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2014 Vol.31(4)

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Orignal Article
Cloning and analyzing of prokaryotic expression of four exoenzyme genes from potato soft-rot pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora 71
Yang LI, Jun-lian ZHANG, Jiang-ping BAI, Zhen-feng XU, Di WANG
2014, 8(4): 561-574.
[Abstract](1723) [PDF 2156KB](454)
Abstract:
In the present study,the virulence genes pel,peh,cel and prt of Erwinia carotovora subsp.carotovora 71 (Ecc71) which was the main pathogens of potato soft-rot were cloned by homologous cloning techniques.The sequences and predicted gene products were analyzed with bioinformatics.These four genes were cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET28a.The successful recombinant vectors pET28a-pel,pET28a-peh,pET28a-cel and pET28a-prt were transformed into E.coli BL21 (DE3) respectively.The expression products of pel and peh genes were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and enzyme activities were also analyzed.The specific proteins with same molecular weights with deduced proteins from studied genes were observed and the enzyme activity was 1.672 U·mL-1·h-1,0.024,112.7 and 16.95 U·mL-1·min-1,respectively.The results provided foundation for exploring the interaction between these four enzymes and the disease-resistance of the potato soft-rot.
Biolonisal efficiency of nitrogen fixation strains isolated from rhizosphere of Poa pratensis
Pei-dong XU, Yan ZHAO, Xiao-bo ZHANG, Xin-ying LI
2014, 8(4): 575-580.
[Abstract](1817) [PDF 454KB](551)
Abstract:
Both acetylene reduction and colorimetric methods were employed to measure nitrogenase activity,the solubilizing phosphorus capability and secretion of plant growth hormone of 21 nitrogen-fixing bacteria strains isolated from Kentucky bluegrass rhizosphere soil samples.The result indicated that the nitrogenase activity of 21 tested nitrogen-fixing bacteria strains were between 39.9 and 227.5 nmol·mL-1·h-1.There were 14 strains (67% of all strains) whose activities were more than 100 nmol·mL-1·h-1.The solubilizing phosphorus intensity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria were between 13.38 μg·mL-1 and 58.21 μg·mL-1.Three of these tested strains-N4,N16 and N20 demonstrated stronger solubilizing phosphorus capability.Eight of these tested strains——N2,N4,N5,N10,N14,N16,N17 and N20 demonstrated strong ability of excreting plant growth hormone were measured.
The driving forces of the ecosystem function change in Heihe wetland national nature reserve
Dong-sheng KONG, You-yan GUO, Hao ZHANG
2014, 8(4): 581-589.
[Abstract](1415) [PDF 727KB](454)
Abstract:
In order to maximize the ecosystem functions of Heihe wetland national nature reserve,the present study analyzed the natural and human factors which affected the changes of wetland ecological functions,and clarified the main driving forces of the wetland area.The results showed that temperature increases in the natural factors was one of the driving forces on the wetland ecosystem environment.Meanwhile the increase of population,expanding of arable land and the rapid development of social economy were the most active factors that lead to the excessive exploitation of natural resources,and they were also the main driving forces that promoted the deterioration of wetland environment.In addition,during the development of the industry and agriculture,waste water and exhaust emissions caused serious wetland pollution,and overgrazing could bring about the wetland function abatement.The unreasonable utilization of water resources caused environmental degradation of wetland ecosystem.Finally,aiming at present problems,the paper put forward the measures to recovery the wetland ecosystem of Heihe Wetland.
Characteristics of climate change in Shiyang River Basin from 1951 to 2005
Huai-dong WEI, Ya LI, Feng DING, Fang CHEN, Lan-ping ZHOU, Xiao-ke HU
2014, 8(4): 590-598.
[Abstract](1377) [PDF 2135KB](362)
Abstract:
Based on meteorological data in Shiyang River Basin from 1951 to 2005,the present study analyzed the characteristics of the climate changes in this area.In the past 50 years,precipitation in the whole river basin and the lower reach decreased,but the upper and middle reaches increased.Precipitation in the upstream significantly decreased since 1962 as a turning point,and in the middle and downstream significantly increased from 1990s.There was an obvious increasing trend in atmospheric temperature which was more obvious in midstream followed by midstream and was less obvious in upstream.For the upper,middle,and lower reaches,there was significant increase since 1987,1997 and 1987,respectively,and there was significant increase especially since 2000.Wind speed of Shiyang River Basin decreased,increased,decreased,and decreased at different stages.The wind speed in the upstream significant increased in 1970’s and gradually stabilized since 1980’s.The wind speed in the midstream changed with 10 a cycle.The wind speed in the downstream increased first and decreased since 1984 as a turning point.The lowest stage appeared during 2000-2005.Humidity in Shiyang River Basin decreased which more obvious from middle 1950’s to middle of 1960’s.However,there was significant humidity reduction in the midstream in the late of 1990’s.The lowest stage appeared during 1999-2005.Currently,the drought in the downstream relieved which suggested the situation in the whole basin will be gradually improved.
