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Fractional vegetation cover (FVC) is an important indicator of grassland. Accurate estimation FVC has great emphasis for researches of soil erosion and the exchanges of water and CO2 between land surface and atmosphere. Estimating FVC with digital photos has become the most popular and efficient method in ground observation. Different types of cameras and different methods have been employed to estimate FVC. To best of our knowledge, none of studies compared the advantages and disadvantages among them. In the current study, photos from different types of alpine grassland in Shule River Basin on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were taken using 3 different cameras, i.e. a multispectral camera (ADC, with red, green and near infrared rays), a modified multispectral camera (XNite, with blue, green, and near-infrared rays), and a conventional camera (COMMON, with blue, green, and red rays) . With the FVCs retrieved with WinCAM (a commercial software) as “real” values, accuracy and efficiency of the Digital Photos Processing System (DPPS) and L*a*b* method were compared. The performances of XNite and COMMON cameras were better than that of ADC. DPPS system was more accurate and flexible than L*a*b* method. With the combination of DPPS and conventional camera, FVCs of alpine grassland can be estimated accurately and efficiently.
The present study evaluated the ecological quality of Mt. Qomolangma region in 2010 by establishing the composite index of meteorological evaluation. Five indices including humidity, vegetation coverage, water bodies density, soil degradation and disaster were calculated based on the combined EOS／MODIS satellite data and meteorological data which included satellite data of MOD13A3 in 2010 and MCD12Q1 in 2009 and atmospheric temperature (℃), precipitation (mm), relative humidity (%), wind speed(m·s-1) and pressure (Pa) in 2010 collected from 5 stations in Mt. Qomolangma region and 3 stations surrounding the region. The results showed that composite index of meteorological evaluation can improve the efficiency of the ecological quality evaluation and well describe ecological quality of Mt. Qomolangma region from both geographical distribution and dynamics which can be used to monitor the dynamics of ecological environment. The application of this method could provide a useful tool for scientific evaluation of environmental changes and conduct a scientific basis for ecological function division and ecological environment protection in this region.
Using a series of indices proposed by Levins, Shannon-Wiener and Petraitis, the eigenvalue of niches for 16 plant population which existed in Nanping mountain and Dongshan afforestation station were investigated in the present paper. No significant difference presented in the niches breadths in two regions which showed that the competition relationship between the two population was not obvious and there was no significant difference in environmental resources. Significant differences existed in the Petraitis overlapping indices which showed that there were significant effects on the ecological vegetation restoration patterns of these population. Shannon-wiener niche breadth and Petraitis specific overlap indices can be explored to evaluate the competition and resource utilization status among different plant communities, and it could reflect the characteristics of ecology which plant communities response to artificial interference. The niche theory could be used to evaluate the effect of ecological restoration.
A disease susceptible cultivar of Astrgalus adsurgens was applied with exogenous NO and AsA after inoculating Embellisia astragali. Disease incidence (DI), disease severity index (DSI), H2O2 concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activity were analyzed to investigate the interaction between NO and H2O2 during disease development. Compared with control plants, DI and DSI of NO treatment plants significantly decreased (P0.05). AsA treatment weakened the effects of NO. NO could induce more H2O2 during the earlier period. However, NO delayed H2O2 accumulation during the later period that concentration of H2O2 was relatively higher. The increasement of SOD, POD and CAT activity induced by NO was inhibited by AsA. The results showed that exogenous NO implication could improve the disease resistance of A.adsurgens. NO may interact with H2O2 and exert its effect by modulating the endogenous H2O2 level.
Culture conditions and typical growth curve of eight nitrogen-fixing bacteria strains with strong ability of nitrogenase activity and the solubilizing phosphorus capability isolated from Kentucky bluegrass rhizosphere soil samples were studied. The results showed that the temperature adaptation scope of strains was wide and strains could grow well between 20～40 ℃, with the optimum growth temperature of 25 ℃. The nitrogen fixation strains could grow well in a neutral or slightly alkaline pH condition, with the optimum initial pH range of 7.0 to 7.5. The optimum ventilation volume of strain N4, N5, N10, N16, N17 and N20 were 220 mL, and the optimum ventilation volume of strain N2 and N14 were 200 and 100 mL. Based on the above results, the typical nitrogen-fixing bacteria strains growth curves were determined. Most of the strains entered the logarithmic phase after 2 h. Different strains started the lag phase, the logarithmic phase, the stationary phase and the declining phase at different culture time.
