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2013 Vol.30(9)

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Effects of land utilization types on soil organic carbon mineralization in agropastoral transitional zone
Ke ZHOU, Hui LIU, Bo DENG, Jiqiong ZHOU, Fuyu YANG, Yunwei ZHANG
2013, 7(9): 1303-1307.
[Abstract](1201) [PDF 474KB](273)
In order to study the impact of land utilization types on accumulation and mineralization of soil organic carbon mineralization in agropastoral transitional zone,the mineralization content of soil organic carbon and mineralization rate of three land utilization types soil (Alfalfa pasture, Naked oatsalfalfa rotation, Crop farmland) in agropastoral transitional zone have been investigated. The results showed that alfalfa field contained the highest organic carbon and naked oatsalfalfa rotation was the lowest. In the same humidity and temperature condition, the amount of soil organic carbon mineralization of three land utilization types were all decreased with the increment of time. Soil organic carbon mineralization showed a significant positive correlation with month mineralization content (P0.01). Soil organic carbon mineralization increased with soil nitrogen and the correlation was not significant.
Effects of adding poplar and willow branches on organic carbon, moisture and microbial activities of sandy soil
Jinlong SHA, Jian LI, Zhigang LI
2013, 7(9): 1308-1312.
[Abstract](1258) [PDF 555KB](372)
Taking sandy soil of Yinchuang, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region as research object, the organic carbon content, moisture, microbial quantity and enzyme activities of soils, that were treated with different methods, including without any treatment(A, control), adding poplar woody chips(B), adding poplar woody chips+covering with willow branches(C) and covering with mixed woody chips of poplar and willow(D), were tested in this study. The results indicated that, treatments of B, C and D could significantly increase soil organic carbon content, moisture and microbial quantity(bacteria, fungi and actinomyces), especially the quantity of bacteria and actinomyces. The activities of urease and catalase were largely improved by treatment B and C. However, the urease activity of treatment D was lower than that of control, and the catalase activity treatment D had no significant difference with control(P0.05). The results of correlation analysis indicated that, there were significant correlations among soil organic carbon content, moisture, bacterial quantity, fungi quantity, actinomyces quantity, urease activity and catalase activity(P0.05). So adding organic matters can significantly improve sandy soil and increase soil bacterial activities.
Effects of reseeding and sward ripping on vegetation restoration in degraded subalpine meadow
Zhongxin FENG, Juanjuan ZHOU, Xinrong WANG, Liping ZHANG, Jing SHI, Shengwen WANG, Benjian CHEN
2013, 7(9): 1313-1319.
[Abstract](1219) [PDF 495KB](361)
A split plot design has been carried out to study the effects of reseeding and sward ripping in the fence on vegetation height, total coverage, aboveground biomass and species diversity index summation of functional groups since June 2011 in a reseeding and sward ripping experiment on degraded subalpine meadow in Lintan County of Gannan City, Gansu Province. The results showed that pasture coverage, aboveground biomass and species diversity index of functional groups, treated by sward ripping, increased with reseed amount, while vegetation height increased with reseed amount at first, and then decreased. There has been a significant interaction between reseeding and sward ripping (P0.01), reseeding 3 combining with sward ripping has a positive effect on aboveground biomass of pasture, coverage, species diversity index of functional groups, the maximum reaching 201.5 gm-2, 88.2% and 1.203 respectively. The vegetation height tested by reseeding 1 and sward ripping reached 11.7 cm. On the basis of the average value of different reseeding amount, the vegetation height, coverage, aboveground biomass and species diversity index of functional groups of sward ripping were significantly higher than the control one (without sward ripping). In conclusion, correlation degree analysis indicated that treatment reseeding 2 with sward ripping was the best choice considering of height, total coverage, aboveground biomass and species diversity index of functional groups.
Vegetation species diversity characteristics in relation to environmental factors along QinghaiTibetan Highway
Jian WANG, Guangpeng WANG, Guicai SI, Miaogen SHEN, Gengxin ZHANG
2013, 7(9): 1320-1329.
