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In the present study, laboratory incubation with different temperature and moisture were conducted to imitate the effects of soil temperature and moisture on soil N mineralization using soil samples from Stipa krylovii grassland of Inner Mongolia, China. Five different temperatures (9, 14, 22, 30 and 40 ℃) and five different moisture (13%, 26%, 39%, 52%, 66% VWC ) levels were included with a full-factorial design. Results showed that soil mineral N production and net N mineralization rate were positively related to temperature (P0.01). There was no significant difference between soil mineral N production under different temperature levels (P0.05). There were significant difference between net N mineralization rate under different temperature levels during the early and middle stage of incubation (P0.05). Both mineral N production and net N mineralization rate had a quadratic correlation with moisture because both of them decreased rapidly at 52%~66% VWC (P0.01). The difference between moisture levels were significant for net N mineralization rate (P0.05) except the later incubation stage. There were significant effects of the interactions between soil temperature and moisture on nitrogen mineralization (P0.01). Environmental stress in the late incubation stage improved nitrogen immobilization which resulted in that interactions between soil temperature and moisture had no significant effects on net N mineralization rate.
This study determined soil carbon, nitrogen contents and C/N of 3 typical vegetation communities in Urad desert steppe. The results showed that: 1) the vegetation coverage of Stipa klemenzii community was significant higher than Achnatherum splendens and Reaumuria soongorica communities (P0.05), while its aboveground biomass was the lowest among 3 communities. 2) the carbon content of 3 vegetation communities was not significant different; but the nitrogen content and C/N of 3 vegetation communities showed significant different, which ranked as A.splendensS.klemenziiR.soongorica and R.soongoricaS.klemenziiA.splendens respectively; 3) Soil organic carbon content of S.klemenzii community was significant higher than the other two communities, especially in 0-30 cm soil layer, and the total soil nitrogen content of R.soongorica community was the highest among 3 vegetation communities in 0-10 cm layer. There were some differences of soil C/N in different types of vegetation, but the change was not consistent with soil depth.
Land usage is an important aspect for human influence on carbon process. The impact of land usage on the sequestration of carbon is one of the most important domains to global change research. The main objective of this study was to identify the effects of reseeding on soil carbon sequestration in degraded grassland. The effects of reseeding on community composition, community productivity and soil carbon sequestration in the degraded grassland were discussed. Carbon storage and productivity significantly increased (P0.05) in reseeding community compared with degraded community. The carbon storage of reseeding community increased in the followding order: Phragmites australisChloris virgataLeymus chinensisMelilotus suaveolensMedicago falcate. The productivity of different reseeding community increased with the following order: C.virgataP.australisM.falcateL.chinensisM.suaveolens. Soil organic carbon was vertical distribution in the profile of soil which decreased with the depth increased. There was significant difference between communities. Our results suggested that reseeding increased the productivity of the degrade grassland and the soil carbon storage. The study demonstrated that reseeding was a valuable and feasible approach to improve the carbon sequestration of degraded grassland.
In order to evaluate the carbon source/carbon sink function of grassland and explore the sustainable grassland management measures, the combined methods of field sampling and laboratory analysis were employed to analyze the variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) in Xilingol typical grassland in Inner Mongolia. The effects of different management and grazing measures on the distribution and carbon reserves of SOC and SMBC were discussed. The studied measures included fenced enclosure for 29 years (WF29), fenced enclosure for 8 years (WF8), filling-up Medicago sativa (RA), filling-up Leymus chinensis (RC), and three grazing measures . The surface soil layer was higher carbon pool because the SOC and SMBC in the soil profile decreased with soil depth increasing. The SOC and SMBC of WF8 and WF29 were higher than that of HG in root system soil layer (0-30 cm). There were significantly positive effects of WF8 management on SMBC and SOC. There was significantly positive correlation (P0.05) between SOC and SMBC. The variations of SMBC not only reflect the changes of SOC, but aslo reflect the changes of soil organic carbon pool. The total SOC and SMBC carbon reserves were 788.84 Gg C and 9.47 Gg C in Xilinhot, respectively. The SOC and SMBC carbon reserves were highest under fenced enclosure for 8 years (661.76 Gg C, 6.76 Gg C), and lowest under the artificial filling-up measures (0.61 Gg C, 5.73 t C). SOC and SMBC were the indicators of soil fertility and soil quality and important evaluation index of grassland carbon sink.
