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Common spatial interpolation models usually only consider the geographical coordinates, but elevation values are not taken into account. Threedimensional thin plate spline model (3D TPS), in which the elevation values were treated as one of important independent variable factors, was applied in the research on the spatial interpolation of annual precipitation in China in this paper in order to improve the interpolation precision and reduce the error which was produced by the great elevation changes. The control of ArcGIS Engine was used as a secondary development tool based on Visual Basic.Net language. The elevation values were extracted from China digital elevation model (DEM). The geographical coordinates and annual precipitation values were extracted from spatial distribution map of meteorological stations. Then, the DEM map was used as a template and each grid point was interpolated with 3D TPS model so that the spatial distribution map of annual precipitation in China was produced. Finally, after the analysis and comparison of different interpolation models, it is concluded that the 3D TPS model has the highest interpolation precision (standard deviation is 113.95) and obvious advantages especially applied in the areas with great topographic relief.
High resolution satellite imagery is one of important data sources for crop monitoring and assessment, and has important application values in the field of crop planning and yield estimation. Distribution of crops in the Yingke irrigation district of Zhangye City was analyzed by using a combined data of SPOT5 image, obtained in 2008, with four spectral bands (green, red, nearinfrared and shortwave infrared) and 2.5 m pixel size covering. Two images with pixel sizes of 10 m and 30 m were also generated from the original combined image to simulate coarser resolution satellite imagery. Five supervised classification techniques, including minimum distance, Mahalanobis distance, maximum likelihood, spectral angle mapper (SAM) and support vector machine (SVM), were applied to identify crop types in the study. The effects of pixel size on classification results were also examined. Kappa analysis showed that the maximum likelihood and SVM, though there were no statistical differences between them, performed better than those from other classified methods and the value of Kappa were 0.871 9 and 0.862 5, respectively. Accuracy assessment showed that the maximum likelihood gave the best result with overall accuracy values of 90.6%. The results also showed that increasing pixel size from 2.5 m to 10 m or 30 m did not significantly affect the classification accuracy for crop identification. Overall results indicate that SPOT5 image in conjunction with maximum likelihood and SVM classification techniques can be used for identifying crop types and estimating crop areas.
Using hyperspectral image of HJ1A satellite, the standard spectral curves of different objects in the study area were analyzed; land cover classification accuracy between supervised classification and spectral angle mapping method were compared; and the grassland biomass monitoring models based on hyperspectral remote sensing in alpine pastoral area were also studied. The results show that:1) the absorption position, absorption depth and other spectral characteristics of the standard spectral curves of different objects are different in the visual bands, but they are similar in nearinfrared bands. In the visual bands, there is only one absorption position in the standard spectral curves of clouds and vegetation, and the absorption depth of clouds is less than that of vegetation. In the standard spectral curves of bare lands and water areas, there are five and six absorption positions, respectively. 2) Both the spectral angle mapping and supervised classification methods are suitable for hyperspectral image classification. The overall classification accuracy of spectral angle mapping method reaches to 85.9% and is much higher than that of supervised classification approach. The spectral angle mapping method can recognize the objects under thin clouds, cloud shadows and mountain shadows. 3) Based on regression analyzed results between grassland biomass and 9 vegetation indices, two vegetation indices of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Simple Ratio Index (SR) are suitable for grassland biomass monitoring in the study area. HJ1A hyperspectral data has been successfully applied in classification of land cover of alpine pastoral areas. This research laid foundations of further studying in HJ1A hyperspectral imaging data.
Remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) are essential important means of monitoring water body areas for large lakes and water reservoirs. Based on the characteristics of CCD data from selfdevelopment Environmental Mitigation Satellite and built an identification mode of water body by using the combination methods of multibands and single band. According to the mode, the water area of Qinghai Lake during April-November each year had been extracted from September 2008 to November 2011. The results showed that: 1) The Qinghai Lake area had a continuous increasing trend from 2008 to 2011, among which it had a smaller increase from 2008 to 2010, while there was a significant increase in 2011. 2) From 2009 to 2011, the area of the Qinghai Lake of each season presented a regular wave. However, the area of each season in 2011 was higher than that in the same season of the previous three years. 3) The water area reached to the maximum in every September from 2009 to 2010; and decreased monthly from September to the freeze season in 2008-2010. In 2011, compared to the previous three years, the maximum value emerged in October and the area in each month was significantly larger except the area in July was roughly equal to that in the same period of 2010. 4) The obvious change areas of the Qinghai Lake mainly located in the east and west coasts in October from 2008 to 2011. Shorelines were put into eastward 130-630 m and westward 100-600 m, respectively. The sand island lake in the east coast was seasonally connected to the Qinghai Lake. 5) The major reasons for Qinghai Lake area to increase continually were that in recent years, Qinghai Lake Basin climate showed a warm wet trend, the surrounding river runoff into the lake was increased and human production activities in the surrounding areas were slowed down.