Effects of thinning intensity on diversity of undergrowth vegetation and regeneration in artifical spruce forest
Yan-yan QIN, Bin JIANG, Xiu-wen CAO, Yi-ming FENG, Dan-chun LI, Meng-meng YANG, Mei XIANG, Rong CHEN, Bo LI, Zong-quan CHE
2014, 8(4): 599-606.
[Abstract](1946) [PDF 734KB](447)
Abstract:
In order to explore the effects of pre-and post-thinning intensity on undergrowth vegetation and regeneration in artificial spruce (Picea asperata) forest,species number,coverage,height of vegetation and seedling were investigated.Species richness,indices including Shannon-Wiener,Simpson and Pielou were analyzed to study plant diversity in this study.The results showed that the reserve trees growth with thinning were better than those control ones (without thinning) and species number of undergrowth vegetation with thinning plots increased significantly.With thinning intensity increased,the species richness,biomass and coverage of undergrowth vegetation also increased,and the most heavy thinned stands (450 stem·ha-1) showed the highest value of each index.The density,species richness,and height of seedling increased with thinning intensity.In heavy thinning intensity plots,tree seedling with all size classes distributed which did not observed in other plots.There was significant positive correlation between light and seedling diversity,density and richness,while the thin layer may have negative effects on them in thinning intensity plots.In this study,herbaceous coverage was observed to be the important factor in seedling richness and seedling density.
Variation of Sstipa krylovii grazing grassland resources from 2003,2007, and 2010
Yaira-Tu Sethi, Li-yan BAI, Ping ZHANG
2014, 8(4): 607-613. doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2013-0153
[Abstract](1804) [PDF 604KB](389)
Abstract:
Plant community diversity was investigated in 5 typical residential points of Stipa krylovii steppe during winter-spring and summer-autumnal seasons of 2003,2007,and 2010.The results demonstrated that there were almost 60 plant species in the fenced plots of S.krylovii steppe.The dominance index of S.krylovii and Leymus chinensis increased gradually for the two growth seasons during the whole studied period,while,the dominance index of Salsola collina——a symbol of grassland desertification,decreased gradually.There were also seasonal differences of plant community between two growth seasons.The dominance index of L.chinensis and Allium polyrhizum in summer-autumnal seasons was higher than that in winter-spring seasons whereas the dominance index of S.krylovii and Carex duriuscula in winter-spring seasons was higher than that in summer-autumnal seasons.The dominance index of the other species was similar in these two growth seasons.As stock-carrying capacity decreased or kept consistent,the dominance index of some zonal plant species such as S.krylovii and L.chinensis increased,whereas the dominance index of S.collina decreased sharply.S.collina gradually quitted from the rank of dominant species after stoct-carrying capacicty3.5 ha·livestock-1 three years.In S.krylovii steppe of Xilin Gol,the plant community successions of grazing grassland during 30 years correlated with the changes of grazing systems and ownership of grazing grassland induced by government reforms.Short-term plant community succession of plant community correlated with stock-carrying capacity.
Flora Research on vascular plants in wetland on the midstream of Heihe River (zhangye section)
Xiao-yan LI, Yu-fang ZHAN, Xiao-ping TIAN, Yu-feng TENG, Yan-fang LU
2014, 8(4): 614-620.
[Abstract](1365) [PDF 576KB](481)
Abstract:
The present research studied the flora in wetland on the midstream of Heihe River (zhangye section).The results showed that there were 269 species of vascular plant which belonged to 162 genera in 52 families.There were 3 species of Pteridophyta belonging to 1 genera of 1 family and 266 species of Spermatophyte belonging to 161 genera of 51 families in which there were 2 species gymnosperms including 2 genera and 2 families.The rich number of plants showed the great abundance of plant species in this area.Geographical elements of wetland vascular plan flora analysis showed that there were 6 distributional types and 2 subtypes at the species level and there were 14 distributional types and 8 subtypes at the genera level.The flora dominated by temperate elements with tropical elements as complementary.
