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The present paper studied the effects of planting years (2 and 10 years) of three alfalfa varieties (Medicago sativa cv. Zhaodong, M.sativa Zhongmu No.1, and M.sativa Argangjin) on the functional diversity of carbon source metabolism of microbial community in rhizosphere soils using BiologMT technology. The average well color development (AWCD) which symbolized the metabolic activity of soil microbes in the alfalfa soil of 10-year-age planting was obviously higher than that in the same alfalfa soil of 2-year-age planting. For all of three varieties, 10-year-age M.sativa Argangjin had the highest AWCD, while 2-year-age M.sativa cv. Zhaodong had the lowest AWCD. Between the two different planting years of the same alfalfa varieties, the McIntosh index was higher in the alfalfa soil for 10-year-age planting than that for 2-year-age planting, however, the Shannon index and Simpson index had no difference between the two different planting years. These results showed that the alfalfa of 10-year-age changed the composition and enhanced the diversity of the microbial community in the rhizosphere of soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that there was no significant difference between the the carbon source utilization mode of the soil microbial community of the same variety for two planting ages. However, microbial carbon source modes of the 10-year-age alfalfa plantings soil were varied. The main carbon sources were carbohydrate, carboxylic acid, and amino acid.
The combined methods of soil investigation sampling and lab analysis were explored on desert grassland in the North slope of Bogurda mountain. The variations of soil microbial biomass carbon and nutrient were analyzed under the free grazing and fence to investigate the influence of long-term fencing on soil quality. The results showed that, compared with free grazing, the content of soil organic carbon, available nitrogen, available potassium, and Olsen-P of fence for seven years significantly increased in the 0-10 cm layer, and the content of total nitrogen significantly increased in the 10-20 cm layer. The soil microbial biomass carbon content of fence for seven years significantly exceeded that of free grazing at the same soil layer(P0.05). Soil microbial biomass carbon was more sensitive to fence which could be used as a sensitive indicator to measure changes of soil organic carbon.
Characteristics of plant species and coverage, soil chemical properties (soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen and available potassium etc.)and microbial biomass of different utilization types including sloping farmland (SF), abandoned (1, 5 and 10 year) and 30- year-abandoned with forestation (30AF) were invested in Forest-grassland of Lanzhou South Region. The results showed that plant species and coverage had great difference for different utilization types. Utilization type of 30AF had the highest plant abundance and coverage, followed by 10 year abandoned (10AF) and 1-year abandoned (1AF) had least plant abundance and coverage and formed an unstable artemisia dominated community. Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen and available potassium contents decreased with the following orders: 30AF＞SF＞10AF＞5AF＞1AF, however, available phosphorus, pH and CaCO3 contents decreased with the following orders: SF＞1AF＞5AF＞10AF＞30AF. SMBC and SMBN decreased in following orders: 30AF＞10AF＞5AF＞1AF＞SF. Soil microbial biomass phosphorus (SMBP) decreased with the following orders: 30AF＞SF＞10AF＞1AF＞5AF. The Pearson correlation analysis indicated that SMBC and SMBN presented significant positive relationship(P0.01) with organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen and remarkable negative relationship with available P and CaCO3(P0.05). There was a significantly negative relationship between SMBP and CaCO3(P0.05).
To explore the effects of winter wildfire on soil physical and chemical properties of western Sichuan subalpine grassland, subalpine areas with and without fire on west Sichuan were selected as researched regions. Comparing the soil physical and chemical properties of the surface soil at 0-20 cm depth, soil moisture and density of soils in alpine grassland did not change by winter wildfire although soil aeration performance improved. Moreover, winter wildfire significantly increased the content of surface layer soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available potassium and available phosphorus (P0.05), however, winter wildfire did not change the soil soluble nitrogen content significantly. Overall, winter fire behavior can improve soil environment for plant growth by providing greater extended space for root growth and more nutrients for plant growth.
