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To evaluate the effectiveness of previous screening of rust disease resistance, germplasm and disruptive selection in zoysiagrass, three identified groups including resistant, susceptible and control lines were assessed for percent incidence and percent severity of rust disease in Jiaozhou, Shandong Province in 2010 and 2011, and in Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province in 2011, respectively. A combined analysis was conducted under same location and multiple environment conditions, in which a location under one year was considered as one environment condition. 24 and 21 tested lines evaluated at Jiaozhou in 2010 and 2011, respectively, and 42 tested lines were evaluated at Yangzhou in 2011. The results indicated that extremely significant difference was showed among resistant, susceptible and control groups (P0.001). Compared with control lines, both selections toward resistant and susceptible have made a significant effect. Within same group, differences of percent incidence and/or percent severity between tested lines were extremely significant (P0.001) or significant (P0.05). There were significant differences among blocks for percent severity in Jiaozhou in 2010 (P0.05) and no significant differences between percent incidence and percent severity was indicated within blocks in Yangzhou and Jiaozhou in 2011(P0.05). By a combined multiple environment conditions analysis for 5 tested lines, there were significant differences among percent incidence of rust disease observed within locations, among tested lines and interaction of locations and tested lines in zoysiagrass (P0.001), and no significant differences among blocks (P0.05). Above results demonstrated that occurrence of rust disease in zoysiagrass varied between locations and years. Under the same environmental condition, significant difference in resistance could be contributed to genotype effects other than environment effect. Out of these tested lines, a line coded as 111 which collected from Jiaodong peninsula possessed a total immune resistant in all two locations in 2010 and 2011. In addition, a line coded 83 showed necrosis symptom around rust infection point, suspected as a slowrusting material. These promising materials provide ideal lines for genetics and breeding program in the future for zoysiagrass rust disease.
This research aimed to explore the most suitable germination and growth concentration, and provide scientific basis and data for seaweed fertilizers application in the artificial cultivation of F. arundinacea in our country, through the experiment of Festuca arundinacea seeds at different seaweed fertilizer concentrations. The results showed that among the 5 treatments of different seaweed fertilizer concentrations, group C （4.8 gL-1）had the highest germination rate of F. arundinacea seeds, which was 97.84%, and comparing with lontrol group increased by 15.68%(P0.01). The growth and root volume of F. arundinacea were 0.67 cmd-1 and 0.44 mL, higher than these of other groups. With the increasing of seaweed fertilizer concentrations, the changes of tall fescues growth, root volume, fresh yield and hay yield increased first then decreased. With the increasing of seaweed fertilizerconcentrations, the variation of root/cap took on a V shape trend. The tall fescues fresh yield and hay yield of group C were 148.38 kghm-2 and 42.45 kghm-2, which were the highest. The optimal growth conditions of F.arundinacea were under 4.8 gL-1 seaweed fertilizer treatment. Proper seaweed fertilizer concentration can increase the tall fescue seeds germination rate, advance the start period of seed germination and increase the yield of F. arundinacea.
Qitai Highway is located in the arid and semiarid areas of Songnen Plain. Selection of droughttolerant plants applied to slope ecoengineering has great significance in preventing the highway slope from soil erosion, enhancing the stability of the roadbed and ecological restoration of highway surroundings. In this study, twoyearold seedlings of Amorpha fruticosa, Tamarix chinensis and Caragana microphylla were taken as test materials, which were individually treated with five moisture gradients (control, mild stress, moderate stress, severe stress and extremely severe stress). After 21 days, the conductivity、total chlorophyll content, activity of SOD, content of MDA, soluble sugar content and proline content of the seedlings leaves were determined to investigate the droughtresistant abilities of these three kinds of seedlings. The results showed that with the prolonged drought, proline content and membrane permeability of three kinds of seedlings presented a rising trend. Total chlorophyll content and SOD activity of three kinds of seedlings increased in the beginning and then decreased. content of MDA and soluble sugar content in the leaves of A.fruticosa and C.microphylla increased first and then decreased. Content of MDA and soluble sugar content in the leaves of T. chinensis were in an upward trend. Through subordinate function analysis on 6 physical signs, the order of droughtresistant abilities of three kinds of seedlings was: A.fruticosaC.microphyllaT.chinensis, and the difference was not obvious. The results showed that three species were all suitable as Qitai Highway slope protection plant. A.fruticosa was suitable planted in mild drought and very severe drought slope, T.chinensis was suitable planted in moderate stress drought slope and C.microphylla was suitable for planted in severe drought slope.