This study investigated the changes of crude protein and crude fat, soil bulk density and soil organic matter under different grazing pressures in steppe desert grassland of northern Tianshan Mountains. The results showed: 1) for 0 sheep·ha-1 treatment, plant crude protein and crude fat decreased after grazing season compared to the beginning of grazing season in spring and autumn. Consistent with this, a similar trend was observed in autumn season for 1.13 and 1.95 sheep·ha-1 treatment; however, in spring season, the crude protein and crude fat increased after grazing in spring for 1.13 and 1.95 sheep·ha-1 treatment. 2) soil bulk density are relative stable for all treatments before and after grazing season; soil organic matter showed a down trend after spring grazing for 1.95 sheep·ha-1, and a slight decrease was observed in terms of each soil layer organic matter for 1.13 and 1.95 sheep·ha-1 after autumn grazing. There was a significant difference between 1.95 and 0 and 1.13 sheep·ha-1 in terms of soil organic matter after spring grazing(P＜0.01). 3) From the change of crude protein and crude fat contents, soil bulk density and soil organic matter content, 1.13 sheep·ha-1 is more reasonable grazing intensity.
Grassland is not only the material basis for developing livestock husbandry, but also the sensitive area which response to global climate change as well as the important water supply area for the Yangtze River and the Yellow River. Toxic and harmful grass is an essential part of grassland, and has significant and special ecological function. Toxic and harmful grass was considered as the “Green killer” of grassland and the “Invisible enemy” of grazing animals in traditional research. There is no doubt that it restricted the sustainable development of livestock production tremendously. Based on literature data analysis, combining with the related experimental data, in the present paper we discussed the ecological function of toxic and harmful grass in grassland agro-ecosystems from different angles. We conclude that toxic and harmful grass plays huge potential economic values in such as windbreak and sand-fixation, water conservation, maintenance of biological diversity, ornamental value, grazing management, livestock feeding and so on. We elucidated the mechanism of grassland degradation and the rules of toxic and harmful grass in the grassland agro-ecosystems, which will provide a theory basis for recovery of degradated grassland and grassland management.
Present study investigated the effect of trample treatment on the changes of tillers number, endogenous hormones and their relationship of Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) to clarify the hormone mechanism of tillering and improve turfgrass traffic tolerance from physiological regulation aspect. The results showed that, tall fescue tillering performance was the result of the combined effects of a variety of hormones after trample treatment. IAA, ABA content and IAA/ZT ratio decreased while ZT content rised under mild trample treatment.These changes favored growth and development of tall fescue and it showed that, mild trampling promoted tillering of tall fescue. IAA content, ABA content and IAA/ZT ratio rised while ZT content decreased under moderate trample. The correlation between each hormone and tall fescue tillering ranked by the correlation coefficient was: IAA/ZTIAAABAZT.
Present study investigated the effect of Kikuyugrass invasion on soil respiration rate, turf quality and above-ground biomass of cool season turf which composed of Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass and tall fescue. Results showed that Kikuyugrass invasion reduced diurnal soil respiration rate, soil temperature and soil water content. Moreover, Kikuyugrass invasion also changed the soil respiration curve but showed no effect on maximal soil respiration rate (3.68 μmol·m-2·s-1). Soil respiration rate showed a significant positive correlation with soil temperature, but negatively correlated with soil water content in cool-season turf without Kikuyugrass invasion. However, no significant correlation between soil respiration rate and temperature was found after Kikuyugrass invasion. In addition, Kikuyugrass invasion significantly increased turf above-ground biomass (P＜0.05) but decreased total leaf chlorophyll content (P＜0.05). Kikuyugrass invasion led to poorer turf quality in terms of Nine Points System, e.g. color, texture, and surface uniformity were significantly decreased by Kikuyugrass invasion.