In order to select suitable plant species for building artificial ecosystem at the gold production area of Tongguan county, concentration of heavy metals, including Cu、Zn and Cd, in four species of plants (Abutilon theophrasti, Cynanchi chinensis, Gymnaster piccolii, Viola philippica) were determined by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that the root area of four species were contaminated by the three metals. A higher Zn enrichment capacity was found in all of four species. G.piccolii had the highest Zn concentration than others; and the Zn concentration factor and transfer factor were 3.71 and 1.20, respectively. The Cd enrichment capacity of Cynanchi chinensis was the strongest; and the transfer factor and concentration factor were 1.89 and 0.31, individually. However, all of four species had a low Cu concentration level.
A field investigation was made to clarify community characteristics, including species composition, species diversity and spatial distribution, on a slope of the Guanshan grassland in Shaanxi Province. The surveys were conducted at the lower (2 092 m), middle (2 112 m) and upper (2 132 m) altitudes on the slope, and the data collected were analyzed using the power law. The results indicated that each plant species composition of the three different communities followed the power law. The total species richness, the species diversity index value (H′) and the spatial heterogeneity index value of the entire community (δｃ) at each altitude tended to increase with the altitude raise. The average values of species number and the species diversity index per quadrat also increased with increasing altitude, and there were no significant differences (P>0.05) among three altitudes. The occurrence of Gramineae and Leguminosae plants were more at the upper and middle altitudes than at the lower one. The occurrence of Leontopodium leontopodioides was the highest at the middle altitude; and quantities of Duchesnea indica and Ranunculus japonicus were larger at the lower altitude than at the other ones. L.leontopodioides, D.indica and R.japonicus are the characteristic species of deteriorated grassland in this area. These phenomena indicate that the grassland degradation is more serious in the lower altitude than in the middle and upper ones.
In order to understand the dynamic changes of artificial vegetation community of rocky slope in the initial planting stage, based on the actual project and taking conventional community survey method, the artificial vegetation of highway rocky slope have been tracked and investigated for one year. The results showed that during the observation period, 47 species of plants in 46 genus and 13 families had been found in the plots; most of them were herbs belonged to three families: Gramineae, Leguminosae and Compositae. Community species quantitative composition showed seasonal changes and 21 species was recorded (maximum) in September 2009, while 5 species was recorded (minimum) in February 2010. The results of plant distribution in different functional groups showed that legumes had performed better adaptability. The results of distribution of plant life forms showed that perennial plants grew relatively stable. The Lolium perenne always occupied an obvious advantage in the first year after planting and the community type was the L. perenne community. The distributions of community species were uniform and there was no stratification phenomenon. Community richness index, ShannonWiener index and Simpson index showed seasonal fluctuations, while the change of Pielou evenness index was not notable. The important value of L.perenne and community species richness index, ShannonWiener index, Simpson index, Pielou evenness index had a significant negative correlation.
Industrial environmental greening is a symbol of the enterprise civilization development. Industrial greening plays an important role in improving ecological environment and quality of products and promoting civilized production. In this study the green planning and design of petrochemical production area were described according to the conception of plant disposition, the principles of planting design, configuration instructions, plant selection, plant general layout and plant layout in details. These approaches achieved the aim of increasing greenland coverage and beautifying industrial environment of petrochemical production area and gained the ecological benefit, the economic benefit and the social benefit successfully.
Browning and subsequent cell death in Hemarthria compressa callus is a serious problem reducing the effectiveness of this culturing system. This study evaluated three antioxidants (activated carbon, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, and vitamin C) for their potential to reduce browning. These agents were added into subculture media and incubated under different subculture cycles (10, 15, 20, 30 d) and temperatures (21, 23, 25, 27 ℃). Results showed that adding activated carbon (2.0 g·L-1), and incubating at （23±2）℃ for 10 d reduced the browning rate significantly and did not decrease callus growth. This culturing technique will allow more routine use of H.compressa callus in tissue culture and gene transformation experiments.