Five representative habitats invaded by Coreopsis grandiflora were investigated in Qingdao city. The variety and quantity of the indigenous vegetation were studied by using the square intercept method in five habitats. Ninetytwo indigenous species belonged to sixteen families were recorded, the number of Asteraceae and Poaceae were the most. The pattern of local community biodiversity was analyzed by species richness, diversity index and Pielou evenness index. The importance value of each species was calculated. The results showed that the invasion of C. grandiflora reduced species richness, Simpson diversity index, ShannonWiener diversity index and Pielou evenness index of the sample plots. The most reductions of four indexes were 34.75%, 60.53%, 58.22% and 41.98%. By calculating, the average important value of C. grandiflora was 56.92%, which was more than other vegetations in communities. Analysis of relationship between the average important value of C. grandiflora and the species richness of communities revealed that when the important value of C.grandiflora was 20.25%, with increase of the former, the latter was on the decrease. These results clearly showed that the invasion of C. grandiflora had a negative effect on biodiversity.
To study the influence of nitrogen addition on soil nitrogen characteristics in the steppe on Loess Plateau, six levels of nitrogen (N) treatments, 0, 1.15, 2.3, 4.6, 9.2 and 13.8 gm-2 were conducted in the experiment. Based on the field sampling and laboratory analysis, the responses of soil total nitrogen (TN) and light fraction organic nitrogen (LFON) contents to the N addition were examined. The results showed that the early N addition had no significant effect on the TN content in the 0-40 cm soil layer. However, the early N addition significantly increased LFON content and LFON/TN in the 0-10 cm soil layer. There were no obvious changes of LFON and LFON/TN in the 10-20 cm and 20-40 cm layer among treatments. LFON and LFON/TN were more influenced by the early N addition than TN. Therefore, LFON and LFON/TN were sensitive indictors of soil N dynamics to the early N addition in the steppe on the Loess Plateau.
The temporal variation of soil nutrients in the area of straw checkerboard barriers in water diversion project in the Gurbantunggut Desert were investigated using conventional statistics to provide information for land management and control of environmental issues. The soil samples (0 to 40 cm) within the area of straw checkerboard barriers setting with different years were collected in July of 2011, and analysis was made on organic matter, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium. The results showed that the contents of soil nutrients were affected by straw checkerboard barriers and increased with the years of the straw checkerboard barriers, specially the increase of available nitrogen， available potassium is obvious. The positive feedback mechanism of straw checkerboard barriers for improving the soil quality was observed in this study which provide important scientific basis for the ecological restoration in water diversion project in the Gurbantunggut Desert.
This study took the Place Attachment as theoretical basis and used SEM to explore relationships among golfers functional attachment, place attachment and afterpurchase behaviors. Results showed that there was a positive correlation between golfers place attachment and afterpurchase behaviors. Besides, functional attachment played a more apparent and direct role in affecting the afterpurchase behaviors than emotional attachment. The golfers emotional attachment held on weaker power and it could act on the afterpurchase behaviors with the intermediary function of satisfaction. However, satisfaction did not play a significant role in intermediation.
The research focused on the chemical basis for the flower colour development of Tradescantia albiflora. The methods of different color measurement（the Royal Hortieultural Society Colour Chart and spectrophotometer), observation by microscope, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used in this study. The results are as follows: the flower colour of Tradescantia albiflora belongs to the Violet group (N88B), pigments accumulates in the adaxial and abaxial layers and the colored cell mass is 20-30m in depth. The main metal ions in the violet petals were found to be Ca (5 120.89 gg-1)and Mg (2 360.71 gg-1). The key pigments in Tradescantia albiflora petals were cyanidin (6.671 1 mgg-1) and delphinidin (0.674 4 mgg-1) , the main flavonols was Kaempferol (0.327 2 mgg-1). The conclusion is delphinidin and cyanidin with Ca2+, Mg2+ being essential for the violet flower colour development of Tradescantia albiflora.