Investigation of ferns in Taiyangshan area
Li LI, Dong-hai ZHAO, Li HE, You-lin PENG, Yun WANG
2014, 8(4): 621-626.
[Abstract](1221) [PDF 498KB](432)
Abstract:
Recently,tourism of Taiyangshan develops rapidly which brings great disturbance,interference and destruction to ferns in this area.In order to reasonable utilize and protect ferns resources,the fern plants in Taiyangshan were studied about their species,distribution,habitats and utilization values.The results showed that the existing fern plants included 17 families,20 generas and 32 species.The dominant family is Dryopteridaceae which included 3 generas and 9 species.The dominant generas was Dryopteris included 6 species and Pteris included 4 species,respectively.The fern plants had great diversity in habitats.The vast majority of them,including 17 species which accounted for 53.1% of all species,likely lived under forests and forest margins.The dominant ecological model was land,including 25 species which accounted for 78.1% of all species.Medicinal pteridophyta resources in Taiyangshan were rich which included 23 species and accounted for 71.9% of all species.
Cytological evalution of Miscanthus sinensis in China
Xiu-ming LIU, Teng-teng CUI, Chun-xia GE, Cui-xia CHEN
2014, 8(4): 627-631.
[Abstract](1886) [PDF 846KB](445)
Abstract:
Miscanthus is one of the most important plant genus for fiber biomass development which has drawn the keen attentions throughout the world.China is one of the origins of Miscanthus with wide and abundant distribution and highly genetic diversity.Studies of Miscanthus germplasm will facilitate development of bioenergy industry in China.The ploidy in total of 30 accessions of M.sinensis collected from ten provinces of China was identified using optical microscope and flow cytometry.The results showed that all thirty accessions were diploidy with a cytotype of 2n=2x=38,suggesting that diploid may be the major cytotype for wild Miscanthus sinensis in China.
Response of growth and antioxidant protection system of Caragana korshinskii to oil-contaminated soil
Bi-xiao CUI, Gang HAN, Kai-rong LI, Bo WANG
2014, 8(4): 632-640.
[Abstract](1471) [PDF 689KB](431)
Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate oil-contaminated tolerance and mechanism of Caragana korshinskii.Growth indexes,activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD),catalase(CAT),ascorbate peroxidase(APX) and glutathione reductase(GR) and contents of ascorbic acid(AsA),reduced glutathione(GSH),carotenoid(Car) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) of annual C.korshinskii seedlings were determined.Pot experiments with 5 treatments were arranged which included 0,5,10,15 and 20 g oil per kilogram of dry soil.The results showed that the effects of 5 g·kg-1 treatment on the growth of C.korshinskii were not significant.However,the treatment of 10~20 g·kg-1 significantly decreased the growth of C.korshinskii (P0.05).Under different treatments,SOD,GPX,GR,AsA and GSH played very important role in antioxidant protection for all of the treatments.However,the activity of CAT was inhibited for a long time and Car was obvious degradated.H2O2 accumulation under 5 and 10 g·kg-1 treatment were not significant different with control.H2O2 accumulated significantly under 15 and 20 g·kg-1 treatments.In general,during the whole period of oil contamination,the synergy between SOD and CAT weakened.Under high oil concentrations treatments (15 and 20 g·kg-1),the synergy of APX,GR,AsA and GSH strengthened,and Halliwell-AsAda cycle started efficiently.Oil-contaminated tolerance threshold of C.korshinskii might be 10 g·kg-1 treatments.
Effects of sludge on growth and physiology of green plants
Chao HAN, Zhi-hui CHANG
2014, 8(4): 641-649.
[Abstract](1983) [PDF 622KB](438)
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The sewage treatment process produced large amounts of sludge whose disposal has become a growing concern.The most effective utilization is applied on green plants.The up-to-data research about the effects of sludge on green plants growth and physiology were summarized in this review.Most of the research showed that sludge not only improved the quality,biomass and flowering of green plants,but also induced the accumulation of mineral elements,osmotic adjustment,hormones and enzymes metabolism,chlorophyll content and resistance enhancement.However,sludge constrain germination and seedling growth of green plants and the excess sludge poisoned green plants and caused heavy metal pollution of soil.
Influence of no-tillage on soil physical properties and crop production
Qiang CHEN, Tao SUN, Chun-yu SONG
2014, 8(4): 650-658.