The content and variation of topsoil organic matter at township or villages unit in farmland from Xinzheng City, Henan Province, China were analyzed based on the data from field test site of local Chinese Ministry of Land Resources. The parameters were determined using the geostatistical trend analysis of ArcGIS10.0 and GS+9.0 with cross-validation methods. The unobserved soil organic matter (SOM) data was estimated by the ordinary Kriging method. The results showed that variability of township scale (24.49%) was less than that of villages (27.71%~28.70%) and the appropriate samples number were 100 and 1 000, respectively. Straw returning had great effects on SOM among different farmland management measures. The results suggested that it was appropriate to take soil sample at township scale than villages scale and straw returning to field played an important role to improve soil organic matter in farmland.
The most significant feature of plants on desert steppe is the deficient species, with most of them being xerophilous. These plants are of high-degree spatial heterogeneity and close to the natural environments. Differences in small terrains will inevitably lead to changes in the species diversity of plant communities and the spatial heterogeneity on different scales. Effects of different micro-landforms on the spatial heterogeneity of plant communities on desert steppe were studied in September, 2011 in the desert steppe that had been hill-closing afforested for almost ten years in the experimental area in Yanchi County, Ningxia, with the grassland communities’ spatial differentiations in different slope places being researched in scales using line transects. The results are as the following: the spatial heterogeneity of plant communities differs in different slope aspects and different slope positions; the subshrubs function group is of most obvious patchiness in the spatial distribution, perennials function group following behind; annuals function group shows a higher degree of patchiness in shady slopes but much lower in sunny slopes; as for the succession of the grassland plants function groups, the perennials function group has developed to a relatively stable state, the subshrubs function group is in the growing period, and the annuals function group grows better in the shady slopes than in the sunny slopes.
This paper focused on the distribution, bioaccumulation and translocation of heavy metal from soil to plants. Based on the concentrations of heavy metals, including Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn, determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, fourteen typical plants were studied in the Qingshuitang heavy metals polluted area in Zhuzhou. The results showed that these species had promising prospects on repairing combined heavy metals soil pollution. More specifically, the bioconcentration factor and transfer factor about Aristolochia debilis to Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn, Clerodendrum bungei and Sambucus chinensis to Pb, Cd and Zn, Lagedium sibiricum to Pb and Zn, Setaria viridis and Cynanchum auriculatum to Cd and Alternanthera philoxeroides to Cu were all greater than 1. These plants could apply on the heavy metal pollution regions as pioneer plants.
The present study determined erosion-resistance effects of fields planted with Glycyrrhiza uralensis through measuring soil moisture content, aerodynamic roughness of soil surface and soil loss. The above ground biomass of G.uralensis community significantly increased with the extension of growing years. The aerodynamic roughness of soil surface increased by 12~55 times and soil moisture content in soil surface (0-5 cm) increased by 27%～148% after G.uralensis planted. Soil wind erosion in G.uralensis lands significantly decrease by 16%~83% than that of barren land. The above ground biomass positively correlated with roughness length and soil moisture content and negatively correlated with soil erosion. The possible mechanism of wind erosion resistance by planting G.uralensis was that surface of cultivated land was covered by the above ground dry branches and fallen leaves of G.uralensis which increased roughness of soil surface and topsoil moisture content, decreased the wind speed on soil surface and increased the starting wind speed for soil sand grain.
Pot experiments in greenhouse were carried out to study the effects of tryptophan on ergot alkaloids concentrations of Achnatherum inebrians associated with Neotyphodium gansuense. The results showed that fresh weight,height and tiller number of A.inebrians seedings significantly decreased (P0.05) with the addition of tryptophan. Ergine and ergonovine concentrations significantly increased (P0.05) with 500 mg·L-1 and 750 mg·L-1 tryptophan treatments compared with control. With 250 mg·L-1 tryptophan treatment, ergine concentration was highest compared with other treatments which showed that this treatment had great benefits to ergine accumulation. The treatment with 500 mg·L-1 tryptophan had more benefit to ergonovine accumulation compared with other treatments.