[Abstract](1367) [PDF 1083KB](301)
QinghaiTibet Highway, a sensitive area to global climate change, passes through Tibetan Plateau from north to south. It is significantly important to study the characteristics of species diversity and its correlation to environmental factors along QinghaiTibet Highway. The characteristics of the roadside plant communities and its correlation with environmental factors of 29 samples whose number was 1 to 29 from Xining to Lhasa along QinghaiTibet Highway were investigated and analyzed. The results showed that the vegetation coverage of Tibetan Plateau decreased rapidly and then increased slowly from north to south, the lowest was sample plot 7 (AErCiTuoShan). The species richness firstly decreased and then increased, finally decreased rapidly, the lowest was sample plot 14 (Fenghuoshan Tunnel) and the highest was sample plot 26 (Jiachigang). The ShannonWiener index and Simpson index showed a decreasing trend excluding several sample plots. However, the Pielou index decreased slowly and then increased rapidly, the lowest was sample plot 22 (Tuo Qing Village). The Alatalo index had an opposite trend but a large fluctuation with Pielou index. The correlation and stepwise regression analyses between species diversity and environmental factors suggested that species coverage, species richness and species evenness index (Pielou index) were positively influenced mainly by the water factors. The species diversity index (ShannonWeiner index and Simpson index) and species evenness index (Alatalo index) had a significant correlation to shortwave radiation.
Yield and animalfeed balance of typical grassland in Xinjiang Fukang using 3S techniques
Yurong QIAN, Feng YANG, Jianlong LI, Jiong YU, Zhenhong JIA
2013, 7(9): 1330-1337.
[Abstract](1454) [PDF 1738KB](259)
The objective of this study is to calculate the grassland aboveground biomass (GAB) of Xinjiang Fukang in 1990, 1999 and 2008, using remote sensing images, meteorological data, the Yearbook, previous findings and classification results, the animalfeed balance and the number of animals were analyzed respectively. The results showed that, 1) in recent 20 years, the total area and aboveground biomass of pasture decreased consistently, the aboveground biomass in 2008 reduced by 4.66% compared to 1990; 2) the number of livestock continued to increase from 1990 to 2008, meanwhile total available forage reserves was 3.77105t, 3.64105t, 3.63105t respectively. The animalfeed balance was as follows: the grassland underrun was 29.6% in 1990, 4.91% in 2008, the overloaded was about 9.67% in 1999. Combined with the classification images, climate change and the amount of livestock, it was concluded that from 1990 to 2008, agriculture reclamation occupying grassland led to a reduction of GAB, meanwhile the amount of livestock increased yearly, which induced the pressure of carrying capacity per unit grassland. This situation changed after the implementation of the grazing forbidden project in 2005. In order to develop grassland ecosystem and livestock successfully, attention should be pay to increase the intensity of realtime monitoring of grassland productivity and manage pastoral production.
Effects of different soil moistures on emergence and root of Kentucky bluegrass
Qun YU, Hanli ZHANG, Qi CHAI, Zhangjie LI, Shijie TANG
2013, 7(9): 1338-1343.
[Abstract](1244) [PDF 703KB](276)
It is important to understand the turfgrass growth characteristics under different soil water contents for developing a sustainable strategy for turf management.The objective of this study is to investigate the growth characteristics at seedling stage of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis cv.Merit) under a range of soil water contents.The growth chamber experiment consisted of five soil water content treatments (70%,60%,50%,40% and 30% of filed water content).The seedling emergence rate had significant positive relationship with soil water content and it increased with the increasing of soil water content. The trend of the length and weight of fresh seeds were FWC60>FWC70>FWC50>FW40C>FWC30, and the root length and fresh weight,total surface areas of roots,average root diameter, total length of roots and number of tips were FWC60>FWC50>FWC70>FW40C>FWC30.The results indicated that FWC70 and FWC30 treatments were unfavorable to sustainable development of turfgrass.FWC 50 to 60 could be used as an ideal soil water level for Kentucky bluegrass growth.
Influence of turfgass stress resistance and green enhancer on chilling resistance of Zoysia tenuifolia
Hongdong XIAO, Huizhen WANG, Min YU
2013, 7(9): 1344-1348.