The effects of fertilizers, undecomposed sheep manure, decomposed sheep manure on height, coverage, density and above-ground biomass were studied using fertilizing trial plots for Poa pratensis cv. Qinghai in the Three River Origin Region Dawu Area. The height, coverage, density and above-ground biomass after using decomposed sheep manure of 15 000 kg·ha-1 for pasture of P.pratensis cv. Qinghai was 69.5 cm, 80.7%, 6 190 branch·m-2 and 439.4 kg·ha-1, respectively. These indices were equal to 150 kg·ha-1 phosham fertilization application. The decomposed sheep manure had better yield-increasing effect than un-decomposed sheep manure with the same application amount. Organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, total phosphorus and available phosphorus of soil increase with increasing of the dosage of decomposed sheep manure.
In order to study pollen morphology, pollen viability and stigma receptivity, an investigation on pollen and stigma of Adonis amurensis in Heilongjiang, China was conducted. The relationships between pollen viability, stigma receptivity and pollination success were also analyzed. The results showed that the best medium for pollen germination was 10% sucrose + 0.1 g·L-1 H3BO3+0.1 g·L-1 Ca (NO3)2. Pollen viability maintained more than 70% at the first three days of blossom. The highest pollen viability was observed at the second day and decreased significantly since the fourth day. Pollen viability was 31.92% at the end of florescence. Stigma had weak receptivity ability at the first day and strong receptivity ability since the second day which maintained 2~3 days. Pollen had germination ability at the first day of blossom and anther crack delayed 2~3 days which provided the opportunity for cross-pollination. At the same time, there was the possiblity of self-fertilize for the environmental constraints and space advantage of self pollen.
In order to establish efficient and convenient evaluation system of salinity tolerance for Zoysiagrass, the effects of different NaCl levels on leaf firing percentage and dry shoot clipping weight were investigated with parallel processing and gradually increasing processing. The results showed that two processing methods were consistent with each for salt tolerance of Zoysiagrass. The gradually increasing processing method could be used to quick evaluation of large-scale germplasm resources of Zoysiagrass because it was convenient, low cost, stable and reliable.
Drought is an important environmental factor limiting growth of turfgrass. Recovery growth of turf after re-watering is very important for maintaining turf quality. Using two turf cultivar with different drought resistance including Zoysia japonica ‘Qingdao’ and Z.matrella as the experiment materials, their turf quality, leaf water potential, content of chlorophyll, CAT activity, leaf relative conductance and the content of MDA during recovery were studied. The results showed that turf quality, leaf water potential, content of chlorophyll, CAT activity increased gradually, however, leaf relative conductance and the content of MDA decreased gradually during recovery. After 15 days of re-watering, both Z.japonica ‘Qingdao’ and Z.matrella did not recover to the same degree with the control plants. Drought resistance cultivar Z.matrella recovered faster compared with drought sensitive cultivar Z. japonica ‘Qingdao’ during recovery as the he former have higher turf quality, leaf water poteatial, content of chlorophyll, CAT activity. Leaf relative conductance and the content of MDA of Z.matrella were lower than that of Z.japonica ‘Qingdao’ during recovery, which indicated drought resistance cultivar Z.matrella had better recovery capability than drought sensitive cultivar Z.japonica ‘Qingdao’.
The present research studied the influence of different hormones and their concentrations on callus induction and differentiation of mature seeds from wild Kentucky bluegrass in Longxi, Gansu. Callus induction rate had significant difference (P0.05) with different regeneration medium and with different concentrations of 2,4-D. MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg·L-1 2,4-D was optimum for callus induction which had a callus induction rate of 41.40%. When 2, 4-D used alone, callus induction had higher frequency and better quality compared with the combination of 2,4-D and 6-BA. MS medium supplemented with 2 mg·L-1 6-BA was optimum for callus differentiation. The green plant frequency increased significantly (P0.05) after adding 0.5 mg·L-1 NAA and 0.2 mg·L-1 2,4-D to MS medium with 2 mg·L-1 6-BA which was 22.88% and 19.72%, respectively. The optimum medium for rooting differentiation was the same as the medium for callus differentiation which has 100% rooting frequency.
