Display Mode： |
Along with the planting area of lawn expanding in China, the environmental problem caused by fertilization has attracted much attention now. This study was aimed to analyze the effects of nitrogen application on growth of Lolium perenne and nitrate residue in soil. By pot experiment, nitrogen application took five levels（0,100,150,250 and 350 kgha-1a-1）.After fertilization, the growth rate, aboveground biomass, chlorophyll content of L.perenne and nitrate residue in soil were analyzed. The results indicated that, within the range of 0～250 kgha-1a-1 nitrogen application, growth rate, aboveground biomass and chlorophyll content of turf increased with the increasing of nitrogen level, while they all decreased when nitrogen level reached to 350 kgha-1a-1. Nitrate residue in root down layer soil was nearly half of that in root zone layer soil. Nitrate residue of different soil depth was not significantly different from the control(CK) when nitrogen application reached 150 kghm-2a-1, which just could satisfy the turf demand. Nitrate residue in soil increased when nitrogen application exceeded 250 kgha-1a-1, reaching to the highest value 9.01 mgkg-1 at the rate of 350 kgha-1a-1. Considering the ornamental value and environmental safety, the treatments of urea with concentration of 250 kgha-1a-1 was the best for Northeast area, while it would lead to nitrate leaching to form the potential danger of nitrogen pollution when nitrogen application exceeded 250 kgha-1a-1.
Reclaimed water can be used in lawn irrigation, which can broaden the application range of reclaimed water and ease the tension of water use in city. In this experiment, both tap water and reclaimed water were used in lawn irrigation test. Coolseason turf grass including Panterra cultivar and Premier cultivar of Ryegrass (Lolium perenne), Barlexas cultivar and Easy care cultivar of Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea), Barvictor cultivar and Barrister cultivar of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) were used as materials, and their changes of physiological indicators under reclaimed water irrigation were studied. The results show that reclaimed water irrigation can improve lawn texture and remarkably raise the leaf width of turf grass. Additionally, the grass chlorophyll content under irrigation test of reclaimed water was significantly higher than that under tap water irrigation, and there was no significant difference in the leaf cell membrane permeability and root activity between grasseses under irrigation conditions. In short, reclaimed water irrigation for turf grass has a very good application prospect in Lanzhou.
Three common ornamental grasses Cyperus alternifolius, Pennisetum alopecuroides and Ophiopogon japonicus in Fujian were studied and the soaking method was applied in determining and analyzing the waterholding capacity of their roots, stems and leaves. P.alopecuroide was proved to have the highest waterholding capacity and the rest two were generally lower in waterholding rate. In various soaking periods, the waterholding rates had significantly positive correlation with the soaking time while the waterholding rate showed significantly negative correlation. The results showed that three kinds of ornamental grass had good waterholding capacity, there were the positive effect on landscape gardening and ecological protection.
The study was made on the variation and contribution of plant and soil nutrients related to healthy and degraded Kobresia meadows, and plant heights, plant coverage, soil organic matter, total soil nitrogen and total soil phosphorus were also tested. The results indicated that the plant coverage, plant height and herbiferous depth sharply decreased (P0.05) as well as soil water content, soil organic matter and total soil nitrogen. On the contrary, burrowing rodent density and bare land areas sharply increased (P0.05). The principal component analysis showed that soil factors had influence to the dominated pasture biomass. Soil factors had highly multiple collinearity to another environment factors. In conclusion, degradation of Kobresia meadows leads to the change of soil property.
Under different environmental conditions, original vegetation succession shows significant complexity, and this is related to different geographical patterns. Based on GIS analysis and Comprehensive Sequential Classification System, the last 50 years climate data of 94 meteotological stations in and around Inner Mongolia were studied. Besides, the dynamic spatial and temporal characteristics of the geographical pattern of the potential vegetation classes in Inner Mongolia were simulated and analyzed in this study. The results showed that the potential vegetation classes in Inner Mongolia include 16 classes belonged to 6 class groups in the desert and steppe. The potential vegetation class indicated that the arid and humid zonal distribute in high plains and piedmont areas, and the vertical zonal distribute in the Yinshang Mountains and Daxinganling Mountains. In recent 50 years, there has been three have been grate changes in the specific area of various types of potential vegetation with obvious succession between different classes of potential vegetation. Affected by dry weather, the desert area, semidesert, mountain steppe and typical steppe showed an increasing eastward expansion trend. However, affected by dry weather and increasing temperature, meadow steppe, forest steppe and forest showed a decreasing, high altitude, and high latitude shrinking trend. This succession reflects plants adaptability to habitat and climate changes.
