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The Yellow River Source Region is China’s important ecological barrier, and variation of alpine grassland ecosystem in this region with the climatic environment factors changing was worth to pay more attention. In this research, we used meteorological observation data and remote sensing normalized vegetation index (NDVI) to study the variation process of alpine grassland ecological system with the hydrothermal changing gradient in the source region of Yellow River The results showed that, during the past 12 years, the average of grassland NDVI was 0.557 8. The highest NDVI were in Jiuzhi and Gande County, followed by Dari and Maqin County. The lowest NDVI were in Maduo, Chengduo and Qumalai County. Alpine grassland NDVI was lower in north of Zhaling and Eling Lake than in other regions. During the last 12 years, change rate of the grassland NDVI was 0.002 4·a-1, and the coefficient of variation is 0.076 7, which showed litter change of NDVI. Climatic environment factors of the source region of Yellow River changed with gradient from northwest to southeast and formed hydrothermal gradient, which led to the grassland gradient change of NDVI, NDVI change rate and NDVI coefficient of variation. With the annual average temperature rose, NDVI increased significantly, and NDVI change rate and variation coefficient decreased significantly. With the annual precipitation and moisture index rose, NDVI increased significantly, while NDVI change rate and variation coefficient decreased significantly. With the elevation rose, NDVI decreased significantly, while NDVI change rate and variation coefficient increased significantly.
The influence of grazing on soil organic carbon content, soil readily oxidizable carbon and its distribution ratio, soil particulate component ratio, soil light fraction component ratio in Zhaosu meadow steppe were studied in grazing experiment plot with short period. The result showed that there was no significant effects of short-period grazing on soil organic carbon content although which decreased compared with CK at 0-10 cm soil layer (P0.05). The readily oxidizable carbon distribution ratio and particulate component ratio of 0-10 cm soil layer increased after grazing. There was no significant effects of different grazing intensity on soil organic carbon, readily oxidizable carbon and light fraction component ratio (P0.05). However, there were great fluctuations on the readily oxidizable carbon distribution ratio and particulate component ratio. Soil readily oxidizable carbon, readily oxidizable carbon distribution ratio, soil particulate component ratio of 10-20 cm soil layer, especially readily oxidizable carbon distribution ratio, could be used as sensitive indicators of soil organic carbon dynamics in the study region.
Plant diversity, productivity, soil physical and chemical properties were examined using the different distance quadrats along tourism activities gradients in upland meadow of Kanas Scenic Area. The relationships among soil physical and chemical properties, diversity indexes and biomass of species, functional group and community were analyzed by partial correlation and curve estimation analysis. The results showed that the number of genera and species significantly decreased if close to tourist attractions. And the androphile gradually became dominant species of upland meadow, but the original dominant species gradually became companion species or disappeared. The development of perennial sedges, legumes and rhizome grasses were restrained and annuals and biennials developed rapidly with increasing tourism activities. And the diversity indexes and biomass of species, functional group and community gradually decreased. The changes of community composition and productivity resulted in the simplicity of community structure and community function. The effect of tourism activities may be reduced with the increasing of plant diversity scale. In the 0-30 cm layers of soils containing high contents of soil water and organic matter, medium levels of soil alkali hydrolyzable nitrogen and available phosphorus, with decreases in soil bulk density, soil compaction and available potassium, the plant diversity and productivity of the three scales all increased. If the changes of soil properties would be converse, the development of original dominant species and functional groups was restrained and annuals and biennials developed rapidly while community biomass and quality decreased. Therefore, the factors of tourism and soil properties all affected distribution pattern of plant diversity and levels of productivity.
Taking Xiaoxing’anling as the research object, the soil microbial diversity of herb layer in 3 types of Broad-leaved Korean Pine Forests was studied by using BIOLOG method. The results showed that, the trend of the Average well color development (AWCD) value was different in different season, and the order was as following: Quercus mongolica Pine ForestTilia amurensis Rupr Pine ForestBetula platyphylla Suk Pine Forest in spring; Q.mongolica Pine ForestT.amurensis Rupr Pine ForestB.platyphylla Suk Pine Forest in summer; T.amurensis Rupr Pine ForestQ.mongolica Pine ForestB.platyphylla Suk Pine Forest in autumn; T.amurensis Rupr Pine ForestQ.mongolica Pine ForestB.platyphylla Suk Pine Forest in winter. Microbial diversity indexes varied with soil depths: species richness index (SW), species dominance index(SP) and species evenness index(McIntosh) of soil microbial diversity in Q.mongolica Pine Forest were highest, and significantly higher than that of B.platyphylla Suk Pine Forest. The conclusion can be like that, microbial diversity of herb layer in Primary Broad-leaved Korean Pine Forests is richer than that in Larch Pure Forest.