The genetic diversity of two wild alfalfa (Medicago sativa) accessions and 27 alfalfa cultivars were investigated using peroxidase, catalase and amylase isozyme polymorphism. A total of 30 stable bands were observed by three isozymes across 29 accessions, and six of which were specific bands which were only detected in Longdong wild alfalfa, Baicheng wild alfalfa, Langersteiner cultivar and Atlantic cultivar. The percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) for peroxidase, catalase and amylase were 75.00%, 55.56% and 33.33%, respectively. The similarity coefficient among 29 accessions ranged from 0.633 to 1.000 and averaged at 0.867. Compared with the similarity coefficient values between wild alfalfa accessions and cultivars, the similarity coefficient values among cultivars were relatively higher. Cluster analysis indicated that 29 accessions can be divided into three defined groups at the similarity coefficient value of 0.772, and two wild alfalfa accessions were clustered in two independent groups, respectively. The position of Longdong wild alfalfa and Baicheng wild alfalfa in graph of principal component analysis was relatively isolated which suggest that wild alfalfa accessions had relatively distant genetic relationship with cultivars.
The effects of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) on growth parameters of drunken horse grass (Achnatherum inebrians) over an 8-week period were determined with controlled-environment experiment. Varions were also determined for anti-oxidative enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), proline and malonialdehyde (MDA). The results showed that the plant height, tiller number and aboveground biomass of A.inebrians decreased with the increasing concentration of Mn, Zn and Fe, which had significant differences (P0.05) among treatments. However, MDA and the proline content significantly (P0.05) increased with the increasing concentration of heavy metals. Under the stress of Mn, POD activities of A. inebrians increased with the increasing concentration of Mn. CAT and SOD activities significantly (P0.05) increased under the concentrations of 0.01～2.5 mmol·L-1 treatments and dropped dramatically under the concentrations of 2.5～7.5 mmol·L-1 treatments. Under the stress of Zn, POD activities had a peak value at 7.0 mmol·L-1, while SOD activities maintained higher level at 14.0 mmol·L-1 treatment which had significant (P0.05) difference with other concentrations treatments. Under the stress of Fe, POD activities significantly (P0.05) increased with the increasing concentrations of Fe and SOD and CAT activities had a peak value at 6.0 mmol·L-1 which had significant (P0.05) difference. These results suggested that the A.inebrians had strong tolerance to three heavy metal stresses, as reflected by morphological parameters and reduced ROS injury.
In the present study, we developed a N-P-Na recipe concluding appropriate amount of nitrogen, phosphorous and sodium by sand culture to promote the growth and enhance the drought tolerance of a succulent xerophytes Zygophyllum xanthoxylum. Treatment with 15 mmol·L-1 NaNO3 and 0.5 mmol·L-1 NaH2PO4 was the most optimal concentration and selected as the material of N-P-Na recipe. A kind of N-P-Na recipe (15 mmol·L-1 NaNO3+0.5 mmol·L-1 NaH2PO4 +34.5 mmol·L-1 NaCl) was developed according to the most optimal concentration of N, P and Na. Compared with control plants, leaf dry weight, water content, leaf area, relative organic weight and plant height with this recipe increased by 12%, 121%, 57%, 10% and 14%, respectively. However, MDA content and relative penetrability of membrane in leaves decreased by 64% and 17%. Therefore the N-P-Na recipe can improve the growth and alleviate water stress of Z.xanthoxylum under osmotic stress.