The present study validated accuracy of the MODIS/LAI production with resolution of 1 000 m by compared with in-situ field measurements and retrieved LAI from the PROSAIL physical model using HJ-1A-CCD2 data from China Environment and Disaster Reduction Satellite. The field measurements achieved by designed and carried out measurements of LAI in 3 km×3 km areas from the temperate meadow-steppe in Hulunber region. Heterogeneity in remote sensing data was analyzed and LAI was resampled with scaling-up method and nearest-neighbor algorithm for comparison with MODIS LAI production. The results showed that the MODIS/LAI production was overestimated according to field measurements and underestimated according to HJ-1A-CCD2/LAI data. The relative errors were 28.1% and 13.5%, respectively. The MODIS/LAI production was overestimated about 0.04 in relatively homogeneous grassland and about 0.18 in heterogeneous grassland. The relative errors were 5.8% and 32.7%, respectively. The surface homogeneous, soil background and uncertain model possibly explained these overestimation and underestimation of the MODIS/LAI production. It was necessary to validate the accuracy of MODIS/LAI production as there was bias for relative error
Using consecutive 10 years EOS/MODIS data with 250 m resolution from 2003 to 2012 in Barkol, NDVI was calculated with Maximum Value Composite approach after pre-processing, geometry emendation. Based on the GIS, 10 years NDVI information was distilled using the Land type classification map of Barkol with the scale of 1∶250 000 and the dynamic variety of NDVI was achieved during this consecutive 10 years with 2003 as background. The results showed that the area of high vegetation coverage grassland was relatively stable in Barkol and the annual amplitude area of middle vegetation coverage grassland varied obviously. If the area of low vegetation coverage grassland rise and that of the desertification grassland will fall and vice versa which showed that there was conversion relationship between them. If there was enough water, desertification grassland will transform to low vegetation coverage grassland and vice versa. Precipitation and temperature were two key factors for grass growth in Barkol, especially the precipitation from April to June.
In the present paper, some indices of eight Picea species seedlings were measured which included aboveground, underground respiration rate, annual net primary productivity, leaves and whole-plant biomass. The allometric scaling relationships between these measured traits were also analyzed. For alienation, the average aboveground and underground respiration rates corresponding to biomass per plant after temperature-corrected was 0.876, 0.817, respectively. For assimilation, the average annual net primary productivity per plant corresponding to average leaves biomass per plant was 1.191. The average leaves biomass per plant corresponding to average whole-plant biomass per plant was allometric scaling at 0.940. Both of the above allometric exponents were close to theoretical prediction value of 1 for small plants. Interestingly, the scaling exponents of average aboveground biomass per plant corresponding to underground biomass per plant (1.090) and temperature-corrected aboveground respiration per plant corresponding to underground respiration per plant (1.168) were consistent with the theoretical predictions value of 1.
In vitro micropropagation and shoot regeneration were studied using axillary bud and leaves of Chrysanthemum×grandiflora ‘niu9717’ aseptic stems as explants. The optimal proliferation medium was MS MS+6-BA 0.3 mg·L-1+KT 0.5 mg·L-1+NAA 0.5 mg·L-1 which had average multiplication coefficient of 3.2. The optimal medium for adventitious bud induction from leaves was MS+6-BA 2.0 mg·L-1+NAA 0.5 mg·L-1 which had the callus induction ratio of 100％、adventitious bud differentiation ratio of 92.3％and the reproduction coefficient of 8.9. The combination of 6-BA and NAA was better than that of 6-BA and 2, 4-D or others. Cytokinin KT and TDZ were not conducive to callus induction and adventitious bud differentiation. Auxin 2, 4-D were conducive to callus induction but not to adventitious bud differentiation. The medium of 1/2MS+IBA 0.05 mg·L-1 was the optimal for rooting, which had rooting rate of 100％ and the average root number of 12.08 and average root length of 1.5 cm. The plants after transplanting grew very well with a survival rate of 100％. The high concentration of auxin could induce root but inhibit elongation.