In this research, three main pesticides(Hymexazol, thiophanatemethyl and Gaucho+Rui Miaoqing) were tested to looking for better agricultural chemicals for Astragalas mongholicus root tot diseases. The results showed that the most effective pesticide is Gaucho+Rui Miaoqing(22 512+24 012 g·ha-1) which controlling effect is 32.21%. and the less effective pesticide is thiophanatemethyl (502.5 g·ha-1) and the least effective pesticide is Hymexazol(700.5 g·ha-1) which controlling effect is -0.07%. All of these three different pesticide have some effect on controlling A.mongholicus root tot diseases although the effects are not obvious.
A study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of entophytic diazotrophs inoculation. Three representative types of endophytic diazotrophs with the highest, moderate and the lowest nitrogenase activity were selected out from endophytic diazotrophic bacteria isolated from wild Cynodon dactylon. T-419 hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon×Cynodon transvaalensis) were inoculated with these three representative bacteria using three inoculation methods (microbial soaking, microbial soaking+irrigating bacteria 6 times and microbial soaking+irrigating bactera 12 times). After inoculation, the plants were planted in pots with urea and no urea as control to examine the efficiency of inoculation methods and the response of T-419 hybrid bermudagrass. The results indicated that Bm bacteria liquid with moderate nitrogenase activity had more influence on nitrogenase activity of aboveground parts of T-419 hybrid bermudagrass compared with the other inoculated bacteria and the control. The inoculation method of microbial soaking is most effective method compare with the other two which induced higher nitrogenase activity of aboveground parts of T-419 hybrid bermudagrass. It was concluded that microbial soaking is optimal for inoculation of endophytic diazotrophs with hybrid bermudagrass. However, the effects of inoculation methods on density of endogenous azotobacter nitrogenase were not significant. Urea treatment has no significant influence on endogenous azotobacter nitrogenase activity and density of bacteria of aboveground parts of T-419 hybrid bermudagrass.
There are abundant resources of Trifolium repens which have stronger stress tolerance in Xinjiang Province. The present study analyzed various morphological and turf indices including branch number, leaf characteristics and flower number of T.repens to evaluate their lawn characters. The results indicate that T.repens have lawn characters such as strong stress tolerance, early blooming, bright-colored flowers, persistence of florescence and green period and ornamentals. The germplasm of T.repens from HuTuBi performed as a better ornamental grass with turning green early, lower grass layer (17.1~21.3 cm), longer flowering period (150~154 d) and longer green period (221~225 d). The germplasm of T.repens from Heaven Pool(E) and ChangJi(F) had higher grass layer (24.3 and 26.1 cm, respectively) which are suitable for forage. And the germplasm of T. repens from TeKeSi (H) performed as abetter nectar plant with great intensity leaf and flowers (0.335 and 0.216 cm2, respectively).
Tall fescue is a cool-season perennial grass belonging to the family Gramineae, Genus Festuca. Tall fescue is shade and heat tolerant, wear resistance, stays green all year when properly maintained and adaptd to a wide range of soil types which have been widely grown in China recently. In this paper, research progress on tall fescue including genetic transformation and engineer and stress physiology was reviewed. The existing problems and key areas for further study were suggested.
The present study describes callus induction of the plant ‘ABBY’ Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) using mature seeds as explants and the influence of different combinations of hormone: 2,4-D ichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-Benzylamin (6-BA) with Murashige Skoog Basal Medium (MS) as the basic medium on callus initiation and subsequent growth. The results showed that the hormone combination: MS+1.0 mg·L-12,4-D+0.2 mg·L-16-BA has highest callus induction rate(54.74%). The hormone combination MS+1.0 mg·L-12,4-D+0.4 mg·L-16-BA has the best quality callus although the callus induction rate is lower(45.81%). The hormone combination: MS+3.0 mg·L-16-BA+0.2 mg·L-1NAA was suggested to be the best differentiation medium with a callus differentiation rate at 100% after 2~3 generations. The differentiation rate was affected by callus condition and incubation time.
A study was conducted to understand embryo structure of Poa pratensis with paraffin section. The effects of Sarranine-Fast green and Ehrlich’s hematoxylin-eosin double stains with different dyeing time were analyses to improve the quality of paraffin section. This study selected better preparation procedure is as following: 95% eosin alcohol was selected instead of 95% alcohol for dehydration; multisegment dimethybrnzene was used instead of ethyl alcohol for transparent; rising temperature along with more wax gradually for wax dipping; slices were flatted and taken out in 40 ℃ warm water bath and other improvements during procedure. Based on these improvements, better quality paraffin sections were achieved with dyeing with Ehrlich’s hematoxylin-eosin double stains for 30 min and returning blue with water for 30 min.