The light response curve of four Artemisia species inchcding A.vestita, A.mongolidca, A.japonica and A.roxburghiana were measured, and parameters of photosynthesislight response curve were simulated by nonrectangle hyperbolae and rectangle hyperbolae functions in this study. The results showed that 、Rd、Lsp from rectangle hyperbolae function were higher than those from monrectangle hyperbolae function, and there were significant differences in of different species. These differences revealed that nonrectangle hyperbolae function might have more physiological meaning under low light condition. Furthermore, both A.vestita and A.japonica exhibited high photosynthesis capacity, but A.japonica might have higher resource utilization under low light condition. A.mongolica and A.roxburghiana showed lower maximum photosynthesis capacity, lower Lcp and Lsp than others. In a word, it is necessary to consider the location environmental conditions which made these plant species more useful.
Randomized block design and 32 different fertilizer treatments combination were used to analyze the effect of different N， P and K combined fertilizer applied on the yield and quality of Aohan alfalfa (Medicago sativa cv. Aohan) in Chifeng region. The results showed that N fertilizer significantly increased the yield of the first year alfalfa（P0.05）, from 2.90 tha-1 to 3.16 tha-1 , but the rate of the increase decreased in the second year. P and K fertilizer also significantly improved the yield of alfalfa（P0.05）, but the effect of K fertilizer was poor than the effect of N and P fertilizer. The crude protein content of alfalfa increased from 17.74% to 18.72% after applied N fertilizer. When applied P and K fertilizer, the crude protein content of alfalfa also increased and the difference were not significant（P0.05）.
In this study, the effect of nitrogen addition on the flowering time plant height of 30 common species in an alpine meadow of the QinghaiTibet plateau after 3 years was investigated. The effect of nitrogen addition on Community weighted means (CWMs) of two plant traits (CWMH) and (CWMSLA)was also studied. The community level phenology similarity and species composition similarity among nitrogen addition gradient were tested using a nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). The results showed that, Nitrogen addition significantly increased the height of species(P0.05). The effect of nitrogen addition differed between gramineous and forbs species. The first flowering day was delayed in gramineous species (P0.05). The first flowering day in forbs were either slightly advanced or delayed, but most of them have advanced the first flowering day (P0.05). As might be expected the leguminous species flowering time was insensitivity to nitrogen addition. Nitrogen addition significantly increased (CWMH) and (CWMSLA) (P0.05). Simpson's diversity Index decreased along with nitrogen addition level. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination of phenologicallyweighed community similarity was among nitrogen addition gradient (Stress Value=0.08). The community level phenology similarity and species composition similarity were significantly decreased with nitrogen level, which implied that both community level phenology and community structure were responsive to nitrogen addition.
The grassland vegetation characteristics and plant diversity were analyzed to study the effect of enclosure on degraded grassland natural recovery in Yili Valley. The results showed that the dominant species transferred from Thymus asiaticus + Carex liparocarpos to Stipa capillata + Carex liparocarpos with enclosing. The aboveground yields and community height increased highest in the 5th enclosure year and then decreased, however, the community coverage and the fine forage ratio continued increased and reached highest in the 6th enclosure year. The richness index reached climate in the 6th enclosure years, and it was significantly different with other sample areas. The diversity index and evenness index reached climate in the first enclosure year, and the dominance index reached climate in the 6th enclosure year. The similar index was over 0.65 is different enclosure times. The similar index reached highest between enclosure 6 years and 5 years, which demonstrated the grassland community tended to stable after the grassland recovery, and the nonenclosure grassland was easy to disturbance which had lower similar index.