The Liangshui National Nature Reserve in Lesser Khingan was taken as research object to study the vegetation community structure and vegetation diversity of Picea koraiensis forest and Larix gmelini forest, based on communityecology survey method. The results indicated that, there are 36 vascular plant spices, which belong to 22 families and 32 genuses, in P.Koraiensis forest. And there are 31 vascular plant spices, which belong to 22 families and 27 genuses, in L.gmelini forest. Both of these two kinds of communities are stable vegetational communities. The species richness index(S) and species diversity index(SP) in these two kinds of forests are arborous layershrub layerherb layer, and there are significant differences among different layers of P.koraiensis forest. There are significant differences among different layers of P.koraiensis forest, and the highest one is that of herb layer, but there is no significant difference among different layers of L.gmelini forest. Besides, the species homogenous index(Jsw) is arborous layershrub layerherb layer in P.koraiensis forest. Shrub layer has the highest Jsw in L.gmelini forest, and it is much higher than that of P.koraiensis forest.
Bermudagrass is one of the widely spread warm season turf grasses. This review focused on recent research progress on Bermudagrass after abiotic stress treatment, including cold, drought, submergence, and salt stress. The possible mechanisms involved in different stress resistance were also described. Suggestions for future studies were put forward.
The spike differentiation process of Kengyilia thoroldiana was observed by microdissection from Sep. 2011 to May, 2002. The results indicated that the spike differentiation of K.thoroldiana was a consecutive process and presented a series of significant changes in morphological characteristics. Based on the method of .М.КуПЕРМАН, this consecutive process could be divided into 8 stages: primary growth stage, elongation stage, single ridge stage, spikelet protuberances stage, glume protuberances stage, floret differentiation stage, gynoecium, stamen initiation stage and heading stage. During the process of differentiation, on the whole spike, the middle and upper parts of the spikelet developed first, and then gradually upward and downward in turn. finally, the basal spikelet developed. Flowering began from the top of the spikes, and then continued downward. On the single spikelet, the base part of the floret developed first, then developed from base to top gradually.
The stems with axillary bud of Chrysanthemum grandiflorum cv.White Snow were used as explants and the sterile material was obtained from disinfecting．The tissue culture and rapid propagation technique were studied by using MS as basal medium with different concentrations of hormones．The results showed that the best medium for adventitious bud induction from leaves was MS+1.0 mgL-16BA+0.7 mgL-1NAA，which had the highest induction rate (100％)and the highest differentiation rate (63.3％)．The best medium for proliferation of stems segment was MS+0.3 mgL-16BA+0.2 mgL-1NAA，which had the average multiplication coefficient (6.73)．The subculture medium was MS．The best medium for taking root was 1/2MS+0.5 mgL-1NAA，on which the rooting rate was 100％and the average rooting coefficient was 15.8．The transferred plants had a survival rate of 100％ and grew well．
This study investigated seed germination characteristics of four Vicia species from Tibet Plateau under different water potential. The results were summarized in terms of the hydrotime model as following: 1)The base water potential increased as the subpopulation(g) increasing, indicated that the base water potential varied with individual in a seed population; 2) Except Vicia unijuga, the slope of regression line of germination rate and water potential decreased as the subpopulation increased, implied that the hydrotime was not constant in some cases; 3) Compared to other species, V.sativa attained the lowest base water potential, it showed that this species can germinate in the relative drier condition; V.amoena attained the highest b with the lowest hydrotime constant(H), implied that this species will not germinate in the drought condition, but a rapid seed germination may be expected in the favorable water condition; 4) The germination process could be well described by hydrotime model when the water potential was high, however the accuracy significantly decreased when subjected to low water potential approaching to seed germination.