[Abstract](2416) [PDF 558KB](470)
Abstract:
As an important soil management practice for agriculture production,no-tillage could increase soil moisture storage,improve fertility,prevent particle from agricultural land,reduce soil and water loss and accelerate agriculture sustainable development.It has already proved that no-tillage played an important role in arid and semiarid areas of China.However,the regional eco-environment,climate types and agricultural production technology differ in various spacia-temporal scales,associating with the difference in land utilization patterns.The influence of no-tillage on the soil physical properties and crop production also presented distinguish in region-spatial and temporal patterns.In this review,the effects of no-tillage on the soil physical properties and crop production were summarized and synthesized; meanwhile,the existing questions of continuous application for no-tillage in China were analyzed,and also the possible suggestions were put forward.The results from this review provided references for optimal application of no-tillage in different regions and supports for the mechanism involving conservation tillage reduce soil erosion.
Method for plant chromatin immunoprecipitation assay
Dong-ming LI, Yuan SONG, Li-zhe AN
2014, 8(4): 659-667.
[Abstract](2126) [PDF 646KB](572)
Abstract:
The dynamic chromatin structure,and timely and proper regulation of genes played crucial roles in plant growth and development.It is important for understanding complex life process to study association between protein and DNA.The chromatin immunoprecipitation is widely used to explore in vivo interaction between proteins and DNA.In this paper,the efficient procedures were developed starting from isolation the nuclei,then formaldehyde crossing linking,and the details of six main steps for this assay were also provided.The different binding modes of H3K9Me in transposon At4g03870 between wild type Col-0 and mutant met1 were tested by chromatin immunoprecipitation.The results showed that the method worked well and was not only available for determining the association of proteins with specific gene,but also for genome-wide identification of protein-DNA binding site.
Comparison of anatomical structure of stems and leaves between vitrified and normal shoots of Thermopsis lanceolata
Xiu-fang ZHENG, Hai-ning GAO, Chao-qiang ZHANG, Cai-xia LI
2014, 8(4): 668-671.
[Abstract](1213) [PDF 798KB](373)
Abstract:
Anatomical structure of leaves and stems of the normal shoots and vitreous shoots of Thermopsis lanceolata were compared by means of anatomical method.The results showed that there were significant differences in anatomical structure of leaves and stems between the vitrified and normal T.lanceolata plantlets in vitro.For the vitrified T.lanceolata plantlets,the leaves of the former were much thicker without cutin layer and many upper epidermis cells were turgescent or ruptured; palisade tissue degenerated and disappeared and spongy tissue became larger and vacuolated,cell walls of some mesophyll cells were ateliosis and emerged void space in some region; vascular bundle degradated and epidermal cells were ateliosis in vitreous stems; cells of the cortex and pith tissue shrink and deformation,vascular tissue differentiation were not completely.These structural abnormalities were important to affect growth and multiplication of T.lanceolata plantlets in vitro.
Effects of GA3 and IAA on the germination of four species of Clematis seeds
Fei WANG, Jin-xia WANG, Qiang LI, Miao HE
2014, 8(4): 672-676.
[Abstract](6568) [PDF 455KB](494)
Abstract:
The effects of different concentrations of IAA and GA3 treatments on the germination process of the seeds of Clematis brevicaudata,C.serratifolia,C.hexapetalaand,C.fusca were studied in this paper.The results showed that 20 mg·L-1 IAA treatment was optimal for C.brevicaudata whose germination rate was 83% and the mean germination time decreased by 4.6 days.20 mg·L-1 IAA and 5 mg·L-1 GA3 treatments were optimal for C.Serratifolia whose germination rate can reach 93.4% and 90%,respectively.The mean germination time of these two treatments for C.serratifolia decreased by 3 days and 2.3 days,respectively.500 mg·L-1 GA3 significantly increase C.Hexapetala and C.fuscas seed germination rate.The germination rate of C.hexapetala seed increased from the original 5.1% to 33.4%.The germination rate of C.fusca seed increased from the original 4% to 53.3% and the mean germination time decreased by 2 days.
Effects of Na2CO3 stress on the germination of Festuca arundinacea seeds
Xi-hong SUN, Ling-ping ZHAO, Zhan-bin WANG
2014, 8(4): 677-682.