Large samples of Bothriochloa ischaemum clones were collected from the mountain grassland in Tekesi County of Yili River Valley to quantitatively analyze the structure and growth patterns of their modules, by randomly digging up whole ramet tuft. The results showed that the average tuft size of clones during its growth stopping period was 13.5 cm, the individuals of reproductive and vegetative tillers occupied 27.9% and 72.1% of total respectively, and at the same time, the biomass of reproductive and vegetative tillers occupied 50.6%and 49.4% of total, respectively. With the increasing of tuft size, number and biomass of different tillers, number of total tillers and biomass of tillers of B. ischaemum clones were in exponential allometry growth, number and biomass of vegetative tillers were in a positively power functional relationshiped with the number and biomass of total tillers, and number and biomass of reproductive tillers were positively correlated with either number or biomass of total tillers.
Caudexes of three zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) were used as explants in this experiment, and these explants irriadiated by 60Co ray at dosage in the range of 5~40 Gy. The results showed that the callus induction and embryogenesis callus induction were both increasing with the low dosage from 5 to 20 Gy. The critical dosage (dosage rate was 1.0 Gymin-1) of callus induction was 25 Gy, the callus induction decreased quickly when the dosage was higher than 25 Gy.The critical dosage (dosage rate was 1.0 Gymin-1) of embryogenesis callus induction was 20 Gy, the embryogenesis callus induction of three zoysiagrass at 20 Gy were 37.5 %(QJ), 76.5 %(YJ), and 63.6 %(MJ). The half lethal dosage of the callus induction irradiated on these three zoysiagrass was 30 Gy.
Based on determinating ingredients of plant leaves, used a simple linear correlation, nutritive type and cluster analysis to classify separately according to nutritive ingredients and partial minerals contents. This study expected to provide references of mixed ration for rasing forest musk deer according to plant leaves nutrient trait. The results indicated that crude fiber satisfy the nutrition demand of the forest musk deer, crude protein contents of Broussonetia papyrifera，Humlus scandens and Morus alba were also satisfied the demand. The calcium content surpassed the demand, while some kinds of plant leave phosphorus content surpassed the demand.The ratios of calcium to phosphorus of Eucommia ulmoids,Picrasma quassiodes，H. scandens and Litsea pungens were less than 7.00, the iron and manganese contents surpassed the demand, the copper and zinc canno satisfy. ASH and CP had significant positive correlation(r=0.610 8), ASH and NEF had significant negative correlation (r=0.684 2), CF and NEF had significant negative correlation(r=0.600 4), CP and NEF had significant negative correlation(r=0.793 2). The nutrition ratio (C/N) of Dipteronia sinensis and M.alba, L.pungens was lower than 3.75, belonged to the N type. The nutrition ratio (C/N)of Acer grosseri was 7.27, belonged to the CN type, Ampelopsis bodinieri, H.scandens and B.papyrifera were belonged to ashN type, Lonicera mackii,Schisandra propinqua and Celastrum rosthornianus belonged to NCash type, the rests belonged to NC type.The plant leaves have been divided into 6 kinds according to the conventional nutrient content, and also may be divided into 7 kinds according to the mineral content.
During April-June 2011, have analysed synthetically dynamic change trend of various mineral elements in plants by measuring content of 7 mineral elements in different organs of Ceratocephalus testiculatus during different growth period in the reserve of Testudo horsfieldi . Results showed that there are 5 change trend of mineral elements that in the vegetative organs root and leaf during different reproductive period of C.testiculatus; content change in reproductive organs flower and fruit during flowering period and seed setting period is obvious; There are different conditions of relative variation of mineral element in different component of C.testiculatus during different reproductive period, because of circulating whether or not; Calciumphosphorus ratio in different modules of C.testiculatus during different growth period over 2:1 is root in the vegetative period and seed setting period.
This test studied effects of four biological organic fertilizer concentration [0 (CK), 50，60 and 70 kg667 m-2] for Mexico corn growth characteristics and grass nutrients and feeding value. The results showed that Mexico corn leaf length, plant height and fresh hay yield, crude protein (CP) and crude fat (EE), digestibility of dry matter (DDM), free feed intake (DMI) and relative feeding value (RFV) were increased significantly (P0.05), the crude ash (CA), acid washing fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber were(NDF) reduced significantly (P0.05) with the increasing of the concentration of biological organic fertilizer. Therefore, biological organic fertilizer can increase Mexico maize yield, grass nutrients and feeding value.