Leymus chinensis is one of the dominant species on the northern grassland of China. It has both high economic and high ecological value. However, the poor germination ability and deep dormancy of seed limit the grass production and utilization of L.chinensis. Plant hormone treatment is one of the efficient pathways to resolve these problems. Epi-brassinosteroid (EBR), one of the artificial synthesized materials with the similar biological function with BLs, has been proven to improve seed germination and seedling growth efficiently under both normal and stress condition. To our knowledge, few studies have been published to report the effect of EBR on seed germination and seedling growth of L.chinensis. Hence,this research is conducted to address two key questions: 1) Is there any positive effect of EBR on seed germination and seedling growth of L.chinensis? 2) Is there any combined effect when two hormones are used together? The positive effect of EBR treatment on the seed germination and root growth are observed. The germination rate of EBR-treated seeds increases 2~4 times than that of the seeds been treated by water. Moreover, the root length of seedling developed by EBR treated seeds increases by 35%~40% compared with the control. Both the germination rate and seedling growth vary significantly (P0.05) with the concentration of EBR being used for the treatment. Compared with the treatment by the single hormone as EBR or Gibberellin(GA3), the germination rate of seeds been treated by two hormones increase by 20%~30%, the leaf and root length of seedling developed from the seeds treated by two hormones increase by 49.14% and 51.34%, respectively. EBR does have positive effect on the seed germination and seedling growth of of L.chinensis. And the two-hormone treatment is better than that of single-hormone. The optimized combination of two hormones are EBR 0.10 μg·g-1+GA3 200 μg·g-1 and EBR 0.01 μg·g-1+GA3 200 μg·g-1, which show the highest of seed germination rate and the best performance of seedling growth of L.chinensis.
The two-factor interaction design was employed to explore the effects of different salt concentrations and temperatures on Tagetes erecta seed germination. The results showed that T.erecta seed germinated well at saltless and low salt concentration (2 g·L-1) salinity environment which adapt to a wide temperature range. However, T.erecta seed germination was significantly (P0.05) inhibited at high salt concentrations. There was significant interaction (P0.05) between salt stress and temperature. The salt concentration affected the impacts of temperature on the germination and seedling growth. There was no significant difference between the germination of three temperature treatments at saltless and low salt concentration environment. The germination percentages, seedling height and root length of high temperature treatment were significantly lower (P0.05) than those of the other two temperature treatments when the salt concentration were 4 and 6 g·L-1. The temperature also affected the impacts of salt concentration on the germination and seedling growth. At 15/25 ℃ and 20/30 ℃ treatments, the germination percentage significantly decreased (P0.05) when the salt concentration was greater than or equal to 6 g·L-1. While at 25/35 ℃ treatment, it was significantly decreased (P0.05) when the salt concentration was greater than or equal to 4 g·L-1. The germination index was more sensitive to salinity stress than the germination percentage.
In order to study the response of the growth and reproductive allocation pattern of oats to competition density, nutrient addition and their interaction, a pot experiment was conducted with different planting density and level of nitrogen addition. Plant height, leaf length, panicle length, tiller number and each organ biomass of oats significantly increased (P0.05) with the improvement of nitrogen addition level under the same density level. The plant performance with high nitrogen fertilizer (2 g·pot-1) were significantly greater (P0.01) than that of the other treatments. Meanwhile, the nitrogen fertilizer promoted the oats plant growth, improved plant photosynthesis and increased tiller numbers and nutrients accumulation. Most of test traits decreased with the increasement of density addition which performed competitive effects under the same nitrogen addition level. There were no significant interact effects of planting density and nitrogen addition level. Each growth index of oats significantly positive correlated with each other under interactions between density and nitrogen addition. The reproductive biomass allocation under interactions between high density and medium nitrogen addition (HD×MF) reached 12.23%. There was “shift” trade-off relationship in resource allocation of each organ of oats. The reproductive growth and allocation strategy of oat population is to increase organ allocation by restricting resources and reducing organ allocation access to non-restricted. The rule is consistent with the most optimal allocation theory.
Senecio scandens is a kind of garden liana plant which has both high medical value and ornamental value. Using orthogonal experiment method by 3 levels with 4 factors,the influence of NAA concentration, cutting matrix, cuttings type and processing time on the rooting quality of S.scandens cutting propagation were studied. Cutting rooting quality included rooting rate, average root length and average root quantity. The results showed that NAA concentration had greatest impacts on the rate of rooting quality which followed by processing time, cuttings type and cutting matrix. The rooting quality of S. scandens was the best with NAA concentration 600 mg·L-1, red-yellow soil midium, stems with buds as cuttings, 1 hour processing time .