In order to study the floristic characteristics of spermatophyte in Jing Bo Hu Geopark, the Kitagawa standard was used to make floristic analysis of 815 wild spermatophyte spices in this area. The results indicated that, spermatophytes in Jing Bo Hu Geopark have four big floras, including Changbai flora, North China flora, Da Xinganling flora, and Mongolia flora. Changbai flora is the main flora in this area. Besides, there are some common compositions in this four floras, and common compositions take up 73.50％ of the total spermatophyte spices. This phenomenon reflects the floristic characteristics of wild geographical connection and mutual infiltration and developing in this area.
Growing status of various grasses during seeding stages in the zinc smelting slag in northwestern Guizhou
The experiment on the adaptation and evaluation of 10 Panicum maximum materials from Brazil and Hainan of China was conducted in southern subtropical areas of Yunnan from 2006 to 2007 for the purpose of establishing forage with high production and quality through selecting proper forage materials. The results were as follows:1)Low temperature and drought were disadvantaged factors for the growth of forages. The over winter rate of all the forages materials was over 94.00%. It showed that these forages could adapt to the condition and be used for the pasture establishment in southern subtropical zone.2)In first year, the forages with high yield of dry matter were P.maximum cv.Tanzania, P.maximum cv.Mombasa, P.maximum cv.Reyan 8, P.maximum cv.MG6 Atlas, P.maximum cv.TD58, P.maximum cv.MG7 Aries, and P.maximum cv. Reyan 9.Their yields were 45.33, 44.47, 42.59, 42.11, 41.281, 38.05, 34.22 thm-2, respectively. There were no significant difference among the trailed forages in terms of dry matter yield .3)The dry matter yield, CP, palatability and resistance were analyzed by gray system theory to evaluate synthetically forages. The results showed that P.maximum cv.Mombasa, P.maximum cv.Tanzania, P.maximum cv.Reyan 8, P.maximum cv.MG6 Atlas, and P.maximum cv.TD58 were top five promising species of high yield, good quality, palatability and resistance performance forages.
The contents of ten nutrition elements (N、P、K、Na、Ca、Mg、Cu、Fe、Zn and Mn) in Poacynum hendersonii from five different populations, collected in Apocynum reserve of Tushan region in Altay city Xinjiang province, were studied. The results indicated that. Cyan Stem with Middle Flower Poacynum (CMP) belonged to NCa type. Quite Fine Leaf with Middle Flower Poacynum(QFMP) and Red Stem with Middle Flower Poacynum(RMP) belonged to NK type, whereas Middle Fine Leaf with Middle Flower Poacynum (MFMP) and White and Middle Flower Poacynum (WMP) belonged to KCa and KN type respectively. N in QFMP was significantly higher than other populations. K in MFMP and WMP populations was significantly higher than others. The contents of four trace elements in these five populations had the same order: FeMnZnCu, except RMP with highest content of Mn. For individual trace element compared among these populations, Mn was significantly different between populations. No significant difference was found on Fe and Zn. Cu in CMP, RMP and QFMP was significantly higher than that in MFMP, while no significant difference was found in Cu content between WMP and any other populations. By correlation analysis, it showed that Mg and Mn，K and P，Ca and Mg，Fe and Zn had a significant positive correlation（P＜0.05).Na and Ca, Cu, Mn and K, Cu, N and P had a significant negative correlation.
Pennisetum hydridum, Sorghum bicolor and Hemarthia compessa are the three highlighted forage grasses in Chongqing. The reasonable collocation can bring higher nutrient yield and more forage grass to be used throughout the year in Chongqing. The study was made in order to determine the hay yield and main nutrient yield of the three planted model (the planting areas of P.hydridum∶S.bicolor∶H.compessa are 3∶1∶1, 1∶2∶1 and 1∶1∶1), and the most suitable planted pattern was screen out in Chongqing. The results showed that, the best planted area ratio of P.hydridum, S.bicolor and H.compressaa was 3∶1∶1, which had the highest hay yield(20 366.09 kgha-1), yield of CP (1 677.38 kgha-1) ,yield of EE (620.15 kgha-1), yield of CF (6 851.76 kgha-1), yield of NFE(9 442.87 kgha-1), yield of Ca (237.97 kgha-1), and yield of P (128.86 kgha-1). In a word, the best model was 3∶1∶1, and this model could obtain a higher hay yield and nutrient yield.