In this study, three seed lots were harvested in 2004, 2007 and 2008 (Lot2004，Lot2007，Lot2008), and the seed vigor was measured by different methods including standard germination, rapid germination, conductivity measurement, methanol deterioration treatment and artificial aging treatment. The germination rates were Lot2007＞Lot2004＞Lot2008. Lot2004 and Lot2007 had no significant differences in seed germination percentage (P0.05), and the corresponding meant just germination time (MJGT) and germination time (MGT) showed a similar rank. Average germination time of Lot2008 was significantly longer than other samples (P0.01). However, ranks measured by artificial accelerated aging and field emergence were different. Seeds with long storage time had long emergence time, and their field emergence rates declined rapidly after aging. After 0 h, 0.5 h, 1.0 h, 1.5 h, 2.0 h methanol soaking, seed germination rate increased with the decreasing of immersion time. However, the percentage of normal seedling after 1.5 h methanol soaking was more than those of after 1.0 h soaking. In addition, there was no correlation among measurements of methanol deterioration treatment, artificial aging treatment, and standard germination and field germination rate. While MJGT and MGT were significantly correlated with field emergence rate, so MJGT and MGT were suggested as predictors of emergence of seed lots in field.
Judgment of seed optimum harvest time has important significance to high quality germplasm resource conservation, utilization and development. This study presented several methods that can judge the optimum seed harvest time according to the seed morphological changes (seed color and weight) and mature state (growth period and loss situation after seed maturation such as seed shedding and shattering), physiological changes within the seeds (water content, electric conductivity, germination index, inclusion and stress resistance) and some other index (growing degree days and synthetic judgment index). Further studies in this fields and issues that might be occurred are also addressed in the paper.
Programmed cell death（PCD）is an active and ordered death process regulated by specific genes and commonly presents in normal growth and development of plants．Recent reports suggest that PCD plays a key role in the germination of cereal crops．The aleurone layer of cereal grains undergoes PCD following germination．This article summarized research progress in the characters of cereal aleurone PCD，the relationship between hormone and cereal aleurone cell death，the cooperation of reactive oxygen species（ROS）with plant hormone in cereal aleurone cell death and the effects of nitric oxide（NO），carbon monoxide（CO）on delaying the process of aleurone cell death．
The rodents damage is one of the worldwide disasters in grassland ecosystem nowadays. Therefore, its effective prevention and control is an important worldwide topic. Human have made strenuous efforts on controlling and eliminating the harmful rodents, but a variety of measures have both advantages and disadvantages. It was difficult to give considerations with high efficiency, safety and environmental friendly. Thus, it was failed to get rid of emergency control and still in repeated investment state. Based on these, to provide helpful references for grassland ecosystem rodents vontrol in our country, this study summarized przncipal measures of biological control, the current situation and the main existing problems of rodent damage prevention and control at home and abroad.
The implementation of the policy of Returing Grazing Land to Grassland has great importance to the restoration of degraded grasslands and improvement of the livelihoods of herdsmen. Group discussion and questionnaire survey on 100 households from ten townships of the six counties in the Changtang Plateau were conducted to investigate their social background, their awareness and reaction to the policy. Most of the local herdsmen understands and supports the policy of Returning Grazing Land to Grasslands. 81% of interviewee considers grazing enclosure as an effective measure to restore degraded grasslands. 74% of interviewee accepts longterm (more than 10 years) ecocompensation as per current compensation standard. 52% of herdsmen worries about their livelihood security after ecoimmigration and is reluctant to leave their rangelands for settlements. It is necessary to combine current policies of grassland conservation and rewarding system and ecoimmigrant project together to secure winwin among ecological, social and economic development in the Changtang Plateau.