A field experiment was conducted in alpine enclosure grassland in Qinghai Lake Region, and the community features were investigated for four consecutive years. The objectives of the experiment were to reveal the dynamics of plant community structure, function and diversity of alpine grassland under enclosure and provide the basic data for the scientific management and rational utilization of grassland. With the extension of enclosure period, the community coverage and aboveground biomass significantly increased (P0.05) firstly and then significantly decreased (P0.05) which had a peak at the second year. Diversity index and richness index decreased significantly (P0.05), and the evenness index increased followed with decreased. Comprehensive considering community composition, coverage, primary productivity and species diversity, grassland can be used appropriately (mowing and grazing) after enclosuring for two years.
The study about species composition and distribution characteristics of herb plant and understanding of plant community structure and growth habit will help to repair the structure and improve the function of degraded branch creek system. In the present study, Zhushan Bay area which was the most serious water pollution area in Taihu was selected, and the vegetation composition characteristics and growing status in different regions of this area were investigated with a method based on combination of point, line and surface. The results showed that there were 20 families, 38 genera, 40 species of herbaceous plants in the study area. Gramineae density was the highest, followed by Compositae and Leguminosae. Based on the vegetation investigation on ten branch creeks of study area, the perennial vegetation species were less than 60% in 90% of branch creeks. The vegetation coverage of bank strips and bank slope were less than 80% in 70% of branch creeks, and the vegetation coverage of water were generally less than 60%. Bank strips were mainly covered with artificial cultivated plant, while slope and water were dominated by natural vegetation. The evergreen herbaceous vegetation was less in this area so that the vegetation alternation of generations was fast and the litter easily produced. Vegetation degradation with different degrees was observed in 90% of branch creeks.
In order to select suitable aflalfa cultivars in Zhangjiakou dam areas, six aflalfa cultivars including Debao, Aohan, Zhongmu No.1, Suntory, Algonquin and gold queen were studied for their winter survial rate in the first two years and morphological indicators in the third year. The difference of winter survial rates between alfalfa cultivars in the first year was significant (P0.05), however, the difference of them was not significant although the winter survial rates of each cultivar increased in the second year. Different alfalfa cultivars had significant difference (P0.05) in height, branch number, inflorescence weight. The branch number and inflorescence weight decreased gradually with the mowing times increase. The height after second mowing was higher than that after first and third mowing. The dry weight/fresh weight (DW/FW) after second mowing was lower than that after first and third mowing. The main variations of alfalfa firstly come from inflorescence weight and branch number, and then come from DW/FW and stem weight/leaf weight ratio. Zhongmu No.1 were suitable cultivar in Zhangjiakou dam areas.
Forage crops are the important basis for development of livestock industry. However, the conventional breeding cycle for forage crops is long and less efficient, which cannot meet the social and economic needs for developing new cultivars with high quality, yield, and strong stress resistance. The development and application of molecular marker technology have accelerated the construction of genetic linkage map and facilitated its application in QTL analysis, gene mapping and comparative genomic research, which accelerated the process of molecular breeding in forage crops. This paper summarized the current research advances in molecular genetic linkage map and its application in forage crops and discussed the existing problems and related suggestions.
With the culture development of human society, animal welfare was paid more and more attention. However, the welfare of rodent pests has not yet been paid appropriate attention. In the present paper, both the harms of rodents and some humanized control methods were summarized, and the situation of humanized methods were discussed and the important issues of the current humanized control were analyzed. The objectives of this review were to appeal more attentions from researchers and the public on rodent management and promote the further development of humanized control of rodent pests.
Nine healthy and half sib Chengdu Ma Goats with similar weights (41.3±1.2) kg and fitted with permanent cannulas in the rumen, the proximal duodenum and terminal ileum were randomly divided into three groups and fed the different diet which was rice straw (RS) supplemented with 25% (MSL25), 50% (MSL50) and 75% (MSL75) alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa, MSL), respectively. The nutrients digestibility in different segments of goat digestive tracts were determined with Co-EDTA as markers. Gastric dry matter (DM) digestibility (%), small intestinal DM digestibility (%), large intestinal DM digestibility (%) and gastrointestinal DM digestibility (%) for MSL25, MSL50 and MSL75 were 37.70%, 40.44% and 41.57%, 5.30%, 5.61% and 7.27%, 17.15%, 19.03% and 24.20%, 51.12%, 54.48% and 58.92%, respectively. The organic matter (OM) digestibility (%) were 41.18%, 44.83% and 45.70%, 5.45%, 5.94% and 7.77%, 18.18%, 20.62% and 26.12%, 54.49%, 58.81% and 62.96%, respectively. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (%) were 39.97%, 42.24% and 43.19%, 3.58%, 2.69% and 4.61%, 6.61%, 7.47% and 11.52%, 46.46%, 48.00% and 52.05% respectively. Gastric acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility (%), posterior ADF digestibility(%) and gastrointestinal ADF digestibility(%) for MSL25, MSL50 and MSL75 were 38.81%, 44.52% and 48.61%, 1.29%, 5.28% and 4.71%, 39.59%, 47.45% and 51.05% respectively. It is concluded that goats RS basic diets supplemented with 25%~50% in this experiments could not only improve the RS fiber fermentation in gastric area, but also improve the RS fiber digestibility in lower digestive tract, therefore increase the fiber digestibility in whole digestive tract.