[Abstract](1716) [PDF 481KB](535)
Abstract:
The effects of different concentrations of Na2CO3 (0,20,40,60,80,100 mmol·L-1) on seed germination of four cultivarsof tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) were studied.The results showed that salt stress delayed tall fescue initial germination and the germination peak,and slowed down the germination process.With the Na2CO3 concentration increase,the germination rate and germination potential of the four cultivars of tall fescue seed declined.The relationship between the relative germination rate of four cultivars and salt concentration was hyperbola correlation.Equation of linear regression were: y=-6E-05x2-1.203 5x+110.61 (Jaguar 3),y=0.007 4x2-1.792 8x+101.58(Athena),y=-0.001x2-1.070 3x+107.72 (Arid 3),y=0.004 9x2-1.728x+114.97 (Phoenix).The salt tolerance critical value of four cultivars of tall fescue were 87.2 mmol·L-1 (Jaguar 3),73.2 mmol·L-1(Athena),84.6 mmol·L-1(Arid 3),78.4 mmol·L-1(Phoenix),respectively.Jaguar 3 exhibited greater germination ability under salt stress,then followed by Arid 3 and Phoenix,and the salt tolerance of Athena was the worst.
Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on seed yield, seed yield components and canopy NDVI of Elymus sibiricus
Ming-ya WANG, Pei-sheng MAO
2014, 8(4): 683-688.
[Abstract](1592) [PDF 526KB](372)
Abstract:
A spilt-plot experiment was designed to study the effects of different rates of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on seed yield,yield components and canopy NDVI in four year Elymus sibiricus seed crop field.Results indicated that seed yield reached the highest rate of 385.18 kg·hm-2 when phosphorus fertilizer application was 120 kg P·hm-2.The phosphorus fertilizer improved seed yield by affecting fertile tiller density,spikelets per inflorescence and thousand-seed weight.Nitrogen application didn’t affect seed yield significantly (P0.05).The nitrogen application and phosphorus application both effected canopy NDVI without significance (P0.05).The correlation between canopy NDVI and seed yield was significantly positive (P0.05) in the mature stage with different treatments .
Effects of sainfoin Phoma leaf spot on the yield and nutrition
Hong-xia NIE, Yan-zhong LI
2014, 8(4): 689-696.
[Abstract](1625) [PDF 788KB](455)
Abstract:
Sainfoin disease with leaf chlorosis and thickened occurred in Yuzhong County,Gansu Province which severely affect sainfoin yield since most leaves defoliated pre-harvest.The pathogen and effects of this disease on yield and nutrient were evaluated in the present study.Pycnidia and conidiospores which identified as Phoma were easily observed on diseased leaves with reddish brown spots under microscope.However,this pathogen cannot be isolated and cultured on artificial media such as potato dextrose agar (PDA).Disease incidence was 94% in the field and 50% leave of the whole plants were infected.Leaf weight of 100 leaves increased by 0.5 g after infected.Crude protein,calcium,phosphorus and crude ash of diseased leaves decreased significantly (P0.05) by 28.54%,10.26%,13.64% and 6.05%,respectively,compared with healthy leaves.Sixteen amino acids including 7 essential amino acids for the livestock decreased significantly.Crude fat increased by 160.95% and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) increased by 97.27%.Compared with healthy plants,most tested indices of diseased plant increased significantly such as weight increased by 4.4 g,ratio of stems to leaves increased by 0.46,NDF increased by 7.27% ,acid detergent fiber (ADF) increased by 5.08% and forage yield increased by 579.87 kg·ha-1.Some tested indices of diseased plant decreased significantly such as crude ash (decreased by 12.19%),total amino acids,essential amino acids and tyrosine,isoleucine and leucine.However,if compared with diseased plants before disease development,crude fat,crude ash,crude protein and Ca decreased by 48.54%,4.30%,0.34% and 3.70%,and forage loss was 823.12 kg·ha-1.Results of amino acids content were similar to that compared with healthy plants.The method of compare diseased plants before and after disease development was more reliable than the method of compare diseased plants and healthy plants because the disease occurred on most field plants which make it difficult to find healthy plants.The explored method of loss evaluation should be applied for other similar diseases
Effects of N, P and K fertilizer on antioxidant activities of mulberry leaves
Gang LIU, Hao YIN, Gai-qun HUANG, Jian-hua ZHANG, Yong-qun ZHU, Ling WEI, Wan-hong TONG, Chao-wen LIN
2014, 8(4): 697-704.
[Abstract](1375) [PDF 626KB](354)
Abstract:
The effects of different amount and ratio of nitrogen(N)、phosphate(P) and potassium(K) on the protective enzyme activity and membrane lipid peroxidation (MDA) of mulberry leaves were investigated in later stage in field test.The results indicted the contents of soluble protein(Pro),malondialdehyde(MDA) and the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD),catalase(CAT),peroxidase(POD) gradually increased with mulberry development in spring.The Pro contents and the activities of SOD,CAT,POD increased firstly and decreased afterward and MDA gradually increased in autumn.With the increase of single fertilizer amount,the Pro contents and the activities of SOD,CAT,POD significantly increased and MDA significantly decrease and the optimal level was N2P2K2 at developmental period.Suitable fertilizer amount and ratio (N2P2K2:N 600 kg·ha-1 ,P2O5 210 kg·ha-1 ,K2O 300 kg·ha-1) significantly increased the protective enzymes activities and decreased lipid peroxidation degree of mulberry leaves which delay its aging.