[Abstract](1063) [PDF 667KB](281)
In order to study the effect of turfgass stress resistance and green enhancer chilling resistance on turfgrass, chlorophyll content, activity of CAT, SOD, POD and PAL were measured in leaves of Zoysia tenuifolia with the application of turfgass stress resistance and green enhancer before or after natural low temperature. The results showed that chlorophyll content and the activity of CAT and POD increased after the application of turfgass stress resistance and green enhancer. However, there were no response of the activity of SOD and PAL. Compared with control, the activity of CAT and POD was significantly increased with the application of turfgass stress resistance and green enhancer before or after the natural low temperature. The effect of turfgass stress resistance and green enhancer was the best when applied before the natural low temperature. Therefore, turfgass stress resistance and green enhancer was recommended to apply before the natural low temperature in order to effectively improve the ability of reactive free radicals, reduce its damages to biological membrane and improve the chilling resistance and ornamental effects.
Effects of artificial trampling on soilfree turf substrate
Xu ZHANG, Youjun YANG, Mingzhu ZHENG, Yikai LIU, Jinrong LIU
2013, 7(9): 1349-1353.
[Abstract](1251) [PDF 419KB](280)
The effects of trampling stress on different soilfree turf substrates were studied in this study. The results showed that, a reasonable soilfree turf medium can improve the capacity of resistance to trampling and ornamental value of turfgrass. In this study, both the turfgrass growth substrate layer and elastic material layer in soilfree substrates were 25 mm, and individual. They had a reasonable structure and thickness, which could overcome the shortcomings of thick substrate and low waterholding capacity. Under the same trampling stress, the soilfree turfs had a higher turfgrass height, plant coverage and number of tillers than that of normal turf, and the highest vales were 51.4 cm, 97.60%, and 123 tillerdm-2, respectively. Besides, the soilfree turfs could recover in a shot time after stopping trampling. However, for the same thickness, the substrate mixed turfgrass growth substrate layer and elastic material layer together had a lower ability of resistance to trampling. The soil substrate was the worst. So substrates with a individual turfgrass growth substrate layer and elastic material layer, and a reasonable thickness are fit to produce good soilfree turfs with a high capacity of resistance to trampling stress.
Technology of winter weeding of Yunlingshan golf course in Yunnan Province
Jinna XIN, Guangzhu ZHAO, Jun DONG
2013, 7(9): 1354-1358.
[Abstract](1204) [PDF 562KB](256)
Taking Yunlingshan golf course as an example, the procedure and key techniques in seeding project were studied and summarized. It showed that hydroseeding, thick nonwovens cover, regular irrigation and fertilizer were helpful to seeding in winter.
Research on road slope plant configuration andecological patter in Shenzhen
Xiaorong CHEN, Guogang XU, Zhaohua ZHU, Huaying CAO, Jixiong SUN, Qingwang LAI
2013, 7(9): 1359-1364.
[Abstract](978) [PDF 501KB](341)
Road slope ecological restoration project of highway or highspeed railway is an important content of the construction of ecological civilization. Recovery and reconstruction road slope vegetation are imperative.This paper described the bioclimatic and slope features of Shenzhen, through analysing a large number of road slope ecological engineering practices, and summed up the plant configuration and community modeling techniques of road slopes in Shenzhen. Therefore, the following conclusions wase came up: According to the bioclimatic zone, road slope environment adaptability, plants form symbiotic complementarity and the unity of ecological landscape choose plant species. Giving priority to shrubs, leguminous plants, and local provenance based plants, build multi plant species combinatine communities.
2013, 7(9): 1365-1365.
[Abstract](877) [PDF 282KB](1058)
Chromosome number and karyotype analysis of Halostachys caspica
Ismayil Asiya, Haxim Yakupjan, Xia ZHANG, Fuchun ZHANG
2013, 7(9): 1366-1368.
[Abstract](1317) [PDF 426KB](273)
Halostachys caspica is a dominant halophyte, which is widely distributed in Xinjiang desert region. The chromosome number and karyotype of H.caspica were analyzed by using cytological observation on the roottip. The results showed that the chromosome number of H.caspica is 18 with karyotype formula being 2n=2x=18m. There are two satellite chromosomes in the forth chromosome. The karyotype of H.caspica belongses to 1A type.
Effects of drought stress on anatomical structure of leavesand physiological indexes of Potentilla species
Jianhui WU, Yantao CUI, Qianzhu ZHAO, Ling WANG
2013, 7(9): 1369-1373.