Present study investigated the effect of light, temperature and their interaction on the seed germination of Stipa bungeana. The results showed that 1) S.bungeana seeds germinated within a wide range temperature from 10 ℃ to 30 ℃, with 20 ℃ as the optimal temperature, in which seed germination rates were 72% and 88% in the presence of light and absence of light, respectively; 2) Light significantly depressed seed germination of S.bungeana whatever the temperatures subjected to, moreover, seed germination was depressed strongly under suboptimal temperature compared to the optimal one.
Through setting up five grazing levels: no grazing (CK), light grazing (LG), moderate grazing (MG), heavy grazing (HG) and extreme grazing(EG), species changes of grassland communities in Northern Shanxi Province were studied to determine a reasonable grazing capacity and further optimize the utilized patterns and efficiency of the grassland. The research showed that with the grazing intensity increasing, the proportion of Gramineae grasses were decreased and there were significant differences (P<0.05) in CK compared with in LG, MG, HG and EG; the proportion of legume forages were increased, the differences among CK, LG, MG, HG, and EG were not obvious; the proportion of Compositae plants were decreased and the differences in EG compared with in CK, LG, MG and HG were significant(P<0.05); the proportion of Potentilla plants were increased and there were significant differences (P<0.05) between CK and LG; and the proportion of forb group was decreased and there were significant differences (P<0.05) in CK compared with in LG, HG and EG. The grassland quality indexes of grasses, legume forages and Compositae plants were decreased, while those of Potentilla plants and forbs were increased with the grazing intensity increase.
A runoff plot experiment was carried out to study the effects of veiveria ainzanioides hedge on peanut plant height, chlorophyll content and yield in different peanut growth periods in red soil sloping land to explore the appropriate space between hedges and crops. The results showed that compared with the conventional tillage treatment, the first line peanut plant height and chlorophyll content increased significantly (P0.05). The yields of peanut in line 1 and 2 decresed significantly, but the yield in line 5, line 7 and line 9 increased significantly. We thought that the safety distance between vetiver grass hedgerow and peanut should be≥66 cm, and the appropriate spacing of V.zizanioides hedge is 8 to 12 m by using the parabolic model+straight platform. There was no significant difference in peanut yield between intercropping and pure cultivation, however, the advantages of intercropping was obvious.
A study on sowing date, sowing density and sowing methods of the newly introduced alfalfa (Medicago sativa) varieties was carried on in arid and semiarid areas of Longdong during last 2-3 years. The results show that: 1) in yield, the autumn sowing gave the best performance with the average yield of 0.772 kg·m-1 and the summer sowing followed with the average yield of 0.700 kg·m-1. Compared with spring sowing, the yields of autumn and summer sowing increased by 10.29%（P＜0.05） and 4.79% （P＜0.05）, respectively. Compared with Longdong alfalfa, the yields of Alfaking, Sanditi, Goldenmpress and Gannong No.1 increased by 13.08%（P＜0.05）, 3.54%, 2.22% and 7.53%（P＜0.05）, respectively. 2) In the sowing density, there were higher yields at 720 and 480 plants·m-2, which had significant differences（P＜0.05） comparing with the density of 960 and 240 plants·m-2, with the average yield of 0.72 and 0.66 kg·m-1, respectively. Among the tested varieties, Alfaking and Goldenmpress had higher yields than than Phabulous（P＜0.05）. 3) In sowing methods, there were no significant difference on germination rate, overwintering rate and hay yield bewteen plastic film beside furrow and ordinary furrow sowing, and there was no obvious difference compared with the mechanical drilling. 4) Overall, different sowing date, sowing density, sowing methods and varieties had great influences on alfalfa growth and yields in the first to second growth years, and no significant effect at the third year. According to the trial, the alfalfa should be sown in autumn by ordinary furrow sowing method and the optimum density was 480 to 720 plants·m-2 (15.0-22.5 kg·ha-1). Alfaking showed significant yield increases in the experiments and should be aggressively promoted in Longdong arid and semiarid areas.
