Welcome Pratacultural Science,Today is

2013 Vol.30(4)

Display Mode:          |     

Impact of oasis water consumption on surface runoff of the Weigan River Basin based on NDVI
Shengxia WANG, Baisheng YE, Zhaoye ZHOU, Jia QIN, Man LI
2013, 7(4): 487-494.
[Abstract](1601) [PDF 694KB](533)
The relationship between oasis water consumption and surface runoff of the Weigan River Basin was analyzed by using NOAA/AVHRR NDVI remote sensing data collected from 1982 to 2006. The results showed that during the recent 25 years, both of oasis zone inflow and oasis water consumption were increased. The oasis water consumption was broke in 1995, which was delayed by 1 year compared to the break point of oasis inflow. Comparing with the beginning stage of the study, oasis NDVI and oasis area were increased by 94% and 73.7% respectively, both showed a continuous increased trends. From view of the relationship between oasis NDVI and surface runoff, oasis precipitation played an important role in oasis zone vegetation growth, while glacier runoff was regulating oasis inflow and maintaining stability of oasis. Changes in oasis area and basin surface runoff, the contributions of oasis precipitation, glacier runoff and precipitation runoff to oasis scale were 22%, 44% and 34%, respectively. However, from the assumption of scenarios of climate change and cryospheric change, the contribution of glacier runoff to oasis scale will be increased slowly in the future except under the scenario of the stable temperature; meanwhile the contribution of oasis precipitation to oasis scale will increase.
A study on community characteristics and soil moisture variation in alpine meadow secondary bare land
Jiqiang ZHANG, Wenye CHEN, Ming ZHAO, Guangyu LI, Qiang WEI, Jianjun KANG, Li ZHU, Bin CHEN, Fang WANG
2013, 7(4): 495-500.
[Abstract](1740) [PDF 558KB](543)
In order to restore and reconstruct the severely degraded grassland of Maqu alpine regions, the community characteristics and soil moisture variation were studied based on investigation of vegetation and soil moisture in water erosion type secondary bare lands of Maqu country (the first bend of the Yellow River). The results showed that the vegetation community in water erosion type secondary bare lands was mainly dominated by weeds and with characteristics of simple structure, single type, low coverage, sparse distribution, obscure vertical structure of community and dominant aboveground buds. The soil moisture showed a seasonal change with of change precipitation. The soil moisture in 0~20 cm and 20~40 cm soil layers was increased firstly and then decreased from May to November, and the maximum value appeared in July to August and the minimum value in May and November. These findings suggest that due to loose soil structure and low vegetation coverage, effects of water conservation on water erosion type secondary bare land are far less than that on the light degraded grassland.
Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on accumulation of nitrogen assimilation of grassland plants
Ruiyang XU, Long BAI, Xiaohong WANG, Ying LIU
2013, 7(4): 501-505.
[Abstract](1922) [PDF 420KB](849)
This research aimed to reveal impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on artificial grassland plants. Bromus inermis and Trifolium repens plants were treated with 0 (CK), 6 g Nm-2a-1 (low N), 12 g Nm-2a-1 (medium N) and 24 g Nm-2a-1 (high N) to explore the effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on accumulation of partial nitrogen assimilation. The results indicated that nitrogen deposition significantly affected the accumulation of nitrogen assimilation (P0.01), and nitrogen addition at all levels affected contents of chlorophyll, leaf nitrogen, Arg and soluble protein of B.inermis and T.repens plants. All of these contents except for the proline content ascended as increasing of nitrogen concentration until the concentration reached 12 g Nm-2a-1. However, effects of nitrogen deposition on accumulation of nitrogen assimilation were different between B.inermis and T.repens, and the influence on grasses was higher than that on legumes. There was a significant positive correlation bewteen Arg content and concentration of N deposition (R2=0.99). Arg content could be used as a sensitive indicator for nitrogen deposition of herb plants.
Responses of green fractional vegetation cover of alpine grassland to climate warming and human activities
Shilong REN, Shuhua YI, Jianjun CHEN, Yu QIN
2013, 7(4): 506-514.