[Abstract](1357) [PDF 671KB](312)
Potentilla chinensis and P.discolor were taken as experimental materials to study their anatomical structures and physiological indexes under drought stress. The results showed that with the drought stress strengthened, the thickness of palisade tissue and spongy parenchyma changed obvious, P.discolor was greater than P.chinensis on the ratio of palisade tissue and spongy parenchyma, the chlorophyll content decreased gradually, the SOD activity increased first and then showed a downward trend, the MDA and PRO content gradually increased. Through the comparison of two kinds of plants on the changes in amplitude of indicators, it could be concluded that the ability of drought stress of P.discolor was stronger than P.chinensis. The anatomical structure of leaves and the change of physiological indexes change under drought stress could be used to evaluate the sensitivity of drought stress of plants of genus Potentilla.
Comparative study on stomatal density and SPAD of Elymus sibiricus in QinghaiTibet Plateau
2013, 7(9): 1374-1378.
[Abstract](1293) [PDF 812KB](285)
To inerease yield of Elymus sibiricus grass, metallograph method and SPAD502 plus were used to measure stomatal density and relative content of chlorophyll of three cultioars of the E.sibiricus. The results showed that density of E.sibiricus stomatal gradually changed in growth period, and decreased in fullbloom stage, the change trend of relative chlorophyll content (SPAD) of E.sibiricus was the same to potato stomatal density basically. Through the experimental, it was concluded that stomatal density and the SPAD of Qingmu NO.1 were maximum, and its grass yield was the highest.
Effects of NaCl stress on seed germination of different varieties of pepper
Fang YAN, Qinli WANG, Youyan GUO, Chunmei ZHANG, Yaozhao XU, Yajuan ZHANG
2013, 7(9): 1379-1385.
[Abstract](1632) [PDF 632KB](228)
Taking 3 widely cultured pepper(Capsicum frutescens) varieties including Longjiao 2, Longjiao 3 and Longjiao 5 as study objects, the effects of different concentration of NaCl solution treatments(0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 mmolL-1 on seed germination of these 3 pepper varieties were studied. The results indicated that, with the increasing of concentration of NaCl solutions, the germination rate, germination energy and germination index of 3 pepper varieties decreased, while the salt injury index decreased. Longjiao 3 had the strongest salt tolerance since the germination rate of Longjiao 3 was 60.64% when the concentration of NaCl solution was 180 mmolL-1. Salty stress had no effect on the time needed before germination of 3 pepper varieties, but the germination peak delayed with the increasing of concentration of NaCl solution, when the concentration of NaCl was higher than 90 mmolL-1. With the increasing of concentration of NaCl solution, the activities of POD, SOD and CAT in leaves of 3 pepper varieties appeared a trend of firstly increased and then descended. The steepest rise was observed in Longjiao 3, while Longjiao 2 had a minimum rise. The MDA content in leaves of 3 pepper varieties were all increased with the increasing of concentration of NaCl solution. Longjiao 2 had a maximum rise on MDA, while Longjiao 3 had a minimum rise on MDA. All of above results indicated that, the capability of germination and salt tolerance of these 3 pepper were Longjiao 3Longjiao 5Longjiao 2.
Study on drought resistance of four native grass species
Changhui LI, Shujuan LI, Yousheng LEI, Kai HU, Peiyu WANG, Qizhong SUN
2013, 7(9): 1386-1393.
[Abstract](1465) [PDF 456KB](227)
Drought resistance of four native grass species, including Roegneria thoroldiana, Poa pratensis, Elymus nutans and Festuca sinensis, in seedling stage was studied by pot culturing experiment. The results indicated that, the content of free proline(Fpro), soluble protein and soluble sugar, and the activity of catalase(CAT) and peroxidase(POD) increased with the increasing of drought stress. Beside, with the increasing of drought stress, decompose of chlorophyll, membrane permeability and electrolyte leakage rate were also increased, and the cellular tissues of grasses were damaged. Different grass spices had different changes on physiological and biochemical indexes under drought stress. The results of subordinate function analysis indicated that, the drought resistance ability of four grass species were R.thoroldianaP.pratensisE.nutansF.sinensis.
Effects of exogenous phenolic acids on growth and photosynthesis characteristics of mulberry seedlings
Juwei HU, Wenxu ZHU, Nan XU, Guiying ZHENG, Guangyu SUN
2013, 7(9): 1394-1400.