The vacuolar H+ATPases is an important proton pump in plant cells. It obtains energy from ATP hydrolysis and transports protons into vacuoles to form electrochemical gradients across the membranes. The VH+ATPases energizes the secondary transport systems presented in both intracellular and plasma membranes, which is essential biochemical processes to maintenance the intracellular solute balance and plant physiological activity. Under stress conditions, such as excess salt, drought, cold and soil heavy metal stress, plant cell viability depends largely on the VH+ATPase activity and regulation of gene expression and activity of the VH+ATPase are molecular foundation of plants adaption to environment. The VH+ATPase is one of most important H+ proton pumps in internal membrane systems of plant cells, molecular regulation mechanisms of VH+ATPase adaption to environmental stress were summarized and the prospects for VH+ATPase in biological treatments of salinealkali soil and in application of molecular biology were also discussed in this paper.
Boarding crop seeds on recoverable satellites to induce novel variety has become an important characteristic of space mutation breeding. It is a new breeding technique, using a special space environment on seeds, which could cause the release of chromosomal aberration and gain favorable gene mutation to breed new varieties in ground. Space mutation breeding has been widely used on the many crops and vegetables, such as wheat, rice, pepper, tomato and 72 varieties have been identified by nation or provinces. China leads the world in space breeding, but the research on pasture space breeding is still in its initial stages with a focuse on the alfalfa. This paper briefly elaborated the space mutation breeding on alfalfa and the current problems.
The present research reviewed the forage planting systems in south of China, mainly including the graingrass rotation system, tall grass planting system, perennial mixed pasture system, and forage maize (Zea mays)Italian ryegrass （Lolium multiflorum） rotation system. The research progress in the planting system of forage maizeItalian ryegrass rotation was elaborated in detail, including breeding new forage varieties, high yield cultivation technology, utilizing rate of forage by livestock, temporal and spatial distribution of planting system. Finally, the problems and prospects in theoretical research and application were also discussed for the future use in practice.
Nalkane technique is considered to be the most accurate method to estimate diet composition of sheep, and the additionally introduced markers (longchain alcohols and longchain acids) further extended the range of available faecal markers, making it possible to estimate the diet with complex components. In this experiment, the dietary composition of sheep grazing on Leymus chinensis grassland was estimated using alkanes in combination with alcohols and/or acids during the grazing months. The results showed that L.chinensis, Carexdur iuscula and Suaeda heteroptera were the main diet components during the whole grazing seasons, but with evident seasonal changes. In June, the bulk of the diet was made up of S.heteroptera and L.chinensis, C.iuscula came after. In July, the consumption of S.heteroptera and C.iuscula faced a significant decline, but of L.chinensis increased obviously. In August, C.iuscula constituted the most proportion, and the consumption of L.chinensis and S.heteroptera decreased and increased, respectively. For the minor components, like Atriplex patens, Toraxacum mongolicum and Phragmites communis, nonsignificant changes were observed. The plant species distributed vertically and horizontally influenced on the grazing behavior of sheep heavily. In addition, palatability was another influencing factor. The analysis of selectivity index showed that the plant species, like L. chinensis, with high proportion in the diet presented low selectivity. Similarly the low proportion components, like P.communis and A.patens，might show high selectivity.
The composition of fatty acids in yak milk, cow milk, cattleyak milk and dairy products (yak butter, ghee, qula and yogurt ) were detected by GCMS. The results showed that the proportion of functional fatty acids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), linoleic acid（LA）, alphalinolenic acid (ALA) and gammalinolenic acid (GLA), in yak milk were significantly higher than those in cattleyak milk and cow milk (P0.05) between each other. The ratios of ω6/ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in cattleyak milk and yak milk were within the range of the best recommended prandial balance ratio. However, the ratio of ω6/ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in cow milk was above the best recommended range. Processing products of yak milk changed the nutrients composition. Linoleic acid (18:2Δ8c,11c), which did not exist in yak milk, was found in yak butter. The fatty acids in ghee were mainly unsaturated. But they were mainly saturated (SFA) in qula. Gammalinolenic acid (GLA) was not detected in yak yogurt.
The alfalfa （Medicago sativa）seeds, harvested at the current year, were stored in 4 locations with different temperatures. The alfalfa seed chalcid (Bruchophagus roddi) overwintering instars and its survival were investigated by dissecting the seeds regularly. The results showed that seed chalcid overwintering instars in alfalfa seeds were the third instar larvae. When the average storage temperature and humidity were 18 ℃ and 27.2% (from October to December), the alfalfa seed chalcid overwintering larvae began to pupate at the end of December. When the average storage temperature and humidity were 9.9 ℃ and 40.1% (from October to next February), the overwintering larvae began to pupate at the next February. Alfalfa seeds being treated with the conditions of 50 ℃ and -30 ℃ for 1 day showed that the mortality of alfalfa seed chalcid larvae reached 100%; and germination rates of the alfalfa seeds were 93.33% and 88.33%, respectively.