Songnen Plain is one of the world’s 3 largest Soda Saline-Alkali Soil and one of China’s 5 major saline-alkali soil. Saline-alkali soil as an environmental factor has restricted development of farming and animal husbandry. Qitai highway is located in Songnen Plain which has serious soda saline-alkaline hazard. Salt resistance plant selection is of great significance for the ecological restoration in this area. The main components of Soda Saline-Alkali Soil is NaHCO3 which has more extent of injury to plant more than other harm and easily form white alkali spot on the surface of the earth to restrict plants growth. The ecological environment destruction of Saline-Alkali Soil was great and difficult to recover, especially for highway slope with road construction. In the present paper, five shrubs including Amorpha fruticosa, Tamarix chinensis, Caragana microphylla, Hippophae rhamnoides and Hedysarum fruticosum var. mongolicum were selected as test material. After 7 days treatments with 4 different NaHCO3 stress (0, 0~0.5, 0.5~1.0 and 1.0~1.5 g·kg-1), different indices including shrub leaf plasma membrane permeability (RPP), chlorophyll (Chl) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, soluble sugar (SS) content and proline (Pro) content were measured to test shrubs resistant to NaHCO3 stress. With the NaHCO3 stress increased, all of 5 shrubs’ membrane permeability increased,the total Chl amount of C.microphylla first increased and then decreased, the other four shrubs’ chlorophyll content declined. With the stress extended, MDA, SS, SOD, Pro content of 5 shrubs increased except with Pro content of A.fruticosa. All of these variations indicated that the tested shrubs can induce physiological protection to resist the stress of NaHCO3. However, these 5 tested shrubs had different protected ability with following order: A.fruticosaH.fruticosum var.mongolicumT.chinensisH.rhamnoidesC.microphyll. A.fruticosa and H.fruticosum var. mongolicum were more suitable 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g·kg-1 saline concentration of highway slope, H. hamnoides was suitable 1 g·kg-1 saline concentration and T. hinensis was suitable for slope 1.5 g·kg-1 saline concentration under of highway slope.
This research studied the variations of tillers number and antioxidant enzyme system of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) under different trample stress and analyzed the correlation between these two indexes under different trample and the effects of trample stress on turfgrass tillering and physiological regulation. The results showed that the tillers of Kentucky bluegrass under trample may be controlled by the coordination functions of H2O2, peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). With the increase of the H2O2, content of the increase of POD activity and the decrease of SOD activity, the number of tillers of Kentucky bluegrass decreased.
The nitrogen free culture medium (NFM) was employed for isolating and purifying nitrogen-fixing bacteria strains from Kentucky bluegrass rhizosphere. Twenty one pure cultures of nitrogen-fixing bacteria strains were obtained and their physiological and biochemical characters were determined in this study. The result indicated that the strains ranking in Azoobacter, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Enterobacter. The physiological characters of them were rhabditiform and near-spherical, and few strains (N1,N5,N8,N16) produced gemma. For these nitrogen-fixing bacteria strains, the catalase and lysozyme tests showed positive and the hydrolyzed pectin and indole test showed negative. All strains cannot survive in the pH 5.7 nutrient broth. Most of strains were aerobes except with N13 and N14.
Economic profits are the primary goal for football field lawn construction, and it is also the foundation of its development. The favorable cost control of the construction unit will help achieve the maximum economic benefit. In the present paper, on the premise of ensure the quality, the way how to effectively control the cost was reviewed with a turf football field construction project in Lanzhou as an example. These results will provide reference information for improving the level of cost control and economic benefits for the construction unit.