Present study investigated the flowering phenology and pollination characteristics of Adonis amurensis under wild and introduced environment for two consecutive years. The results showed the same model under wild and introduced condition in terms of flowering phenology: the early flowering stage appeared in early April, and last for 25 d. The flowering curve of population presented multiple “M”. Correlation analysis showed significant positive relationship between fertile fruit and the number of flowering and single length of flowering; and significant negative relationship between early flowering stage, number of flowering, single length of flowering and percentage of fertile fruit. This indicated that the earlier flower, the longer flowering time, the higher percentage of fertile fruit. During 2011 to 2012, a total number of 9 species of insects were recognized as the flower visitors, which belong to 5 families of 4 orders. There were significant differences among visitors in terms of visiting duration time. Apis cerana had the shortest duration time which was less than ten seconds, and Sphaerophoria indiana had the longest duration time which can reach 20～30 s.
This experiment studied the seed germination rate, germination index and the growth of seedlings of Vicia sativa under different doses of 60Co-γ-rays, colchicine and Ethyl methyl sulfonate (EMS) mutagenic treatments. The results showed that 60Co-γrays inhibited radical and plumule length of V.sativa to a certain degree, however, this treatment had no significant effect on the germination rate. The optimum dosage was 600 to 1 000 Gy. The germination rate, radical and plumule length of V.sativa was inhibited by colchicine. However, there was less inhibitory effect under short time treatment. The germination rate and germination index of V.sativa were 45% and 0.757, respectively, under the treatment of seed in colchicine solution at 0.2% for 24 h. Effects of EMS on the germination rate, radical and plumule length of V.sativa varied with processing time and concentrations. The final germination rate was 46% under the treatment of seeds in EMS solution at 0.5 ml·L-1 concentration for 48 h which recommended as the optimum EMS dosage..
The experiment was conducted to estimate the drought tolerance of Delphinium grandiflorum seedling stressed by PEG with the concentrations of 0, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%, respectively. Different physiology indices including cell membrane permeability, malondialdehyde (MDA), free proline (Pro), peroxidase (POD) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and soluble protein were measured. The results showed that the cell membrane permeability, MDA and Pro concentration in seedling leaves of D.grandiflorum increased with drought stress increased. SOD and POD activity increased firstly and then decreased with drought stress increased. Soluble protein concentration had no difference between control and different stress treatments. All of these variation suggested that the seedling of D.grandiflorum had drought tolerance in some degree.
In order to explore the effects of complex salt-alkali stresses on seed germination of Oat (Avena sativa), six alkali concentration treatments with six levels of salinity each, and in total 36 kinds of salt-alkali conditions were simulated by mixing neutral salts (NaCl and Na2SO4) and alkaline salts (NaHCO3 and Na2CO3) in various proportions. Germination percentage, germination energy, radicle and shoot length were measured. The results showed that, germination percentage and germination energy both decreased with increasing salinity under all alkali treatments, and the salinity inhibit effects increased as alkali concentration increased. When subjected to the highest salinity (144 mmol·L-1), germination percentage was 25.6%, 11.1%, 0, 0, 0 and 0, respectively, as alkaline salts proportion increased from 0 to 100%. Radicle and shoot length had the similar downtrends with germination index, and radicle growth was more sensitive to salinity stress. Stepwise regression analysis showed that, salinity was the dominant stress factor affecting seed germination. This may attribute to osmotic stress which mainly determined by sodium concentration in present study.
Neotyphodium/Epichloё endophytes not only enhance plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, but also have the positive effect on the growth of the host grass. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) can improve plant mineral nutrition especially P uptake and storage. We found that both Neotyphodium endophyte and AMF coexisted in Hordeum brevisubulatum. In this study, endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-), and AMF-infected (M+) and AMF-free (M-) H.brevisubulatum was established for this study. The results demonstrated that AMF colonization was significantly inhibited by the grass endophyte. The above-ground biomass of H.brevisubulatum was significantly increased by endophytes, while the root biomass was significantly increased by AMF. The content of total N for plant infected endophyte or AMF alone was significantly higher than both fungi infected. The effect of P accumulation caused by AMF was inhibited by grass endophyte.