[Abstract](1823) [PDF 1789KB](780)
The alpine grassland ecosystem is sensitive to climate warming and human activities. Estimation of green fractional vegetation cover (GFVC) is important for acquiring the growing condition of vegetation and assessing the effects of restoration of degraded grassland. At present, the most popular method for estimating GFVC on the ground is to acquire it from digital pictures. This method estimates GFVC from multispectral pictures and it is relatively accurate and effective. In this study, we used the Agricultural Digital Camera (ADC) to estimate GFVC of alpine grassland on different succession stages and in those grazebanning and tillage zones over the growing season of the source region of Shule River. We improved the thresholdmethod for estimating GFVC by using different thresholds in different plots. Main results are as follows: 1) There is no significant difference between the results estimated from the new threshold method and real values (P=0.219), while the results processed by the old threshold method are significantly different from real values (P=0.001). 2) Different types of grassland in different succession stages has different GFVC, and the GFVC of swamp meadow is higher than others. However, all of them reach the highest value in July. 3) In the permafrost regions, where the productivity of grassland is low, effects of grazebanning is not obvious in a short term, and tillage can even further reduce the GFVC of alpine grassland.
Characteristics of nitrogen content between rhizosphere and bulk soil of Amorpha fruticosa with different plant ages in southern rdge of Mu Us Desert
Yuanyuan ZHOU, Mingxin DU, Xiangrui ZHOU, Zhiyu ZHOU, Xin LU, Xiaohui TAO, Ping ZHAO, Jinhui LI, Qian JIN
2013, 7(4): 515-520.
[Abstract](1629) [PDF 470KB](527)
Sample spots were chosen from the southern edge of Mu Us Desert which locates in Jingbian county Yulin city, Shaanxi province.60yearold, 35yearold, 28yearold and 6yearold Amorpha fruticosa were selected to study the total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, organic carbon and change of pH in rhizosphere and bulk soil. Foundations of planting A.fruticosa in desert areas were established in this study. The results indicated that total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen(except 28yearold A.fruticosa), nitrate nitrogen and organic carbon cantents in rhizosphere soil were all higher than that in bulk soil, and organic carbon content in rhziosphere was significantly higher than that in bulk soil. Total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen cantents of 35yearold A.fruticosa in rhizosphere were 43.8%, 30.3% and 230%, respectively, which were higher than that in bulk soil. Both in rhizosphere and bulk soil, organic carbon content increased while pH had an opposite trend with the age increasing. Correlation analysis indicated that total nitrogen in rhizosphere had a significant relationship with organic carbon, ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen contents, but no relationship was found in bulk soil. In a word, the nutrition of rhizosphere was higher than that in bulk soil, so soil nutrition can be improved effectively by planting A.fruticosa.
Effects of grazing intensity on spatial variation of organic carbon and total nitrogen contents of soil
Mei HONG, Na YU, Hongru ZHAO, Jiya HU, Guodong HAN
2013, 7(4): 521-527.
[Abstract](1643) [PDF 724KB](426)
The objective of present study was to determine soil total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents under different grazing densities and analyze the effects of grazing density on spatial variation of soil C and N contents in light chestnut soil by geostatistics. The results indicated that soil C and N contents varied in a moderate grazing degree. With the increasing of grazing intensity, soil C and N contents decreased. Regional factors caused a large spatial variation in soil C and N contents under (none grazing) control, moderate grazing density and heavy grazing density. However, the spatial variation of soil C and N contents under light grazing density was mainly due to interaction of regional factors and random faltor of grazing, which belonged to moderate spatial correlations. Generally, the ranking of variation of soil C and N contents was controllight grazingmoderate grazingheavy grazing. The patch areas with low soil C and N contents increased in the regions of moderate grazing and heavy grazing year by year. Thus, it is suitable to conduct a light grazing in this area.
Effects of grazing and fencing on soil microorganisms and enzymes activities
Decao NIU, Shigao JIANG, Yan QIN, Baolin ZHANG, Getu CAO, Hua FU
2013, 7(4): 528-534.