Driven by weather, soil, crop variety databases, intergrating APSIMbased growth simulation model in wheat and wheat morphostructure module, wheat functionmorphostructure module was developed. By applying computer visualization technology, a systembased visual growth system in wheat is able to be developed and be programmed in the .NET framework. OpenGL library was used for realizing 2D and 3D graphics application and visualization and it could be used for drawing the 3D morphology of organs in wheat. The contact of forming morphostructure and growth was created by a feedbackbased wheat functionmorphostructure module, the change process of morphostructure according to growth simulation was analyzed. The forecast accuracy of system will be higher and the level of graphic simulation be better.
The inventory of herbivorous livestock, especially dairy cows, increased dramatically in China. Hewerer, there is a large shortage of highquality forage in China. Importing forage gradually becomes an important way to solve the shortage of forage. United States is the largest forageproducing country and forage exporter in the world. This study analyzed forage production and price in United States, expecting to explore pasture development and price fluctuation in United States, and provide guide of forage importing and production for China.
To understand the research progress of the global grassland degradation and provide a reference for research in related fields, this study presented a quantitative analysis on grassland degradation research from 1992 to 2011 based on the Web of Science data source, by using bibliometric tools such as the database analysis tools and Excel. The results showed that in the past 20 years, the annual number of articles on international grassland degradation research appeared an exponential growth. Research on grassland degradation has increased significantly since 2006 in China, which was at a similar level of growth with the world. The number and citation frequencies of published articles in China were ranked in the second position in the world, but the overall level quality of articles was lower than the United States and other developed countries. The Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences leads domestic position and worthy of peer attention in this fields. Three journals with the highest quality are Journal of Arid Environments, Global Change Biology and Geoderma. The research hotspots of grassland degradation research are vegetation biomass, physical and chemical properties of grassland soil, the change of spatial pattern, restoration, protection of degraded grassland, an so on.
In order to reduce heavymetal pollution in the waste water, this study took cabbage slag as research subject and discussed effects of adsorption of cabbage slag to Cr6+ using quadratic regression orthogonal rotating combination design. The research results showed that, the optimal absorption condition of cabbage slag absorbing Cr6+ depends on the premise of 50 ml Cr6+ solution, with a additive cabbage slag amaunt of 0.1 g, the initial Cr6+ concentration was 10 mgL-1, time was 5 h, pH 5, temperature 70 ℃, the maximum adsorption rate was 99.73%; The adsorption mechanism of cabbage slag to Cr6+ could be better illustrated by the Freundlich adsorption isotherm as well as the secondary dynamic models,which indicates that the absorption is multimolecular layer adsorption and mixed absorption.
This research compared the differences among morphological characteristics under different illumination intensity conditions. Our results showed the plant height, leaf number, leaf area and stem diameter were significantly affected by different illumination intensity, S.emarginatum had some shade tolerance. However, too low or too high illumination intensity was not suitable for its growth. The best light condition for growth of S.emarginatum is 50.68% light transmission rate.
During 2005 to 2007, a comparative experiment of 4 introduced species (cultivars) of Brachiaria genus, including Brachiaria brizantha Mulato 1, B.brizantha Mulato 2, B.decumbens cv. Reyan No.3 and B.brizantha cv. Reyan No.6, was carried out at 3 experimental plots with different altitudes (560, 550 and 846 m) in Gasa township of Jinghong city, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture. The Results showed that all of them grew well at experimental plots and had advantages of more tillers, higher yield, stable production performance, higher nutritional value, lower proportion of stem to leaf, palatability, easy mowing, disease resistance, less demanding on the soil and climate conditions, stronger adaptability, easy to plant and extend in a large area. The root system of B.decumbens cv. Reyan No.3 and B.brizantha cv. Reyan No.6 developed well, which was beneficial to control soil erosion and to prevent grassland fire, and had longterm benefits once planted. The B.brizantha Mulato 1 and 2 were faster germination, longer booting stage, later heading stage and smaller ratio of stem to leaf than those of B.decumbens cv. Reyan No.3 and B.brizantha cv. Reyan No.6. Thus, we conclude that the 4 Brachiaria species (cultivars) are suitable for planting in the areas and should be extended in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan province.