To explore the difference of photosynthetic characteristics during leaf expanding of apple leaves under different orchard floor managements, the photosynthetic and fluorescence parameters during leaf expanding of 5 a apple orchard under grass coverage and bare earth conditions were determined by gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics. The results showed that chlorophyll contents, Pn, PICS and ΔI of leaves under grass coverage and bare earth conditions were significantly lower at early stage of leaf expansion than that of expanded leaves (EL). Pn were 26.9% and 18.4% of EL, PICS were 67.7% and 53.4% of EL, and ΔI were 35.6% and 30.5% of EL, respectively. Chlorophyll contents, Pn, PICS and ΔI of leaves under grass coverage condition were significantly higher than that under bare earth condition at early stage of leaf expansion. In conclusion, the PSII function have developed to some extent at early stage of leaf expansion under grass coverage and bare earth conditions, but developing extent of PSⅠ function was lower than PSⅡ function. Grass coverage could improve development of PSⅡ and PSⅠ function, and thus enhance leaf photosynthetic efficiency.
Seed yield and yield components of Elymus nutans introduced from different elevations which were 2 500, 3 000, 3 500, 4 000 m were evaluated. The results indicated that seed yield per plant, dry weight per plant and fertile tiller number per plant attained relative higher coefficient of variation(CV), and harvest index, spikelet number per fertile tiller and seed number per spikelet had relative lower CV. There were significant difference among populations from 4 elevations in terms of seed yield and its components (P0.05).The population from 4 000 m elevation attained significantly lower seed yield per plant (14.58 g·plant-1) than the other populations. The highest seed yield per plant was 23.77 g·plant-1 which attained at the population from 3 500 m, but showed no difference with population from 3 000 m, 2 500 m. Except thousand seed weight, spikelet number per fertile tiller and harvest index, there were positive correlation or significant positive correlation between seed yield and the other yield components, the correlation coefficient can rank as dry weight per plantfertile tiller number per plantseed number per spikelet.
Field experiments with Qingyin No.3 cultivar were conducted to study the effects of seeding rate and row space on seed yield, stalk yield and seed yield components of naked oat (Avena nuda) in Minhe county, east part of Qinghai province. Correlation between seed yield and its components, production profit of naked oat were analyzed. Results showed that 1 000 kernel weight and seed yield were highest under the treatment of 120 kg·ha-1 seeding rate and 20 cm row space. Stalk yield was highest under the treatment of 150 kg·ha-1 seeding rate and 15 cm row space. There were significant correlations between seed yield and its components. Under the treatment of seeding rate 120 kg·ha-1 and row space 20 cm, the economic profit of naked oat production was highest which was 6 232 CNY·ha-1. Seed yield (Y1 kg·ha-1) and stalk yield (Y2 kg·ha-1) could be estimated by the binary quadratic equation between them and treatments with seeding rate (B, kg·ha-1) and row space (H, cm).
Taking state approved Roegneria kamoji cv. Gansi No. 1 as control, a comprehensive comparative analysis on production performance and adaptability of introduced cultivar R.kamoji cv. Dujiangyan in Western Chongqing region was conducted in this study. The results of one-year variety test showed that, there was no serious disease and pest on R.kamoji cv. Dujiangyan, while serious diseases and pests were observed on control. R.kamoji cv. Dujiangyan is suitable to be cultivated in test point. To production performance, the growth period of R.kamoji cv. Dujiangyan is 251 d, which is 7 d longer than that of control(244 d). R.kamoji cv. Dujiangyan has a better production persistence than control. The plant height of R.kamoji cv. Dujiangyan is 5 cm higher than that of control, and its stem-leaf ratio is also slightly higher than that of control. Hey yield of R.kamoji cv. Dujiangyan is 1 761.9 kg·hm-2, which is increased by 17.82%, compared with control(1 512.12 kg·hm-2). Compared with control, R.kamoji cv. Dujiangyan has an obvious advantage on total yield. Since R.kamoji cv. Dujiangyan has merits of high resistance to diseases and pests, well-growing, long growth period, and high hey yield, it suitable to be cultivated in the study area and has great potential to become a high-quality forage.