Anatomic observations with the paraffin sections and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were explored in the terminal bud of Lilium pumilum during flower bud differentiation period to investigate the flower bud development process of L.pumilum bulbs which had come through winter without any special protection. The results showed that morphological characteristics of the stem apex growing point changed from growing cone to reproductive cone in the middle of September. In mid-November, the bottom of inflorescence primordium of the one or two foret primordial had completed the differentiation of perianth primordium, and flower bud continued to differentiate in the following spring. Then the whole inflorescence finished the differentiation before mid-May. The differentiation of inflorescence lasted 8 months, and formed 4-7 flower buds. The flower bud differentiation of L.pumilum could be divided into six stages, which were undifferentiation phase, initial differentiation phase, foret primordial differentiation phase, perianth primordium differentiation phase, stamens primordium and pistil primordium differentiation phase and the whole inflorescence formation phase, respectively.
Biomass allocation of Vicia unijuga at Gannan Tibetan region was studied by the method of Standing Reproductive Allocation. The results showed that vegetative biomass proportion gradually decreased and reproductive biomass gradually increased throughout the growing season although vegetative biomass always had an absolute advantage with less than 10% of reproductive biomass. The reproductive biomass allocation increased with increasing of reproductive age for the young plants of perennial V.unijuga. The reproductive biomass of two-year-age plants was higher. Reproductive conversion ratio from flower buds to flowers and from flowers to pods for two-year-age plants was 1∶1.17 and 1∶1.36, respectively, while that of five-year-age plants was 1∶0.94 and 1∶1.31, respectively. These results indicated that the loss of flowers and pods was obvious for five-year-age plants and reproductive modules utilization was higher for two-year-age plants. The lower seed production of V.unijuga in this area may be resulted from low reproductive investment proportion and the loss in the process of reproductive conversion, which may be influenced by some factors, such as environmental disturbance and nutrient competition.
A field investigation about the floral syndrome, the flowering dynamics, pollen activity and stigma receptivity,out-crossing index,pollen-ovule ratio,fruit set and seed-set and pollinators of Iris sanguinea was carried out. The I.sanguinea population in Harbin started to bloom in early June, and reached full bloom in the middle of June which lasted about one week. The blooming ended in late June. The flowering season of this population was about 20 days and the life span of a single flower was about 2 days. The extrorse anther was closed to the lateral side of the petaloid style. The distance between the anther and the stigma was about 1 mm and the relative position between them was constant during the whole blooming period. The out-crossing index (OCI) was 4 and the ratio between pollen and ovule (P/O) was 276.26 which indicated a breeding system of out-crossing,part self-compatibility,and insect pollinator-dependence. The highly specialized floral structure was adapted to the behavior of the pollinators,Apis mellifera etc. Artificial cross-pollination improved reproductive success,suggesting that sexual reproduction may be influenced by pollen limitation and less pollinators in nature.
Pot experiment was conducted to study the cadmium tolerance of 20 Lolium perenne germplasm to cadmium stress. Seedling survival rate, plant height, tillers number, aboveground and underground biomass and varietal cadmium tolerance were tested. With the increasing concentrations of cadmium, relative survival rate and relative underground biomass of L.perenne germplasm decreased significantly (P0.05), and relative plant height, relative tiller number and relative above-ground biomass increased firstly and declined lately. Significant differences in cadmium tolerance were observed among 20 germplasm. Comprehensive evaluation through the membership function method revealed that All-star from Japan (L.p12) and Arnold from the Netherlands (L.p13) had high tolerance to cadmium and Lee Eun from the United States (L.p18) and Levy Earle from the United Kingdom (L.p16) had less tolerance to cadmium.
Physiological responses of bluestem (Andropogon virginicus), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) under drought and salinity were studied at their vegetative growth stage. The experiments were conducted in pots in greenhouse using orthogonal matrix design at three factors (plant, soil water content and saline concentration) with three levels. The results showed that the contents of proline and soluble sugar, the activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in leaves only increased or decreased first and then increased along with the reduction of the soil water content. However, the CAT activity of switchgrass firstly increased and then decreased and reached maximum at 7% water concentration. The contents of proline and soluble sugar, POD activity in leaves only increased or firstly decreased and then increased along with the increment of saline concentration, whereas in bluestem increased first and then decreased, reached maximum at 2‰ salt concentration. The CAT activities in bluestem, reed canarygrass and switchgrass firstly increased and then decreased, and reached maximum at saline concentrations of 2‰, 4‰ and 6‰, respectively. Bluestem and reed canarygrass had the strong adaptive capacity under drought stress, but were sensitive to salt stress. Switchgrass has strong adaptability under drought and salinity stress.