[Abstract](1923) [PDF 605KB](475)
This research was conducted in the temperate semidesert ecosystems of Alxa Plateau, and studied the effects of grazing and fencing on soil microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen and soil enzymes activities, aiming to provide scientific basis for restoration and reconstruction of degraded temperate semideser ecosystems. The results showed that: (1)There was no significant difference on microbial biomass carbon between fencing and grazing lands, but soil microbial biomass nitrogen in fencing land was significantly higher than that of grazing lands, which caused soil microbial carbon and nitrogen ratio in fencing lands was significantly lower than that of grazing lands. Soil microbial carbon and nitrogen contents in surface layer (0-10 cm) was higher than those of subsoil (10-20 cm) in fencing lands and grazing lands, respectively; (2) Urease and alkaline phosphatase activities of the surface layer in fencing lands were higher than the grazing. For the subsoil, alkaline phosphatase activities in fencing lands was also higher than that of grazing,while urease activities in fencing lands was significantly lower than that of grazing. For the soil saccharase activities, the subsoil in the fencing lands was significantly higher than the grazing lands,and there was no difference among the surface layers. In addition, the variation of the three enzymes activities in different soil layers under fencing and grazing conditions was inconsistent; (3) The relationships between soil microbial biomass (C and N) and enzyme activities in fencing lands and grazing lands are different. Under fencing conditions, there is a significantly positve correlation between soil microbial biomass carbon and urease activities, while a significant negative correlation was found between soil microbial biomass carbon and saccharase activities. However, under grazing conditions, soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen were significantly negative correlated with soil urease activities, and significantly positive correlated with soil saccharase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Furthermore, soil microbial carbon and nitrogen ratio showed a significantly positive correlation with soil urease activities under grazing conditions.
A study on the soil respiration of alfalfa field in the loess hilly region
Hao XU, Yuanrun ZHANG, Zhanbing PAN, Liguo DONG, Jinjun CAI, Bo JI, Yueling WANG, Shengbao LI
2013, 7(4): 535-540.
[Abstract](1427) [PDF 426KB](404)
Carbon cycle process in ecosystem can be influenced by land use change. After implementing the project of farmlands converted to woodland and grassland in China, a large volume of farmland have been changed into woodland and grassland. In order to study the change of carbon emissions after the abandoned project, soil respirations of alfalfa field (converted from farmland) grassland, and farmland were measured in the loess hilly region of south Ningxia. The results indicated that soil temperature was strongly correlated with soil respiration, and the influence of soil moisture on soil respiration was limited. Average values of soil respiration on the alfalfa field, farmland and grassland were 1.60, 1.03 and 0.85 molm-2s-1, respectively. The soil respiration of alfalfa field, compared with farmland and grassland, were 55.3% and 88.2% higher. Annual CO2 emissions of alfalfa field, farmland and the grassland were 1461.96, 940.66 and 777.36 gm-2a-1,respectively. We concluded that after 9 years of farmland converted into alfalfa field, soil organic carbon decreased and soil respiration increased. The contributions of increasing carbon sink in the stage of farmland converted to grassland were not good as expected.
Soil fertility of cherry orchard interplanting with grasses systems
Yali ZOU, Liping HU, Haiyan SHI
2013, 7(4): 541-545.
[Abstract](1651) [PDF 400KB](340)
The influence of three different management patterns (planting white clover, interplanting apple seedlings and bare land) on soil physical and chemical characteristics was determined in the experiment. The results showed that planting white clover significantly increased the nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen concentrations of 0-20 cm soil layer, and was 1.73 and 1.93 times of the bare land (CK), respectively. Available potassium and organic matters were also increased by 35.08% and 52.38%. Interplanting apple seedlings had no significant influence on concentrations of nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen in topsoil, while it made available potassium concentration increase by 48.61% compared to CK. However, the soil water content under planting white clover treatment decreased 25.27%, and the competition for water between grass and trees appeared. Thus, we suggested that the span of growing grass in cherry orchards in Tianshui area should be less than 3 years and then the soil should be cultivated and mulched for water retention.
Ecological adaptability evaluation of turfgrasses based on multivariate statistical analysis
Yanshan ZHANG, Tianlong HE, Zhengsheng ZHU, Liping DOU
2013, 7(4): 546-552.
[Abstract](1729) [PDF 436KB](445)
Sixteen adaptability indices, including heat resistance, drought and cold resistance, disease resistance, emergence days, turfgrass restore ability, smoothness, resilience, density, uniformity, coverage, texture, seedling vigor, green period, turf establishment and color of 9 turfgrass cultivars were evaluated by principal component analysis, subordinate function and cluster analysis. The results showed that the 16 adaptability indices had different responses, among which texture and heat resistance showed the greatest sensitivity. Some indices were significantly correlated.Four principal factors represented 92% information of the 16 indices, while the cultivar Coalnaduo had outstanding performance with the first principal factor. According to the comprehensive evaluation by the 3 methods, these 9 turfgrass cultivars could be clustered into 3 groups: Park and Barvictorbelonged to the best group; Pinnacle, Premier, Accent, Fairway, Lark and Emeraldbelonged to the second group; Coalnaduo belonged to the poor group.