Pasture stability is one of the core issues in pasture establishment and management research，and weed invasion resistance is an important problem. Spatial patterns of the aboveground biomass of weed were determined using a geostatistical analysis in different defoliation intensity in Lolium perenne+Trifolium repens pasture. The results showed that the heterogeneity in spatial distribution of the aboveground biomass and the distance of spatial dependence varied significantly. Under different defoliation intensity, weed biomass had the biggest value of sill (C0+C) (12.53), indicating that the distribution of the aboveground biomass was not spatially heterogenous under heavy defoliation. The sill for CK was 4.751, the light defoliation intensity was 4.557, and middle defoliation intensity was 3.149.Similarly, the distance of spatial dependence also varied under different defoliation intensity. Analysis of spatial variation revealed that the spatial heterogeneity under different defoliation intensities in L.perenne+T.repens pasture as largely caused by spatial autocorrelation (50.3%～93.5%).The Krigingmap further showed a great spatial heterogeneity of the aboveground biomass.
Twelve agronomic traits of nine widely used Chinese milk vetch cultivars were tested to evaluate genetic variations of these cultivars. The results showed that there was a wide range of diversity in agronomic characters of Chinese milk vetch oultivars. The variation of number of branche within population was the maximum, with the CV (coefficient of variation) of 0.310, and the agronomic traits of cultivars with the same maturity were similar. Earlymaturing cultivars Yuefei No.2 and Xinyang were poor in nutrition value and vegetative growth traits. Midmaturing cultivars Minzi No.1 and Minzi No.7 were superior to other cultivars in leaf characters, plant height, stem diameter, and dry matter. The dendrogram based on Euclidean distances among cultivars reflected the relationship betureen maturity of Chinese milk vetch cultivars. Close relationships were found between cultivars with the same maturity.
As a kind of important free radical scavenger in plants, ascorbic acid (AsA) plays a very important role in reducing the damage to cells which caused by membrane lipid peroxidation, and enhancing the ability of plants to resist the adversity stresses. In this study, the biosynthetic pathway of AsA was analyzed and compared, and summary was made on the physiological function of AsA, including its effects on cell division and elongation, involved in cell wall formation as a coenzyme, its light protective effects, and as carrier in electron transfer and signal transduction. The protection mechanism and function of AsA in plants adversity stress (temperature stress, salt stress, biological stress, etc.) were systematically elaborated. Researches on AsA are important for researchers to acquaint with the effects of free radical scavenger on plant resistance function, and the mechanism of free radical scavenging. Besides, the limitation of AsA study on grass seed deterioration was put forward, and the development trend of AsA study was also analyzed prospected in this study.
The identification of many insect species and especially pupae and larval stages can be very difficult by traditional morphological methods as a consequence of high morphological variability within species and due to the existence of sibling species. Coleopteran is the most diverse order of insects and its identification is more difficult and complex. In this study, the PCR techniques was used to amplify 20 common coleopteran larvaes in Qinghai and 566 bp sequences of Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I( COⅠ) was obtained in order to identify the larvaes which have similar morphology. Sequences were blasted in the GenBank, genetic distances were calculated, and a NJ phylogenetic tree was constructed with Kimmura2parameter distances mode. The results showed that all the larvaes belonged to 5 families and 9 genera based on the analysis of three kinds of methods. In conclusion that DNA Barcoding is a fast and accurate tool for species identification and mtDNA COⅠsequence data can be used as standard DNA barcoding marker for successful species identification of coleopteran insects.
Based on the survey data of farmers who planted alfalfa, wheat, corn and potato in forage planting areas, an analysis of input and output of alfalfa and its competitive crops was made in this study. The results indicated that, alfalfa could bring a good economic benefit to farmers, and its potential benefit was also great. The significant factors that influenced the production of alfalfa and crops were put forward, through making the inputoutput models of alfalfa, wheat and corn, and analyzing their elasticity of factors. Besides, some comments and suggestions were put forward in this study.