Effects of the light and temperature on dry land wheat yield under different tillage systems
Nan YANG, Guang LI
2014, 8(4): 705-710.
[Abstract](1467) [PDF 630KB](458)
Abstract:
Experiments with two factors and seven levels were designed to explore the influences of light and temperature variations on wheat yields the test of light and temperature.And then,a model was employed to simulate wheat yields under different light and temperature from 1971 to 2005 year and analyze the effects of light and temperature on wheat yield under 3 tillage systems.The results showed the relationships between wheat yield and the light and temperature were quadratic parabola with decreased type.Meanwhile,the reduction effect of wheat yield of NTS was greater than that of T and NT.If the annual average temperature rise 1 ℃ with constant light,wheat yield decreased under these 3 cultivation and maximum yield reduction rate was 16.2% with average of 7.6%.If the average light increase 1 MJ·m-2 with constant temperature,wheat yield decreased under these 3 cultivation and maximum yield reduction rate was 13.8% with average of 3.9%.NTS yield change was greater than that of T and NT which suggest that the decreasing effect of NTS on yield was greater than the other two tillage system with the rise of light or temperature.
Effect of tree-controlling on nutrient of Camellia oleifera
Ying SUN, Xiao-lin LEI, Jian-an LI, Zhi-xiang HE, Xian CHEN
2014, 8(4): 711-716.
[Abstract](1258) [PDF 495KB](482)
Abstract:
To explore the process of growth and development of Camellia oleifera tree control technology (pruning ) on Camellia carbohydrates content,protein content and other changes,for the efficient management of C.oleifera body to provide data support and scientific basis .In this study during shoot growth,fruit development period,dormant period 3 periods on Camellia adult trees to fine trimming and pruning,simplified trimming and pruning,extensive trimming and pruning and control 4 modes of tree restructuring of its tree vivo total soluble sugar,soluble starch,soluble protein content and the degree of sucrose synthase activity,nitrate reductase activity level,and thus initially revealed tea tree control technology on adult trees vivo nutritional physiology.The results show that the simplified model of C.oleifera plants pruning vivo total soluble sugar,soluble starch,soluble protein content was the highest in all growth stages,sucrose synthase activity,the nitrate reductase activity is best.Control modes with various organic nutrients (total soluble sugar,soluble starch,soluble protein) content correlation analysis showed that the shoots growing and fruit development period,the regulation model and total soluble sugar content,soluble starch content was significantly correlated with changes(P0.05),but only in the soluble protein content of fruit development was significantly correlated,showing the tree control technology for sugar and other organic nutrients accumulation and utilization of greater impact.It is suggested that using a simplified model of the tree pruning restructuring on C.oleifera forest production.
Effects of nitrogen phosphorus and potassium mixed fertilizer application on growth dynamics and yield of Glycyrrhiza uralensis
Ying JI, Jia-jie ZHANG, Long-qiang WANG, Hai-ming LIN, Jun-ji HUANG, Zhen-xin CHEN, Xi-ze WANG, Yong-fu TAO
2014, 8(4): 717-723.
[Abstract](1565) [PDF 491KB](382)
Abstract:
To study the influence of nitrogen phosphorus and potassium mixed fertilizer application on yield and growth dynamics of Glycyrrhiza uralensis,the “3414” mixed fertilizer application were used on G.uralensis,the accumulation of biomass and dry matter accumulation were investigated.The results indicated that the increase effect of NPK mixed fertilizer on plant height was mainly in late June before main stem fast growth period,the increase effect on root dry weight was mainly in July-August,root diameter and root length reached high peak.The middle level of N(N2) with middle level of PK(P2,K2) can increase accumulation of biomass,fertilizer efficiency decreased without N,P,K; N2P2K2 was the highest yield for 6 500 kg·ha-1,which increased 39.3% compared to the control.It was recommended that nitrogen application should be 171 kg·ha-1,phosphorus application should be 292.5kg·ha-1 and potassium application should be 49.5 kg·ha-1 in practice.