A comparative study on turf quality of tall fescue in Huaibei Area
Xuemei GONG, Mingyue WANG, Na YAN
2013, 7(4): 553-556.
[Abstract](1661) [PDF 648KB](438)
A field experiment was carried out in Huaibei area to compare turf quality, including density, color, texture, uniformity and heat resistance of eleven varieties(strains) of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). The results showed that majority of varieties(strains) got higher annual oomprehensive scores and presented a good adaptability. However, the texture of the most varieties(strains) were rough and poor uniformity. Among 11 cultivars(strains), color of Houndog 6, Houndog 5, Jaguar 3 and Coalnaduo were dark green, with strong tillering ability and adaptability. They showed better quality in landscape than others. Thus, varieties (strains) mentioned above were expected to be popularized as turf grasses in Huaibei area.
2013, 7(4): 559-559.
[Abstract](1115) [PDF 237KB](1140)
Responses of dominant plant nutrients to grazing intensity in Kobresia pygmaea meadow of the QinghaiTibet plateau
Juanjuan FU, Yixicuomu, Hao CHEN, Yanjun MIAO, Tianming HU, Yuefei XU
2013, 7(4): 560-565.
[Abstract](2427) [PDF 812KB](413)
Effects of grazing intensity disturbance on nutrition characteristics of dominant species Kobresia pygmaea and Stipa purpurea in Kobresia meadow of the QinghaiTibet plateau were studied. The results showed that there were differences on responses of plant nutrients to different grazing intensity between these two dominant plants. Grazing had the benefit of calcium and phosphorus absorption for the plants. Heavy grazing significantly (P<0.05) increased calcium and phosphorus absorption of K.pygmaea compared to moderate grazing and control. The changes between the moderate grazing and control were not significant (P>0.05). The calcium content of S.purpurea followed a trend of heavy grazingmoderate grazingcontrol, while the phosphorus content increased firstly and then decreased with the increasing grazing intensity. It was also found that grazing reduced significantly (P<0.05) the forage crude fiber content and increased contents of the forage crude protein and crude fat. Grazing livestocks promoted the compensatory growth of the plants, accelerated grasssoil nitrogen cycles, increased pasture nitrogen uptake and increased the forage crude protein content, so that grazing improved the forage quality in Kobresia meadow of the QinghaiTibet plateau.
Comprehensive evaluation of nutritional values of different alfalfa species and varieties
Lijun XU, Guixia YANG, Baorui CHEN, Xiaoping XIN, Wuenqi, Qinggele, Shusheng ZHU
2013, 7(4): 566-570.
[Abstract](2344) [PDF 453KB](486)
The nutritional ingredients, incruding crude protein (CP), crude fat (CF), crude ash, calcium (Ca), phosphorus, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF), of six alfalfa (Medicago sativa, M.varia, M.falcata) varieties and their yields were studied. The results indicated that among the six varieties, Long Mu 801 appeared the highest contents in CF, crude ash, NDF, ADF and the highest yield; Long Mu 806 appeared the highest contents in CP and Ca, and the lowest CF content and yield; while M.varia showed the lowest content in P, NDF and ADF. The correlation analysis showed that there were no significant differences among different varieties for the same index. The results of grey correlative degree analysis of main nutritional components showed that nutritional values of 6 alfalfa varieties from high to low were Zhaodong, M.varia, Long Mu 801, Long Mu 803, Long Mu 806 and yellow alfalfa. The evaluation results have certain guiding significance for the future introduction and breeding of alfalfa varieties.
Effects of drought stress on seed germination and seedling growth of Amsonia tabernaemontana
Hua YUE, Xue LI
2013, 7(4): 571-576.
[Abstract](2308) [PDF 420KB](415)
Effects of drought stress on seed germination and seedling growth of Amsonia tabernaemontana were studied by using a method of simulated drought stress with different concentrations of PEG6000. The results showed that, 1) seed germination rate and germination index of A.tabernaemontana were improved by a low concentration of PEG (5%) treatment. With increasing the concentration of PEG, the germination rate declined, however, the seeds could germinate after rewatering. 2) The leaf relative electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content significantly increased with increasing extent and duration of drought stress. There was significant positive correlations between proline content and leaf relative electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content. When concentrations of PEG increased to severe stress, proline contents increased significantly, while activities of SOD and POD decreased after an initial increase.