[Abstract](1532) [PDF 1325KB](263)
In order to investigate the effect of phenolic acids in soybean root exudate on the growth of mulberry, effects of 3Nitrophthalic acid, 2Methoxybenzoic acid on growth and photosynthesis characteristics of one year Qinglong mulberry seedlings were studied. The results showed that the effects were different among two exogenous phenolic acids. When the concentration of exogenous 3Nitrophthalic acid was lower than 10-5 molL-1, the content of chlorophyll of mulberry leaves, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 (Ci) and assimilate accumulation increased with the increasing of the concentrations of 3Nitrophthalic acid, which promoted the growth of plant height, root length and biomass. When the concentration of exogenous 3Nitrophthalic acid was higher than 10-2 molL-1, the content of chlorophyll of mulberry leaves, Pn, Ci and ETR, ФPSⅡ were decreased significantly, the plant height, root length, leaf number and biomass of mulberry were also decreased. The content of chlorophyll of mulberry leaves, Gs, Tr, Pn, ФPSⅡ, ETR and photochemical quenching (qP) and the rate of energy dissipation were increased with the increasing of the concentrations of exogenous 2Methoxybenzoic acid. The study indicated that 3Nitrophthalic acid had dual effects on growth and photosynthesis characteristics of mulberry seedlings, low concentrations of 3Nitrophthalic acid may stimulate and high concentrations may inhibit growth of mulberry seedlings. 2Methoxybenzoic acid had adverse effects on the leaf photosynthetic system of mulberry seedlings
Effects of shading on matter accumulation, bulb yield and cut flower morphologic quality of Lycoris radiata
Junhuo CAI, Xuying WEI, Lu ZHANG
2013, 7(9): 1401-1406.
[Abstract](1170) [PDF 454KB](224)
The effects of different shading treatments on the dry matter accumulation, leaf area, specific weight, root growth, bulb yield and diameter, flower count, flower stem length, average number of flowers per truss, flower diameter, and the highest net photosynthetic rate of Lycoris radiata were studied using a randomized block experimental method. The results showed that the total dry matter weight, specific leaf weight, average bulb stem neck diameter, root number, root length, and the root diameter decreased with the increasing of shading degree. On the contrary, the average leaf area significantly increased with the increasing of shading degree. Under four shading treatments, 0% shading treatment got the maximum total dry weight and the bulbs dry weight, while 45% shading treatment got the largest leaf dry weight, bulbs number, flower count, flower stem length, average number of flowers per truss, flower diameter, and the highest net photosynthetic rate. These results indicated that 45% shading treatment was the appropriate cultivation method of improving lycoriss cut flower production, 0% shading treatment was the suitable cultivation method for the purpose of bulbs harvest.
Analysis on morphologic variation of Medicago sativa in Tianzhu
Xinnian FU, Zhengwu PAN, Chuntao LI, Yonglin CAO, Xianhua KONG, Wanzhong JI
2013, 7(9): 1407-1411.
[Abstract](1407) [PDF 520KB](323)
Phenotype variation for 14 morphologic traits of 15 Medicago sativa accessions were analyzed. The results showed that there were extensive variations in morphology. The most significant variance lay in branch number (32.58%), followed by pod length (27.21%), and floret length (10.47%) was the least. Mean while, coefficient of variation and principal component analysis showed that five characters including branch number, pod length, lateral branch number, panicle length and pod number were main factors which produced morphological variation of M.sativa. Based on the morphological traits, cluster analysis showed that all 15 accessions of M.sativa had been divided into two parts.
Occurrence investigation and influence degree of weeds in alfalfa field
Jianhai LIN, Shuo WANG, Wenjie LU, Yingjun ZHANG, Zhiqiang LI
2013, 7(9): 1412-1419.