This study was aimed to understand the effect of grazing intensity on forage quality of the dominant species, Polygonum viviparum and Kobresia capillifolia, of the alpine meadow in the northeastern edge region of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The changes in forage total nitrogen, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, total digestible nutrients and relative feeding value were measured under light (0.75 cattle units·ha-1), moderate (1.00 cattle units·ha-1) and heavy (1.25 cattle units·ha-1) grazing intensities. At the end of grazing, plant height of the two dominant species under moderate grazing intensity was significantly higher than those under other intensities (P0.05). During the whole grazing, forage total nitrogen under moderate grazing was higher than those under other intensities, and it was significantly higher at the end of grazing than that under heavy grazing intensity for P.viviparum (P0.05). There was no significant difference in the contents of acid and neutral detergent fiber among different grazing intensities at the end of grazing. Nutritional value index showed a rising trend or kept stable under moderate grazing. Conclusively, the moderate grazing intensity was helpful to the dominant species, P.viviparum and K.capillifolia, in the alpine meadow at the northeastern edge of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau to remain higher and stable forage quality.
Different alfalfa cropping patterns did not have the same effects on soil erosion control. The relationship between alfalfa cropping patterns and runoff was studied. The experimental results in Sun Jiacha Watershed, Yuzhong County, Gansu Province showed that there was a linear relationship between the runoff depth in slope cultivation alfalfa grass and rainfall intensity, and the generation rate of runoff increased with the increase of the slope. There were significantly difference(P0.01)for rainfall block effects in alfalfa slope cultivation, sloping land and wasteland. Alfalfa planted in the sloping land and wasteland which matched with five years a case of maximum 6 h rainfall design can impounded all the slope runoff.
The compensatory growth of plant, which can be affected by the grazing and clipping directly, is an important character to maintain stability of grassland. Clipping is one of the main ways to use grassland in Southern China and clipping intensity (stubble height) on compensatory growth of grassland has become the core matter in grassland management to achieve the sustainable development of grassland. In this study, clipping treatments (with stubble height of 6, 9, 12 cm and unclipping) on the compensatory growth of the whole community, component functional groups and dominant species was carried out in the typical degraded grasslands dominated by Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne. At the community level, the results showed that clipping increased the aboveground biomass and over-compensatory growth was found in both high and low stubble clipping treatments, probably owning to the advantageous precipitation and temperature in grassland of Southern China. At the functional group level, grass and forbs can achieve over-compensation even under clipping with middle and low stubble. Over-compensation of Fabaceae was only found in clipping with high and middle stubble, indicating that Fabacea species were sensitive to clipping intensity and proper clipping intensity should be adopted in grassland management to improve their production. However, clipping affected the aboveground biomass of Asteraceae negatively and the compensation index ranged from 0.31 to 0.48. The relationship between the aboveground and root biomass showed that the aboveground over-compensation of grass was achieved probably by sacrificing its root biomass, while the aboveground compensatory growth of forbs and Asteraceae were not related to their root biomass. The aboveground compensatory growth patterns of dominant species were mainly obtained without reducing their root biomass. The compensatory growth patterns of community and functional groups were determined by the compensatory pattern of component species essentially. The result in this study can serve as guidelines in explaining and predicting the dynamic change of vegetation composition, the allocation of biomass and compensatory growth after clipping in the management of grassland, dominated by T. repens and L. perenne.