Two strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. Mesenteroides, 11 strains of Weissella confusa and 6 strains of W. cibaria were isolated from Kobresia littledalei growing on the Tibetan Platea. The physiological and biochemical characteristics of these epiphytic lactic acid bacteria were analyzed in this study. The results of sugar fermentation patterns and salt, temperature and pH tolerance test showed that, compared with the same species strains isolated from conventional conditions, the Weissella and Leuconostoc strains could be cultured at 4～40 ℃, and a part of W. confusa strains could grow weekly at 50 ℃; Weissella strains could grow when the pH values were 3.0 and 9.5; Weissella strains could grow when the concentration of NaCl is 18%; the strains isolated from W. cibaria could ferment galactose, and strains isolated from W. confusa could ferment arabinose, melibiose andmannitol. Therefore, the lactic acid bacteria isolated from K. littledalei not only have stronger temperature, acid and alkali resistance, but also can ferment more carbohydrates than that of strains isolated under conventional conditions. The results of this study can provide scientific basis for researches on diversity of lactic acid bacteria in QinghaiTibet Plateau and their application in silage.
Medicago sativa which was in budding initial stage and planted 2 years was taken as materials, and 5 methods, including flatting stems+spraying 2.5% K2CO3, flatting stems, sun curing, drying in shade and drying under 105 ℃ condition (CK), were used to made green hay, in this study. Besides, effects of different green hay making methods on dry characteristics and nutritional quality of M.sativa green hay were studied, and a comprehensive evaluation of M.sativa green hays was conducted. Results showed that, except CK, the drying rates in other making methods were all fast at first, and then slow. Both of drying under 105 ℃ condition and flatting stems+spraying K2CO3 could speed up drying rate and reduce nutritional losses of green hay. Sun curing could also speed up drying rate, but it could not maintain the quality of green hay. The results of Grey Relational Analysis on 5 green hay making methods indicated that, CK had the best comprehensive performance, followed by green hays made by flatting stems+spraying K2CO3. So flatting stems+spraying K2CO3 is a quick and easy method to make green hay, and it is worth to be recommended in production.
Effects of drying time on quality of silages of three different Medicago sativa cultivators were studied in this study. M.sativa in initial flowering stage which was fielded for 2 h, 4 h, and 6 h, was mixed with additives and ensiled. Then, the quality of alfalfa silages were estimated by sensory evaluation and analysis. The results showed that: Drying for 4～6 h can improve the quality of silages; Drying for 6 h and 2 h can significantly decrease the content of butyric acid and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) of silages; Crude protein (PC) in silages can be remained well when M.sativa was dried for 4 h; Adding additives can significantly decrease the content of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) in silages. In a word, when M.sativa was dried for 4～6 h, the silages of three cultivators are the best.
The study was made by calculating the Grading Index (GI) of five kinds of forage grasses with their neutral washing fiber (NDF), acid washing fiber (ADF) and acid washing lignin (ADL) as different cellulose index to determine the conventional nutrient components , the in vitro digestion rate, gross energy, and dry matter intake. Comparing and analyzing GI calculation, the results showed that the grading index calculated by ADL as cellulose index was more reasonable, and also conformed to the actual feeding conditions. And the preferential order was alfalfaerect milkvetchryegrasssorghum Hybrid sudan grassChinese pennisetum.
797 households willingness of forage planting was investigated and analyzed by Logistic regression method in Lhasa, Rikaze and Shannan districts, in order to achieve the effective path for expanding cultivation of forage. The results showed that education level, total income, cultivated land area, the index of livestock, forage seed supplied by program or government, participation of agricultural cooperation have significant positive effects on households. The quantity of the labor force for each household has negative influence. Labor age, population of the family and the household with a technological assistant or village leader have no obvious influence on forage planting willingness. Based on these results, suggestions were made as follows: 1)Accelerate the popularization of forage planting and livestockrelated knowledge; 2)Research and develop related technology suitable for the rural areas; 3)Give finance support to forage planting.
As a kind of new energy plant, Helianthus tuberosus has many fine characteristics, like drought, cold and salt resistances and so on. It can effectively solve the contradictions among food, people and land during planting. It is an important development energy plant, and has wide popularization and application value. In this paper, study was made on its ecological characteristics, economic use, salt resistance and research work on inulin from H.tuberosus and ethanol from H.tuberosus was also summarized. It pointed out the research trend and development potential of H.tuberosus.