In order to implement the project of “Luqu County grassland rodent integrated controlthe demonstration construction at county level”, the composition and distribution of rodent species in Luqu County were surveyed during the period of 2008 to 2011. The results showed that there were 38 species of redents belonging to 6 families, 7 subfamilies, 19 genera in Luqu County. The rodent species account for 74.51% of the total rodent species recorded in Gannan prefecture though the area of Luqu is only 13.18% of Gannan prefecture. These results also indicated that the habitat conditions and rodent species composition in Luqu had a certain representation in Gannan prefecture. Finally, it was concluded that grassland rodents (60.53%) and forest rodents (26.32%) were the main body of the rodent species composition in Luqu.
Ecological protective policy have obvious effects on the development and restoration of land desertification process. To understand the effects of the prohibiting grazing policy on desertification restoration, Yanchi County was selected as a case study to conduct an ecoeconomy benefit evaluation of prohibiting grazing policy. The analytical hierarchy process method (AHP) was used to build models. Both natural factors and human factors which importantly related to desertification process had been considered in the index system of the AHP method. The results showed that after the implementation of prohibiting grazing policy, the comprehensive benefit, including the ecological, economic and the social benefit, of desertification restoration was significantly higher than that of continuous grazing situation. The prohibiting grazing policy basically realized the expected effects, however it caused with many problems. How to manage the grassland after prohibiting grazing is worth further studying.
In order to determine whether Salvia roborowskii had the potentiality of biodiesel production, contents of fatty oils, fatty oil physical chemical properties and fatty acid composition in the seeds collected from Hongyuan Country were measured by the methods of Soxhlet extraction and GCMS. The results showed that fatty oil contents of seeds was 43.36%; oil iodine value and saponification value were 93.31 g·100 g-1 and 190.58 mg·g-1, respectively. Linoleic acid and oleic acid were the major fatty acids with the contents of 49.95% and 37.52%. Through calculation, the cetane number and cold filter plugging point of the relevant biodiesel were 53.94 and -4.65 ℃. Compared with the major specifications of biodiesel standards of China, S.roborowskii had the potential to be the Chinese nonfood plant resources for biodiesel production.
Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis from Pennisetum sinese. The effect of the sulfuric acid concentration, reaction temperature and reaction time on the separation process and the yield of cellulose were analysed. The optimized parameters were achieved by process optimization experiments. The morphological, spectroscopic, electrochemical and thermal properties of NCC were investigated by a transmission electron microscope (TEM), a Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), a Zetasizer and a Xray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that with the sulfuric acid concentration of 60%, reaction temperature of 60 ℃ and the reaction time of 150 min, the yield of NCC arrived 75.4%. NCC was rodlike with the diameter of 20 nm, the length of 100-200 nm. The XRD spectra showed that the crystallinity of NCC was higher than Pennisetum sinese Roxb fiber. Compared with Pennisetum sinese Roxb fiber, the Zeta potential of NCC was higher, which implied that NCC had a better stability.
During the antiJapan War, the dairy industry in ShanGanNing border area experienced a difficult development process. The GuangHua farm, representative of the dairy industry research and production agencies, energetically developed dairy cattle breeding, feeding and management, epidemic prevention and other aspects of scientific research work. On the other hand, it started to produce milk products such as cheese, butter, yogurt and Naipin and became the border dairy technology diffusion source. The local soldiers and civilians demanded a large number of cow and goat's milk, which objectively promoted spread and radiation of the dairy industry technology. Since the constraint of the economic conditions, dietary habits and market circulation, the border dairy technology diffusion showed a more complicated situation.
Grassland Ecology is a basic course for the Grassland Professional in Inner Mongolia University of Agriculture for Nationalities. The traditional teaching methods have been unable to keep up with the professional development process. In this study, aimed at the shortage of actual teaching, the author integrated teachers, adjusted the teaching contents, improved the teaching methods and measures and strengthened experiments and practice teaching. Through these measures, the teaching effect of the curriculum has been significantly improved and the students’ comprehensive abilities of analyzing and solving ecological problems are strengthened.