Effect of drought stress on physiological indexes of 4 Crassulaceae species
Yin-yuan ZHANG, Ying LIU, Long BAI
2014, 8(4): 724-731.
[Abstract](2161) [PDF 600KB](584)
Abstract:
In order to select green roof plants in north cold area,the effects of drought stress on 4 Crassulaceae species of physiological indexes were studied,including leaf relative water content,relative electrical conductivity,MDA (malondialdehyde) content,combined with subordinate function comprehensive evaluation of plant drought resistance ability.With the extension of drought stress,S.sarmentosum,H.spectabile and S.kamtschaticum was identified as normal growth and S.hybridum cv.Immergrunchell was identified as inhibited growth by means of morphological evaluation.Leaf relative water content of Sedum leaves decreased.The relative electrical conductivity and MDA content of S.sarmentosum increased slightly which indicated it has high drought resistance.The drought resistance of 4 Crassulaceae species were comprehensive evaluated with subordinate function and their drought resistance order as following:S.sarmentosumH.spectabileS.kamtschaticumS.hybridum cv.Immergrunchell.
Grass production of three Roegneria kamoji varieties in Chengdu plain
Zhong-gang CUI, Hai-qin ZHANG, Qi LI, Cai-rong YANG, Juan HUANG, Xiao-mei LUO, Yong-hong ZHOU
2014, 8(4): 732-736.
[Abstract](1476) [PDF 740KB](387)
Abstract:
Roegneria kamoji perennial species in Triticeae and hexaploidy (2n=6x=42) with the StYH genomes.In this study,the yields of two new varieties of R.kamoji——Dujiangyan and Chuannong No.2 were reported with cultivated variety (R.ciliaris Gansi No.1) as control.Three years experiment showed that the hay yield of R.kamoji Dujiangyan and R.kamoji Chuannong No.2 were 20 973 and 21 831 kg·ha-1,respectively,which increased by 19.9% and 24.8%,respectively,compared with the cultivated variety R.ciliaris Gansi No.1.Furthermore,the two new varieties had longer growth period and higher protein content than those of R.ciliaris Gansi No.1.All of these improvements suggested that the two new varieties of R.kamoji could be used as forage grass in upland areas.
Comprehensive evaluation of drought resistance of twelve alfalfa accessions at seedling stage
Hui-hui ZHANG, Shi-cai ZHEN, Yi-gong ZHANG, Gang YANG, Xiang GU, Shawulie·Shabihan, Yu WANG, Rena·Abdukelimu
2014, 8(4): 737-743.
[Abstract](1846) [PDF 554KB](392)
Abstract:
The article reported the response of twelve alfalfa(Medicago sativa) germlasms under three soil water conditions (control,moderate and severe drought stress) with pot experiment in room.The subordinative function of the standard deviation coefficient given weighting was utilized to comprehensive evaluation of the alfalfa germlasms drought resistance.The results showed that the drought resistance of the twelve alfalfa germlasms followed this order: Medicago sativa cv.Hetian DayeM.sativa cv.AohanM.ovaria.cv.AletaiM.sativa cv.Gannong No.3M.sativa(Qitai)M.sativa(Bazhou)M.sativa (Shawan)M.sativa(Fukang)M.sativa cv.BeijiangM.sativa(Buerjin)M.sativa(Cele)M.sativa(Yili).This research provided the theoretical basis for drought-resistant alfalfa breeding in Xinjiang.
Adaptability of introduced species for improvement of degraded alpine grassland in Gannan areas, China
Jian-quan ZHANG, Ji-yu ZHANG, Yan-rong WANG, Tian-wen HAN
2014, 8(4): 744-753.
[Abstract](1653) [PDF 586KB](397)
Abstract:
Two consecutive years of reseeded and improvement trial for degraded grassland were conducted in alpine pasture in Maqu county Gannan prefecture,Gansu province.During the experiment time,phenotypic,growth characteristics,coverage,above-ground biomass,characteristics of winter hardy and seed set performance of introduced species in the next year were determined and measured.In the first year of re-sowing,all the tested species were in the vegetative stage and can not have seeds,the height of the reseeded pasture varied from 4 to 29 cm,the coverage scoped 9%-80%,the species of Poa pratensis,Agropyron cristatum and Festuca arundinacea have difficulties in winter hardy.In the second year,the winter hardy species developed into the reproductive stage,Elymus nutans,Festuca cinensis,Poa pratensis,E.sibiricus,and E.america were matured.The coverage and above-ground biomass of the winter hardy species increased in great margins,the data available lay a strong found for improvement of degrade grassland in the alpine area,and offer scientific base for introduction of forage species adapted to this adverse conditions.