The Yutangba Se-rich independent deposit is abundant in Se-enriched biological resources. The Se-enriched plants were collected in its natural seleniferous habitat and their Se distribution and speciation in all organs were tested using HPLC-ICP-MS. The highest Se accumulation of 531 μg·g-1 was observed in Buddleia lindleyana based on total Se measurements. Speciation studies revealed that both B.lindleyana and Oenanthe javanica have three predominant form of Se which were SeCys2, SeMet and Se(VI) with concentration of 13.5, 24.2, 202.1 and 4.2, 25.4, 158.6 μg·g-1, respectively. The total selenium content was more than one hundred times compared with the artificial cultivation of Se-enriched products (Se-enriched garlic, Se-rich rice and Se-enriched pumpkin seeds, etc.). This will spark interest in increasing and/or modifying the Se compounds in plants.
Ecological compensation mechanism of the source area of three rivers has great importance to solve the contradiction between economic development and ecological protection in that area. Based on questionnaire survey and interview in Zeku County, livelihood with ecological compensation policy of eco-immigrants and herdsmen was contrasted. The results showed that the ratio of eco-immigrant family with animal husbandry income is lower than the ratio of herdsmen family,and the ratio of eco-immigrant family with steady jobs or part-time jobs and business is higher than the ratio of herdsmen family. No one has the job about daily supervision of key regions of ecological protection. There is a gap between training willingness and reality of eco-immigrant and herdsmen, and the ratio of trained eco-immigrant is higher than the ratio of herdsmen. Family income of herdsmen and eco-immigrant is not significantly different, but source of income of herdsmen and eco-immigrant is different. Household income from animal husbandry and ecological compensation of eco-immigrants is significantly lower than herdsmen and the income from business of eco-immigrant is significantly higher than herdsmen. Energy consumption of eco-immigrant family and herdsmen family is not significantly different. The fuel subsidy from the government relieves economic pressures of eco-immigrant family. Because of inadequate infrastructure of eco-immigrant settlement, using electricity ratio and cost of eco-immigrant family is lower than herdsmen family.
Ecological compensation is a mechanism to convert external, non-market values of the environment into real financial incentives for local actors to provide environmental services, which provides a new resolution to protect the environment. From the respects of profile, compensation standards and benefits analysis, this paper describes in detail four typical agro-ecological compensation programs in U.S.A, and summed up the compensation mechanism, characteristics, experience and problems of the agro-ecological compensation. Although the original intention of the U.S.A agro-ecological compensation is to stabilize agricultural market prices, but in the long process of development, it has established a sound legal security system, dynamic management system and differentiated compensation standards. At the same time, it clearly takes the priority compensation measures according to the environmental indicators of specific area, so that the compensation funds can be full used, which are of great importance to the development of ecological compensation in China.
In the present study, quantitative assessment of snow disaster has been achieved using combined ground and remote sensing (RS) monitoring method with national standards of snow disaster monitor and evaluation. Combined with threshold value of animal husbandry weather forecasting index, snow disaster level warning system has been created for different grassland types in Inner Mongolia pasturing area. And also, the distribution map of snow disaster warning level was drawn. The forecasting results were consistent with truth which suggested that this forecasting system may estimate the scope and impact of the snow disaster. However, grade of snow disaster forecast appeared deviation in some region because of the impacts of the weather forecast accuracy.