Effects of different concentrations of polyethylene glycol on seeds germination of Miscanthus sinensis and Triarrhena sacchariflora
Miao HE, Baocheng ZHAO, Qiang LI, Changle LIU
2013, 7(4): 577-582.
[Abstract](1842) [PDF 649KB](394)
Effects of different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution on seeds germination of Miscanthus sinensis and Triarrhena sacchariflora were studied. The results showed that the low concentration PEG (5%-10%) had no significant effects on the seed germination rate of M.sinensis and T.sacchariflora, but it increased the germination index, vigor index, radicle length and radicle fresh weight of M.sinensis and plumules growth of T.sacchariflora. However, high PEG concentration (15%-20%) inhibited growth of seedlings and reduced the germination rate, germination index, vigor index and radicles length/plumule length significantly(P0.05). The half of lethal concentration of T.sacchariflora was 15% and the lethal concentration was 20%, while the half of lethal concentration of M.sinensis was 15% and the lethal concentration was higher. Thus, the drought resistance of M.sinensis was better than T.sacchariflora.
Evaluation of drought resistance of Lavandula angustifolia and L.stoechas
Shuyan CHEN, Xiaoxia TIAN, Peichun MAO, Lin MENG, Degang ZHANG
2013, 7(4): 583-599.
[Abstract](2509) [PDF 1595KB](394)
To understand the drought resistance mechanism of two species (Lavandula angustifolia and L.stoechas), changes of physiological and biochemical indexes were investigated under light (LS), moderate (MS) and severe (HS) drought stress for 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days through controling soil volumetric woisture content with negative pressure water supplying and controlling devices. The results showed that with the increasing of drought stress intensities and stress periods, the relative water content (RWC) of two species displayed a reduction trend. Under severe drought stress, the decrease amplitude was significantly increased after 40 d, the RWC decreased to 30.08% and 25.27%, while the RWC of L.angustifolia was the lowest. Contrary leaf relative electrolytic leakage (REC), soluble sugar (SSC) and MDA contents followed an increasing trend. The REC of L.angustifolia increase amplitude beyond to 400% under severe drought stress and was significantly higher than that of L.stoechas. The MDA content of L.angustifolia was also higher than that of L.stoechas. Meanwhile, SOD and CAT activities firstly elevated and then declined. Compared to the L.angustifolia, the RWC, SOD and CAT activities of L.stoechas were higher, but the REC, SSC and MDA contents of L.stoechas were lower. Overall, L.stoechas exhibited a stronger ability to tolerant drought stress than L.angustifolia.
Comparison of salinity tolerance of four herbages at the seedling stage
Peiyu WANG, Changhui LI, Shujuan LI, Yousheng LEI, Kai HU
2013, 7(4): 590-595.
[Abstract](1440) [PDF 411KB](353)
In order to understand salinity tolerance of 4 herbages, seedlings of Roegneria thoroldiana, Puccinellia distans, Festuca sinensis and Elymus nutans were treated with different concentrations of NaCl solution; and the plant tissues damage degree, contents of chlorophyll, soluble sugar, soluble protein, free proline (Pro) and activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) in the seedlings were measured after 7 day treatments. Results showed that the order of salt resistance of the four herbages was P.distansF.sinensisR.thoroldianaE.nutans with the 0.2% of NaCl solution treatment. However, when the salt concentration increased to 0.4%~1.0%, the trend of salt resistance from strong to weak was P. distans, R. thoroldiana, F. sinensis and E.nutans.
A study on relationship between leaf epicuticular wax coverage and drought resistance of five alfalfa varieties
Lingyan ZHOU, Shenghong LIU, Huaming QIN, Peifeng LI, Fengting YANG, Gang ZHAO
2013, 7(4): 596-601.