Natural grassland weeds poisonous problem of Ili River valley is serious. Aconitum leucostomum were scaled intoⅠ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ bunch grade according to the number of strains bunch basal leaves before its reproductive growth because this specie was the dominant. Four different aggregate indices and Moristia index Iδ distribution pattern determination method were employed to study A.leucostomum population structure and distribution pattern in different plots under free grazing or fencing with mowing. In free grazing plot and fencing with mowing plot, grade Ⅰ A.leucostomum were clumped, gradeⅡ A.leucostomum randomly distributed. grade Ⅲ A.leucostomum evenly distributed in free grazing plot and randomly distributed in fencing with mowing plot. After four consecutive years fencing in growing season, it was beneficial to A.leucostomum seed germination and was profitless for population control.
The mineral elements of soils and herbages, nutritional values, botanical composition and herbage defoliation in dung deposition and control plots in mixed Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens pasture in Guizhou plateau were quantitatively monitored and systemically analyzed in August 2011. The results indicated that the difference of mineral elements contents between soils and herbages was great and varied with different elements and excretion types. The dung deposition of grazing animals decreased or eliminated the positive correlation between soils and herbage in Na, K, and Mn contents, whereas the dung deposition promoted positive correlation between soils and herbage in Cu and Zn contents. The effects of grazing animal dung deposition on botanical composition of grassland in plant population and community levels varied with patch types and different decomposing stages. Grazing animals dung deposition could promote tiller and growth of L.perenne of D.glomerata, inhibit growth of T.repens, increase height and biomass of herbage and reproductive shoots of L.perenne, and decrease the nutritional values of herbages. The effect of cow dung on botanical composition was more obvious than that of sheep dung. The defoliation of grazing animals for L. perenne and D.glomerata in dung deposition plots was lower than that in controls. The rejected defoliation level of cow in dung deposition plots was higher than that of sheep. The results suggested that the mixed grazing with sheep and cattle could reduce the herbage waste in dung deposition sites and improve the utilization rate of grassland in grassland practical management.
In order to study the effects of altitude and slope aspect on seedling numbers and the dynamic population changes of Achnatherum inebrians, the numbers of A.inebrians seedlings were analyzed under different habitat conditions (shady slopes, sunny slopes, gully bottom) at different times. The results showed that slope aspect had a significant impact (P0.05) on A.inebrians seedlings as there were significant more A.inebrians seedlings in shady slopes than that in sunny slopes. The number of A.inebrians seedling in shady slopes decreased with the increase of altitude, however, the number of that in sunny slopes did not change with altitude. The less number of A.inebrians seedling with the extension of growth time suggested that germinated seedlings died. The mortality rate was as high as 100% in middle section of sunny slope, was 47.2% in the upper section of shady slope and was between 22% and 29% in the rest of slope.
Leguminous crops have widespread economic importance as protein sources for humans and animals. As the legume model plant, the establishment and improvement of the genetic transformation system of Medicago truncatula are of great significance to the promotion of legume genetic engineering research and functional genomics studies. We summarized here the research progress on genetic transformation of M.truncatula in R108, Jemalong 2HA, Jemalong J5, Jemalong A17 and Jemalong M9-10a, in terms of transformation methods, explants, bacterial strains, vectors and culture mediums. Moreover, the existing problems and development tendency were summarized, expecting to provide theoretical basis for the further improvements of legume genetic transformation system.
Alfalfa(Medicago sativa), one of the legume forages with the largest planting area in China, is regarded as “the king of forages”. Since the 1950s, a series of researches have been carried out in alfalfa breeding, and a lot of new varieties with strong resistance have been launched, which lay the foundation for the rapid development of alfalfa industry. In this paper, advances in alfalfa breeding in China were reviewed, including the current situation, some excellent varieties and breeding methods. Further, the existing problems and shortcomings were discussed, and the future trend and goals of alfalfa breeding such as germplasm resources innovation and new varieties which have excellent agronomic traits with high-technology methods were provided.