In order to improve the soil fertility and analysis the digestion and utilization ability of soil-forage system for the cow dung nutrient in the karst regions in Chongqing, we studied the distribution and utilization of N, P, K elements in the soil-sweet sorghum system by applying cow dung into the soil-sweet sorghum system. This research employed different fertilization levels by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 kg·m-2, and compared with a fertilizer control group and a blank control group. When the cow dung applied with 4 kg·m-2, the ability of soil keeping total nitrogen, total phosphorus were highest with 523.07 mg·kg-1 soil nitrogen and 110.39 mg·kg-1 phosphorus content. When the cow dung applied with 3 kg·m-2, the ability of soil maintaining potassium was highest with 74.5 mg·kg-1 rapidly-available potassium and 4.19 g·kg-1 total potassium content. When the cow dung applied with 3 kg·m-2, sweet sorghum had strongest absorption of total nitrogen which was 313.71 mg·kg-1. When the cow dung applied with 4 kg·m-2, sweet sorghum had strongest absorption of total phosphorus which was 93.00 mg·kg-1. When the cow dung applied with 2 kg·m-2, sweet sorghum had strongest absorption of potassium which was 18.6 mg·kg-1. Sweet sorghum biomass increased firstly and then dropped with the increase of organic fertilizer. When organic fertilizer applied with 4 kg·m-2, sweet sorghum had highest biomass of 132.84 kg. The biomass slightly decreased when more cow dung applied. Based on our research, 3~4 kg·m-2 was the optimal fertilizer rate of the soil-sweet sorghum system.
The present study analyzed the hay yield, Crude protein(CP), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) and Crude fats(CF) in herbage head sprouting/early budding, fructicative and regeneration stage with 3 a mix-sowed grassland constructed by six Legumionosae and Gramineae herbage (Vicia tenuifolia, Medicago sativa, Onobrychis viciaefolia, Phleum pretense, Agropyron cristatum and Dactylis glomerata)with mix-sowed type numbers of 3,4,5,6 and proportion of 4∶6. The results showed that the hay yield of all the mix-sowed combinations grassland were significantly higher than that of CK(single sowed M.sativa)and the quality of most combination were higher than that of CK. The yield and nutrient of T2 (V.tenuifolia+M.sativa+P.pretense+A.cristatum+D.glomerata) (P0.05) and T1(V.tenuifolia+M.sativa+O.viciaefolia+P.pratense+A.cristatum+D.glomerata) were higher than that of CK, which had highest and second highest yield and nutrient of all mix-sowed combinations. The trial results stated that the different mix-sowed combinations pasture were better than CK in reasonable resources allocation and utilization and yield and quality increase. T2 and T1 were the best Legumionosae and Gramineae mix-sowed combinations which were suitable for construction artificial grassland in local and similar habitat conditions.
The root development characteristics and the correlation with the aboveground biomass of twelve alfalfa varieties introduced from American, Germany and Canada and planted in Qiannan area in Guizhou were studied. The results showed that the root morphological characteristics of different alfalfa varieties had significant difference(P0.05). The aboveground biomass had extremely significantly positive correlation(P0.01) with the root collar diameter, the branch number, the main root length, and the root dry weight. The underground biomass had extremely significantly positive correlation with the root collar diameter, the depth, the number of branches, the bud number, the main root length and the root diameter. Through path analysis, the greatest contribution factors for the root biomass were the root collar diameter, number of branches, length of main root and lateral root number. According to the root morphology characteristics, the twelve alfalfa varieties can be clustered into three categories.
Three Liuyang black goats fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in this study. Various indices were evaluated including 72 h total cumulative gas production, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 24, 36, 48, 72 h methane yield, both degradation rate of dry matter and concentrations of volatile fatty acid profile and ammonia N of Chloris virgata at different growth stages in vitro fermentation after 72 h. The result showed that significant (P0.05) or highly significant (P0.01) differences existed in Ash, crude protein(CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF)、acid detergent fiber (ADF) levels between different growth stages. Compositions of CP and ash decreased and levels of NDF and ADF increased with the maturity. The VF of total cumulative gas production, methane yield and 72 h dry matter disappearance rate decreased with harvests prolonged. The growth staged did not affect the VF of total cumulative gas production (P0.05) because VF of methane yield during turning green, jointing, earing, flowering and maturity stage were not significantly different although they were significantly higher than withering stage.The 72 h dry matter disappearance rate during maturity, withering stage was significantly lower than that in the former growth periods. The concentrations of ammonia N, volatile fatty acid and acetic acid decreased and increased followed by decreased again. According to the changes of nutrients and fermentation gas production characteristics in vitro, it’s recommended that C.virgata should be harvested at the stage between earing to flowering.