[Abstract](2102) [PDF 1274KB](628)
Cuticular wax, exposed at the outermost surface of plant organs, plays an important role in interactions of plants and environment, and also plays a critical role in plant drought tolerance by reducing cuticular water loss. In this study, five alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cultivars: Alfaking, Algonquin, Millionaire, WL525 and WL2321 were used as testing materials to analyze the relationship between leaf epicuticular wax coverage and drought resistance, by observing leaf surface wax coverage and determining wax content, chlorophyll extraction rate and proline content. The results showed that among the five alfalfa varieties, the leaf epicuticular wax distribution of Alfaking was more intensive and wax content was higher, while the leaf epicuticular wax distribution of WL525 was sparse and wax content was lower. The chlorophyll extraction rate of Alfaking was relatively slow, however, that of the WL525 was relatively fast. The proline content of Alfaking was the highest, but that of WL525 was minimum. The drought sensitivity of Alfaking was the weakest when they were treated with 20% PEG6000 (the simulated drought treatment). To comprehensively considered, the leaf epicuticular wax coverage of alfalfa has correlation with drought resistance.
Correlation analysis of species diversity of Stipa baicalensis community
Zhenyan HUANG, Lizhu WANG, Tsetseg URAN, Jie LI, Xiaogang YANG
2013, 7(4): 602-605.
[Abstract](2356) [PDF 464KB](534)
The species diversity in grazing and cutting on meadow steppe of Stipa baicalensis community was analyzed through field survey.The results showed that species richness in the grazing field was higher than that in cutting field, while species number was lower. The alpha diversity indices under cutting (index of the species richness, species diversity indices, index of species evenness) were higher than that in grazing.
Effects of nitrogen fertilizing on the leaf chlorophyll content and fresh forage yield of Lolium multiflorum cv. Tetragold
Yulan LV, Yuequan WANG, Bei YANG, Yang YANG, Xiaofang ZHANG
2013, 7(4): 606-609.
[Abstract](2025) [PDF 373KB](363)
Effects of different nitrogen fertilizing levels on leaf SPAD value, chlorophyll content and fresh forage yield of Lolium multiflorum cv. Tetragold were evaluated through a field trail. Further, correlations between the chlorophyll content and SPAD value, the chlorophyll content and fresh forage yield, and the SPAD value and fresh forage yield were also studied. The results showed that increasing nitrogen fertilizer application significantly improved the SPAD value, chlorophyll content and fresh forage yield of L.multiflorum cv. Tetragold. The correlations analysis indicated that there were significant positive correlations between the SPAD value and the chlorophyll content, the chlorophyll content and the fresh forage yield, and the SPAD value and the fresh forage yield. The correlation coefficients (r) were 0.954 9, 0.911 4 and 0.923 8, respectively.
Effects of applying optimized multifunctional fertilizer on soil physical, chemical properties and yield of maize in Hexi Irrigation Areas
Chunmei ZHANG, Jiahai QIN, Aiqin WANG, Zhibin YAN, Zhanwen XIAO, Yunchen ZHAO, Hongyu CHENG, Xiaoyuan MAO
2013, 7(4): 610-615.
[Abstract](1370) [PDF 492KB](396)
In order to obtain the best performance of breeding maize on alluvial soil in Hexi inland irrigation areas, the optimum formulation of multifunctional fertilizer for breeding maize was screened, and changes of soil physical and chemical properties, and yield of maize after the fertilizer application were measured. The results showed that the best formula obtained was 30 kg polyving akohol (PVA), 30 kg water retaining agent, 420 kg(NH4)2HPO4, 52 kg ZnSO47H2O, 736 kg CO(NH2)2 and 225 kg furfural residue. Compared with traditional chemical fertilizer, the application of multifunctional fertilizer increased 1.50% of the total soil porosity, 1.29% of the aggregates, 1.02% of the natural moisture content, 16.60 m3ha-1 soil water storage capacity and 0.44 gkg-1 organic matter, respectively, while bulk density and pH value decreased 0.04 gcm-3 and 0.06. The growth rate and above ground dry weight of maize seedlings increased 0.73 mmd-1 and 0.80 gstem-1. Grain number per spike, ear weight, hundred grain weight and yield of maize increased 12.68 grains per spike, 33.96 g, 0.20 g and 311.63 kgha-1. Production value and fertilization profit increased 1 558 and 517 CNYha-1, respectively.
Responses of grassland herbaceous clonal species to light, temperature, water, fertilizers and grazing presure gradients
Jingjing FU, Huakun ZHOU, Xinquan ZHAO, Zhe CHEN, Jun WEN, Buqing YAO, Yuanwu YANG, Yanxia JIN
2013, 7(4): 616-626.