Aphids have two different life cycles-incomplete life cycle and complete life cycle. High intensity ultraviolet lights lead to genetic differentiation of aphids. The living habits and behavior of insects are closely related with lights. The conditions of 15～30 ℃ temperature and 70% humidity were optimal for aphids growth. However, there were fewer reports about the response of aphids to lights to our best knowledge. Plant secondary metabolism had effects of poison, repellent, anesthesia and growth inhibition or attracting on aphids. Multifunctional transgenic plants with these metabolites may effectively control aphids. There were great breadth and depth in researches about biological characteristics, environmental factors and control policy of aphids. However, researches about optical characteristic and control policy of aphids for different hosts should be carried out in the future to extent the knowledge about ecological characteristics of different aphid genotypes and their control policy.
Many rodent species have ability of avoiding natural enemy odors. The present study reviewed the effects of natural enemy odors (such as skin and fur, urine, feces and anal gland secretions) on the rodents’ behavior. It was summarized the effects on activity, non-defensive behaviors and habitat selection. This review supplied positive support on rodent biological control in using natural enemy odors
Sunan country is a Yugu Ethnic Minorities Autonomous County in Gansu Province which belongs to the minority areas of ecologically fragile and locates in the north of Qilian Mountains. It’s cultivation of the grassland agriculture sustainable competitiveness advantage has become a very important issue because it is the important ecological barrier of Hexi desert oasis and the main water conservation land. This study aims to analyze the applicability of Diamond Model in regional industry which diamond model was a typical paradigm to guide industry competitiveness cultivation. The applicability of diamond model from perspectives of diamond model elements and industry development was test using grassland agriculture of Sunan County as an example. The diamond model in guiding the industrial competitiveness cultivation failed because there were inherent shortcomings and limitations for the diamond model and the region’s eco-binding and industry characteristics. Therefore, the regional ecological environment was included into Porter Diamond Model as the third exogenous variables and the core position of the six elements in the model which was named with “regional ecological constraints diamond model” in line with micro-regional characteristics and industrial competitiveness essence. Based on this situation, the proper method which named with “competitiveness diamond model” was further pointed out and used in cultivating the industry competitiveness if the regional industry had the following characteristics: ecological fragile, ethnic minority, underdeveloped, constrained resources and environment, highly natural resources dependence, low level technology and constrained ecological environment. This model will achieve the outcomes of high value grassland agriculture upgrade and provide the reference for other highland pastoral areas development.
With the rapid development of the golf industry, the ecological problems of golf course industry had arisen widely. This paper collected the information about the situations of golf industrial ecology and analyzed the cracks of consumption, the golf course internal ecological deterioration and the problems associated with golf supporting industries. In order to make the golf industry healthy and sustainable development, a serious of suggestions about industrial ecology from 3 levels which included internal ecology, industrial value chain and coordination were put forward.
The toxicity, distribution and effect on animals of toxic plants were reviewed in this paper. Toxic plants are one kind of plants that contain toxic chemical components and cause human or livestock poisoning. 61 plant species were classified in 18 families and 32 genera distributed in Tianzhu grassland. The major genera are Oxytropis and Astragalus in Leguminosae family Achnatherum Beauv in Poaceae family, Stellera belonging to Thymelaeaceae family, Aconitum Ranunculus and Thalictrum in Ranunculaceae family, Euphorbia belonging to Euphorbiaceae family, Gentiana in Gentianaceae family. In recent years, more and more attentions have been paid to the development and utilization of toxic plants. Currently, the control strategies of these poisonous plants included artificial excavation, herbicide and avoiding feeding.
Silages of withered stems and leaves of broccoli, fresh stems and leaves of broccoli and mixture of maize straw were evaluated by measuring sensory index, pH, crude protein (CP), water soluble carbohydrates(WSC), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acetic acid(AA), propionic acid (PA), butyric acid (BA), lactic acid (LA) and total acid (TA). The results showed that stems and leaves of broccoli withered to 75% water content with certain additive could be ensiled successfully; and WSC, LA, PA in the silage were significantly increased while pH value, BA were significantly reduced (P0.05) when the mix-ensiling ratio of broccoli waste to maize straw was 7∶3. This indicated that broccoli silage quality can be improved by addition of 30% maize straw.