Seeds of Festuca rubra were used as raw material to study the effects of seed pelleting on seed germination rate. Trial conditions were optimized by response surface methodology on basis of single factor tests. Different volumes of gibberellin diluent, attapulgite and water retention agent were used to study their different effects on seed germination rate. The results showed that the optimal conditions for seed pelleting content were 5mL gibberellin diluent, 9 g attapulgite and 15 g water retention agent which improved weight to 4 or 5 times of unpelleting seed. The germination rate could reach up to 94% under these conditions.
Water hyacinth is an ideal resource for natural pigments due to its high pigment contents. In this paper, the stems and leaves of water hyacinth harvested from Shanghai district were used as raw material for natural pigments extraction. Natural pigments were extracted with absolute ethyl alcohol by ultrasonic and separated and purified by column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Chemical reaction, UV-VIS, FTIR, and mass spectrometry were used to identify main components. The results showed that crude pigments extraction efficiency were 6.86%. Seven pigments bands can be observed by column chromatography isolation. The first, the second and the fourth pigment bands were relatively high purity compounds. The main components of these seven pigments bands were cis-β-carotenoids, pheophytin a, pheophytin b, chlorophyll derivatives, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and lutein, respectively. The quality percentage of pheophytin-a in the extracted pigments was up to 28%. And that of carotenoids in the extracted pigments was about 9%. These results suggested the promising prospects for these two pigments widely application in textile industry.
In this experiment, the contents of various types condensed tannins (CTs) in different Yanbian region wild plants were evaluated. Then the leaves of (Vicia amoena and Lespedeza hedysaroides) were further analyzed and the extraction progress of CTs from wild plants was optimized. The results showed that the CTs contents within different types plants were different and the average content ranged from 3.4 to 88.6 g·kg-1. When the solid to liquid ratio and extractive liquid ratio in extraction progress in V.amoena was adjusted to 1∶40 and 2∶2(L.hedysaroides was 1∶30 and 2∶3), the optimum extraction time was 4 hours.
Climate change adaptation for grassland husbandry has become an important component in research about climate change adaptation at the national (local) level and in the sustainable development of grassland husbandry. This paper, with the methods of Participatory Assessment and Analytic Hierarchy Process, examines the priority in adaptation for grassland husbandry among stakeholders at different levels and from various organizations in Inner Mongolia. The research has revealed that: 1)Adaptation strategies must be built on robust and comprehensive policies; 2)Adaptation should follow the precondition that the livelihood and life quality of herdsmen are guaranteed; 3)The government and research institutes should play an active role in helping herdsmen to adapt to climate change; 4)Regional and climate-sensitive policies should be regularly reviewed, to inform timely modification and improvement of adaptation strategies; 5)Preventive measures and more specific, practical adaptation measures should be taken; 6)More training should be made available to herdsmen on the concept of adaptation, meteorological knowledge and production management.
The existing research achievements of allelopathy on the main types of grassland in China were reviewed in this paper. Plants with allelopathic potential have been investigated in dozens general, such as Compositae, Leguminosae, Thymelaeaceae and Scrophulariaceae. More than ten compounds have been identified which included terpenoids, phenols, saponins and non-protein amino acids. Most researches focused on allelopathy of plant aboveground part and allelochemicals pathway of natural evaporation and fog leaching. The popular biological assay of allelopathy was to test plant response to different concentration of allelochemicals including seed germination and seedling growth. It revealed that some species with demonstrated allelopathic potential played important role in the management of the grassland and the maintenance of ecological balance. Based on current research, we put forward suggestions for further plant allelopathy study at the same time.