[Abstract](1520) [PDF 865KB](262)
There were 19 species of weeds, belonging to 8 families, in alfalfa fields at Ordos, which was investigated by the method of Thomas invented W and visual observation with random sampling of multilateral plots. The resultes indcated that the most harmful weeds were mainly from the family of Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae, followed by Amaranthaceae, Compositae and Boraginaceae. In addition, the main weed communities after the first harvest of alfalfa were Salsola collina+Chloris virgata+Amaranthus retrofexus+Echinochloa crusgalli+Lithospermum arvense+Chenopodium glaucum+Xanthium sibiricum+Setaria viridis. Among them, the hazard level of first four weeds was highest, showing a higher hazard degree on alfalfa than other weeds. However, after the second harvest, C.virgata+S.collina+L.arvense+C.glaucum+A.retrofexus+S.viridis were investigated as the dominant weed communities in alfalfa field. Among them, the hazard level was higher among first three weeds. Moreover, the index influence of weeds based on the method of fuzzy synthetic evaluation was established to reflect comprehensively the influence degree of different weed components after the first harvest of alfalfa, that is, S.collinaE.crusgalliC.virgataA.retrofexusC.glaucumC.glaucumS.viridisX.sibiricum. Five indicators, namely, relative abundance, plant height, hazard degree, weed quality and impacts of weeds hair and thorns on palatability should be integrated to comprehensively and systematically reflect the relative harmfulness of various weed components on alfalfa.
Research progress of forage grass seed shattering
Shugao FAN, Yanrong WANG, Miaoqing ZHANG, Wenxian LIU, Wengang XIE
2013, 7(9): 1420-1427.
[Abstract](1487) [PDF 928KB](513)
Seed shattering is an adaption mechanism to harsh environment for reproduction. It is a heritable trait influenced by gene regulation and environment factors, and can reduce seed yield seriously during forage maturation. This paper presented the research progress of forage grass seed shattering in terms of the influence to seed production, measurement methods, genetic mechanisms, cultivation and field management. The existing problems and development tendency were also summarized in order to provide necessary information for improving the research in future.
Isolation and culture of sheep Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Gansu Province
Lin ZHU, Weihua CHANG, Yong ZHANG, Dehe YE, Xingxu ZHAO
2013, 7(9): 1428-1432.
[Abstract](1083) [PDF 633KB](233)
One hundred sheep serum samples were collected from five regions of Gansu province and the experiments on serology, pathogen separation and pathogen culture were conducted. There were 14 positive results by serology testing, and 11 of 14 them were from the same area. Two cases of suspected sick sheep Mycoplasma pneumoniae were isolated and identified by microbiological diagnosis, PCR and pathogens gram stainingon. The successful separated sheep M.pneumoiane from the sick sheep was small, slender spherical, double spherical, linear, spiral, halfshaped, short rod and other forms.
Effects of temperature on fermentation quality of QinghaiTibet Plateau Elymus nutans silage
Liping QIN, Wencan KE, Wurong DING, Chao SHI, Xusheng GUO
2013, 7(9): 1433-1438.
[Abstract](1449) [PDF 655KB](287)
Effects of temperature on dynamics of QinghaiTibet plateau Elymus nutans fermentation quality in the process of ensiling was investigated. The material was derived from Guoluo Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province. Plastic bag silage was finished in local area and was put in 15 ℃and 25 ℃ in the laboratory. The bags of each treatment were opened 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 14, 30 and 60 d after ensilage. The results showed that pH value decreased slowly to 5.68, the lactic acid content increased to 1.44% at 15 ℃, and the fermentation quality was ineffective. 25 ℃ lowered the pH value and increased lactic acid content significantly (P0.05). The pH value was reduced to 4.27 and the lactic acid content was increased to 6.21%, which achieved good effects of silage. AN/TN value gradually increased with storage time, the acetic acid content increased significantly during the first 4 d (P0.05). Water soluble carbohydrate content decreased at the end of the fermentation significantly (P0.05) and remained stable. Temperature had no significant effect on the contents of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber (P0.05).
Effects of lactic acid bacteria inoculants and enzymes on Roegneria turczaninovii silages
Liying HAN, Zhu YU, He ZHOU
2013, 7(9): 1439-1444.