[Abstract](1660) [PDF 539KB](475)
Responses of clonal herbaceous species to temperature, light, water, fertilizers and grazing pressure gradients are great significant for researchs of the clone community ecology. The effects of these ecological factors on clonal herbaceous species are popular research subjects in this fields, such as global change, sustainable development, biological invasions, etc. The responses of typical representative herbaceous clonal plants (such as stoloniferous and rhizomatous clonal plants) to these five factors in the environment with homogeneous and heterogeneous resource patches showed unique adaptive behaviour and manner, including riskspreading strategy of genets, phenotypic plasticity, the foraging behaviour, clonal integration, clonal division and fitness. This paper analyzed and summarized domestic and international cases of clonal herbaceous plants in response to light, temperature, water, fertilizer and grazing gradients in recent years. Several current subjects were also discussed such as phenotypic plasticity, clonal integration, and clone division.
Advances in genetic transformation of alfalfa
Ping HE, Zhengyi WEI, Hui SUN, Shaochen XING
2013, 7(4): 627-637.
[Abstract](2473) [PDF 560KB](590)
:As a pioneer biotechnology, gene engineering has already contributed greatly to the commercialization of plant transgenic products since its application. Alfalfa, regarded as one of most valuable leguminous forages in the world, has been genetically modified to improve the agronomically traits like biomass, quality and resistance, by this technology. This paper summarized the latest progresses in genetic transformation researches of alfalfa with five aspects, including abiotic, biotic stress, herbicide resistance, quality improvement and bioreactor utilization. Some suggestions for specific alfalfa biosafety issues and potential hotspot aiming at the existing bottleneck of alfalfa transgenic study were proposed. Generally, this paper was expected to provide researchers with helpful information both fundamental and applied researches of alfalfa.
Research status and prospect of grassland caterpillars (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae)
Qilin ZHANG, Minglong YUAN
2013, 7(4): 638-646.
[Abstract](1531) [PDF 627KB](536)
Grassland caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae, Gynaephora) are among the most important insect pests damaging alpine meadow of the Tibetan Plateau. Grassland caterpillars not only feed on high quality forages, leading to the shortage of food for livestocks, changing plant community structure, aggravating grassland degeneration and environmental deterioration, but also cause livestock poisoning, which heavily hinders to the sustainable development of animal husbandry of the Tibetan Plateau. In addition, grassland caterpillars mainly distribute on high mountains and arctic areas, so they are good model systems for studing the evolutionary mechanism of adaption to the extreme environments (e.g. cold and hypoxia). This paper summarized the research status on taxonomy, biology, ecology and control of grassland caterpillars; and suggested the promising research directions, in order to promote the basic and apply researches of grassland caterpillars, which was helpful to plan appropriate strategies for controlling these pests.
Research progress in habitat selection of plateau zokor
Jianwei ZHOU, Limin HUA, Songtao ZUO, Junhu SU, Qiaoling WANG
2013, 7(4): 647-653.
[Abstract](1904) [PDF 551KB](628)
Plateau zokor(Myospalax baileyi)is one of special species in the QinghaiTibet plateau, which live primarily underground and feed on plant root and tubers. Plateau zokors mainly distribute on the alpine meadow and alpine steppe. They play an important role in the grassland ecosystem and their status in the grassland ecosystem can not be replaced by terrestrial herbivorous animals. However, the overincreased population of plateau zokor can also break the pattern of dynamic balance of the soilgrassanimalmouse,results in the decline of grassland productivity and biodiversity, and become a serious threat to grassland environment security. This paper described the factors, which might affect the plateau zokor on choosing habitats, and reviewed recent advances on research about plateau zokor. It also discussed prospects for further research on plateau zokor control.
Issuses and approaches of the urbanrural integration in Alpine Minority AreasA case study of Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture
Lucang WANG, Wei LI, Shengrong WANG
2013, 7(4): 654-660.
[Abstract](1329) [PDF 593KB](358)
Urbanrural integration is the stage that productivity and urbanization reached a certain level, urban and rural areas gradually integrated together to ultimately realize the economic, social, cultural, ecological coordinated development of areas. Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture has a very important ecological, cultural and economic status due to its special geographic environment and cultural diversity. However, its fragile ecological environment and low urbanrural development level give a poor platform for urbanrural integration. This paper reviewed current situation, including economic, population, settlements, infrastructure and public service facilities in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. In order to achieve the urban and rural integration, authors suggested strengthening environmental protection, emphasizing the drive mechanism of the transformation, optimizing economic structure, promoting the integration of urban and rural spatial distribution and narrowing the gap of public services between urban and rural areas.