Essential character and development tendency of herdsmen’s professional cooperatives
Zhu HAN
2014, 8(4): 754-759.
[Abstract](1509) [PDF 551KB](405)
Abstract:
The production base and management mode of grassland animal husbandry are different from agriculture’s.The base of herdsme’s professional cooperatives is grassland animal husbandry.Influenced by natural condition,cultural background and national policy,herdsmen’s professional cooperatives possess the character of moving entity,economic entity,management entity and capital entity.Unifying animal husbandry,industry and business,herdsmen’s professional cooperatives will develop into a comprehensive economic organization.
Enzymolysis conditions of Pennisetum sp. cellulose
Jing SHI, Zhan-xi LIN, Dong-mei LIN, De-wei SU, Hai-ling LUO, Xing-sheng LIN, Zhan-sen LIN, Dan ZHENG, Jin-hua CHEN, Jun-xin YAO
2014, 8(4): 760-765.
[Abstract](1740) [PDF 552KB](380)
Abstract:
The present study analyzed the effects of five factors (enzymatic time,enzyme dosage,substrate concentration,buffer pH and reaction temperature) on enzymatic reaction of Pennisetum sp.cellulose.The results showed that the effects of these different factors were different and the activity of cellulose enzyme decreased as follows order: enzyme dosageenzymolysis timesubstrate concentrationbuffer pHtemperature.The optimal enzymolysis condition of Pennisetum sp.was 60 h reaction time,44.8 U·g-1 enzyme dosage,10 g·L-1 substrate concentration,pH 5.0 and 45 ℃ hydrolysis temperature.Under these optimal conditions,enzymatic hydrolyzate of sugar content was 102.656 mg·g-1.These results conducted a preliminary exploration for Pennisetum sp.as bio-ethanol fuel.
Effects of moisture and additives on feed quality of alfalfa silage
Jin-xia ZHANG, Hong-xia QIAO, Yu-tian LIU
2014, 8(4): 766-770.
[Abstract](2384) [PDF 448KB](516)
Abstract:
Two factors (moisture×additive) and eight levels design were used to investigate the effects of moisture and additives on quality of alfalfa silage.Three additives were used in the present study,which was lactic acid bacteria+glucose,cellulose enzyme,and beneficial bacteria(suk B).The alfalfa containing 54.27% and 42.67% of water were supplemented with or without one of the three additives and were then ensiled in polythelene bags for 65 days,respectively.Each treatment repeated three times.The results showed that evaluation scores of each treatment were between 13.6 and 16.1 which suggested that all of them were good silage.Silage with enzyme cellulose group had the highest sensory score with 16.1.Moisture and additives,separately,has no effect on nutritional ingredients of alfalfa silage,however,the interaction of these two factors significantly improved the smell scores (P0.05).The alfalfa containing 54.27% moisture had significantly low level of pH which improved silage quality.All of these results suggested that low moisture alfalfa can directly be made to silage without any additives,however,it was unfavourable for silage acidity reduction if the moisture was too low.Only under the appropriate moisture conditions,additives can improve alfalfa silage fermentation quality.
Study on extraction technology and antibacterial of flavonoids from space breeding alfalfa
Xiao-ning DONG, Hai-fu ZHAO, Qiang ZHAO, Rui-rui YI, Zheng-juan JIN
2014, 8(4): 771-775.
[Abstract](1574) [PDF 478KB](441)
Abstract:
Flavonoid was extracted from space breeding alfalfa with Soxhlet extraction with orthogonal design and content was determined with spectrophotometer at 510 nm.Two bacteria were selected for in vitro antibacterial activity test.The results show that each factor with various influence with the following order: Ultrasonic extraction timeLiquid to solid ratioEthanol concentration.The highest content was 10.04 mg·g-1.The MIC of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were 0.40 and 0.70 mg·mL-1,respectively.
Deterioration and strategies for alpine grassland in the North Slope of Qilian Mountains
Jia-ning ZHANG
2014, 8(4): 776-780.
[Abstract](1127) [PDF 582KB](498)
Abstract:
he grassland in North Slope of Qilian Mountains is barrier for ecology and safety to Hexi Corridor.This study analyzed the situation,utilization and influenced factors of alpine grassland resources in this area and proposed strategies of grassland resources sustainable utilization based on grassland classification management.The proposed strategies included grassland resources and grazing system improvement,grassland ownership clarification,reasonable medicinal herbs picking with time management,ecological compensation and infrastructure construction and biology control strategy