[Abstract](1480) [PDF 415KB](329)
The effects of lactic acid bacteria inoculants and cellulose enzymes on the fermentation quality and chemical compositions of Roegneria turczaninovii silages were assessed in this study. R.turczaninovii at heading stage was harvested and cut into 2 cm, then treated with 0.06 gkg-1 enzymes (CF), 0.01 gkg-1 lactic acid bacteria inoculants (LD1), 0.02 gkg-1 lactic acid bacteria inoculants (LD2), (0.06+0.01) gkg-1 lactic acid bacteria inoculants and cellulose enzymes (CF+LD1), (0.06+0.02) gkg-1 lactic acid bacteria inoculants and cellulose enzymes (CF+LD2), respectively, and there was no additive (CK). Eath treatment had three replications. After 90 days of conservation, the fermentation quality of R.turczaninovii silages was improved by the addition of bacteria and enzyme alone or together due to the lower pH value, butyric acid and NH3N content (P0.05) and higher lactic acid, acetic acid content (P0.05) in all treated silages than CK. The crude protein (CP) and water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content in treated silage was higher than CK (P0.05). The CF, CF+LD1 and CF+LD2 had lower content of NDF and ADF than CK (P0.05). The nutrition value of the silages was improved. The effect of CF+LD2 had the best effect both on fermentation quality and chemical compositions.
Determination of polyphenol content in chicory by FolinCiocalteu colorimetry
Hongmei SHANG, Cheng CHEN, Xiang LIU, Haijun YAO, Yaqi LIU
2013, 7(9): 1445-1448.
[Abstract](1345) [PDF 0KB](39)
A quantitative determination method of polyphenol in chicory was studied by using FolinCiocalteu colorimetry. Using gallic acid as standard and the detection wavelength was 765 nm. The results showed that the standard curve for quantifying polyphenol exhibited a good linearity in the range of 0~5 gmL-1 (R2=0.999 7). Furthermore, stability, precision, repetition and recovery rate were assayed with relative standard deviation (RSD) as 0.23%~1.60%. The method is convenient, fast, exact, and reliable to determine the total polyphenol in chicory. According to the fitted linear regression equation, the quantitative determination of chicory organs was made, and polyphenol content of root, stem, leaf, flower and seed were 6.71, 24.00, 32.03, 20.34 and 10.17 mgg-1, respectively.
Comparative analysis on the economic income and engel coefficient before and after the settlement of herdsmenA case study of three typical pasturing area of North Xinjiang
2013, 7(9): 1449-1453.
[Abstract](1204) [PDF 545KB](240)
One hundred and nineteen five nomadic households in Changji city Ashili Country, Fuyun County Dure Country, Tekes County Bazar town were investigated through onsite interviews and questionnaires, the economic income, the change of Engel coefficient before and after the settlement of herdsmen were studied. The results showed that the study site 1s after settle down per capita income was 2.02 times than before, Engel coefficient was dropped to 11%. The study site 2s after settle down per capita income was 1.66 times than before, Engel coefficient was dropped to 14%. The study site 3s after settle down per capita income was 2.30 time than before, Engel coefficient was dropped to 7%. It indicated that that after the settlement herdsmen incomes increased, Engel coefficients decreased, and herder's middle and high income proportion also increased, herders settle down had obvious economic benefits.
Economical benefit of wolfberry field in secondary salinization land of Jingtai Electricalirrigation Area
Tao SUN, Yaolin WANG, Quanlin MA, Yinke LI, Hujia JIN, Yinghua ZHANG, Chunxiu GUO, Guoqing ZHU, Zhen WANG
2013, 7(9): 1454-1461.
[Abstract](1470) [PDF 782KB](249)
Taking a typical wolfberry(Lycium barbarum) planting village, Hongyue village, which is located in Jingtai Electricirrigated Area (secondary salinization land) in Gansu Province as study object, the inputs of labour and production factors in wolfberry production were investigated through a basic survey on farmers. Besides, the economical benefit and inputoutput ratio of mature wolfberry fields with stable yield, and the dynamic change of economical benefit of wolfberry fields with different growth years were also analyzed. The results indicated that, the average annual production cost was 4 962.44 CNY667 m-2. The cost of fruit picking and postprocessing took up the highest ratio on total cost(54%), followed by the cost of field management(22%), including labour input of fertilization, irrigation, trim and so on. The annual revenue, net income and inputoutput ratio of wolfberry production were 8 500 CNY667 m-2, 3 538.36 CNY667 m-2 and 1∶1.72, respectively. The economical benefits were different among wolfberry fields with different growth years. The stages of beginning to create economical benefits and getting the maximum economical benefit for wolfberry fields were 3yearage and 4yearage~6yearage, respectively. When wolfberry fields came to 8yearage~9yearage, their economical benefits became to steady, usually around 2 000~3 000 CNY667 m-2. Furthermore, problems existed in wolfberry production, and some methods and suggestions of reducing cost and increasing efficiency were also putted forward.
