu Province, The developing status and existing problems of Gansu alfalfa enterprises were analyzed. Finally some suggestions and countermeasures for the future development of Gansu alfalfa enterprises were put forward.