Analysis on current situations and countermeasures of farmland circulation in HexiTaking the Liangzhou District in Wuwei as an example
Wei LI, Bingpu CHEN
2013, 7(9): 1462-1468.
[Abstract](960) [PDF 606KB](303)
From the view of farmland circulation in Hexi, 38 villages and towns, and 101 exemplary farmland circulation sites were taken as research projects. Based on researches in and abroad, the development status of farmland circulation in Liangzhou District was summarized, through the methods of deeply investigation, collecting and sorting data, and doing survey. Problems existed in farmland circulation in Liangzhou District were analyzed in detail, in this study. Besides, according to farmland circulation conditions in Liangzhou District, some countermeasures were also raised to solve those problems.
Estimation on grassland carbon sink potential and development countermeasure in Inner Mongolia
2013, 7(9): 1469-1474.
[Abstract](1202) [PDF 451KB](296)
Grassland degradation is a serious issue in northern China, while the carbon sequestration potential of grassland is great, enhancing plant and soil carbon sequestration potential of grassland, recovering and protecting grassland need to make corresponding development countermeasures. Based on the analysis of the present situation of grassland degradation in Inner Mongolia, the carbon sequestration potential of different grassland types is assessed and estimated, the carbon sequestration potential of degraded grassland in Inner Mongolia is 45.86 Tg C per year and natural carbon value of grassland is 11.9 billion yuan per year. According to the evaluation results of carbon sequestration potential of grassland under different management measures, earnings of grassland carbon sink is forecasted, the favorable conditions to perfect grassland carbon mechanism and policy are analyzed, and suggestions on exploring and establishing longterm mechanism to promote the development of pastoral and herders income are raised.
Economic benefit and ecological restoration effects to local people through planting Chinese herbs in Ningxia
Zengwu XIE, Kun WANG, Shixiong CAO
2013, 7(9): 1475-1481.
[Abstract](1096) [PDF 1287KB](234)
The traditional ecological restoration cant get the local people out of poverty trap. The animal husbandry and agriculture are faced with overgrazing, overconsumption of resources. Chinese herbal is a tradition medicine used for treating diseases, planting herbs in desertification area can improve peoples income and bring environmental benefits. In this study, taking Ningxia herbs planting as an example, ecology and economy statistics analyzes methods such as market value, investigation appraisal method and shadow engineering method were used to judge the economic and ecology value of planting Chinese herbs. The results showed that planting Chinese herbs could increase the income of local farmer and promote adjustment of industrial structure. Planting Chinese herbs could also improve soil physical and chemical properties, increase the vegetation coverage rate and improve environmental and economic perspectives as well as eradicate poverty trap.
Normal level index for assessment on comprehensive benefit of Grassland Construction Engineering Project
Xinwen LI, Xiuping LI, Qiangqiang CHEN, Zhe JING
2013, 7(9): 1482-1487.
[Abstract](1000) [PDF 784KB](216)
According to the characteristics of grassland construction engineering projects, a theoretical frame for assessment on comprehensive benefit of grassland construction engineering project was put forward, which composed of five benefits, including ecological, economic, environmental, social and landscape benefits. The five benefits were regarded as normal level indexes for assessment on comprehensive benefit of grassland construction engineering projects. The concrete details, assessment contents and the relationship among the five benefits were studied in this study.
Ecological cycle of agriculture and economic development model in Zhangye
Yilin WANG, Yuqin JIA, Weijun ZHAO
2013, 7(9): 1488-1492.
[Abstract](1035) [PDF 487KB](363)
IBased on Zhangye ecological advantages, focused on cycle agricultural development, this paper summed up the mode of agriculture and ecology integration of Zhangye City in the development of ecocycle, reducing production, connecting and conversion of ecological chain, industry vertical elongation, industry lateral extension and garden microcirculation. It points out that understanding innovation is a prerequisite for the development of ecological cycle of agriculture, sorting out basic idea is the key to develop ecological cycle of agriculture. Marketoriented operation is an important way for the government to promote the development of ecological recycling agriculture, science and technology innovation is the core means, policies and regulations are the important guarantee.