Bud germination, proliferation and the plantlets were induced from tuber of Corydalis decumbens using tissue culture based on different concentrations of hormones, tuber cutting parts and different temperatures. The results showed that the best induced temperature was 16 ℃ for the sprouting of tubers, bud proliferation and growth of the tuber plantlets. The best medium for tuber sprouting was 1/2MS+2.5 mg·L-16-BA+0.1 mg·L-1NAA+0.5 mg·L-1GA3+3% sucrose+0.75% agar; the optimal medium for bud proliferation was 1/2MS+3.5 mg·L-16-BA+0.1 mg·L-1NAA+ 0.5 mg·L-1GA3+3% sucrose+0.75% agar. The tube with skin had good results regarding bud propagation, in which the average number of induced shoots was 3.71. The multiple sprounts growed vigorously and formed plantlet easily. The 1/2MS basic medium without any hormone was the optimal medium for plantlet proliferation.
To realize the use of excellent germplasm resource and lay the foundation of alfalfa genetic improvement. This study took MS solid medium as basic medium and cotyledons and hypocotyls of Medicago sativa subsp. varia as explants to discuss the effects of different phytohormone types and combinations on callus induction and differentiation. The results showed that hypocotyls was more suitable to induce callus than cotyledons as the explant of Russian variegated alfalfa and the best induced medium with hypocotyls as the explant was MS+1.0 mg·L-1 2,4-D +0.5mg·L-1 6-BA+0.5 mg·L-1 KT; The best induced medium with cotyledon as the explant was MS+1.0 mg·L-1 2,4-D+1.0 mg·L-1 6-BA+1.0 mg·L-1 NAA. The best differentiation medium was 0.5 mg·L-1 KT +0.3 mg·L-1 NAA, and differentiantion ratios of hypocotyls and cotyledons were 83.3% and 91.1%, respectively. The optimal seedling formation medium was 1/2MS+1.0 mg·L-1 IBA, and the ratio was 96.7%.
A study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of the biomass and N、P、K within wild Lilium distichum. The results suggested that biomass distributions of L.distichum were different in different growth stages. The ratio of biomass was higher in nutrient organs than in reproductive organs, the ratio of biomass in leaves decreased gradually and the ratio of biomass in reproductive organs increased gradually. The ratio of biomass in reproductive organs had negative correlation with that in leaves. The ratios of N、P、K content in reproductive organs were higher than in nutrient organs. There was no difference between the distributions of P in nutrient organs.
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different sodium salt stress on seed germination of sweetclover (Melilotus albus). Different sodium salts (NaCl, Na2SO4, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3) with different concentrations (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, 1.0%, 1.2%, 1.4%, 1.6% and 1.8%) were applied as salt stress. Germination energy, germination percentage, germination index, vigor index, salt resistance index and radicle length were measured during sweetclover seed germination on filter papers. All of these different sodium salts stress, germination energy, germination percentage, germination index, vigor index, salt resistance index and radicle length decreased with the increasing of salt concentration, which indicated that the inhibition of salt tolerance to germination and growth. However, lower concentration of NaCl and Na2SO4 can promote seed germination. The resistance to different salt of sweetclover was different as follow: Na2SO4NaClNaHCO3Na2CO3.
In order to study the substitution indexes of carbon isotope discrimination for alfalfa, ten varieties of alfalfa materials were planted under three water conditions, including severe drought stress (with 0 mm irrigation), moderate drought stress (with 302 mm irrigation) and well watered (with 562 mm irrigation), in arid area of central Ningxia. Relationships betweer Δ13C(carbon isotope discrimination) and ash content, specific leaf dry weight, leaf relative water content, photosynthetic gas exchange parameters in leaf and whole plant were studied at the beginning of flowering stage and flowering stage. The results showed that there was significant effect of water treatment on leaf and whole plant Δ13C, leaf ash content, specific leaf dry weight and photosynthetic gas exchange parameters. Specific leaf dry weight and whole plant Δ13C were negatively correlated under severe drought stress. Leaf relative water content was positively related with whole plant Δ13C under severe drought stress and moderate drought stress. Negative correlation between ash content and whole plant Δ13C was observed under severe drought stress and moderate drought stress.It was accordingly concluded that specific leaf dry weight, leaf relative water content and whole plant ash content might be considered as the substitution indexes of carbon isotope discrimination to predict transpiration efficiency of alfalfa under water limited condition in arid area of Ningxia.
In order to study physiological response and evaluate heat tolerance of Lotus corniculatus under high temperature stress, leaf relative electrolyte leakage, contents of malondialdehyde(MDA), proline(Pro) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) were analyzed using 8 germplasms of L.corniculatus under different temperature treatments (35 ℃,45 ℃, and with 22 ℃ as control). The heat tolerance of 8 germplasms was comprehensively evaluated by principal components analysis and fuzzy subordinate function based on the tested 6 indices. The leaf relative electrolyte leakage, MDA content, proline content, activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) increased with the temperature increasing except germplasm B01 which did not have higher POD activity at higher temperature. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was higher at moderate temperature (35 ℃) compared with the other two temperature treatments. Principal component analysis was applied to analyze the total effects of these six tested indices which showed that the first and second compont of PCA contributed to 85.41%. Based on the comprehensive evaluation value (D), the heat tolerance of these eight L.corniculatus germplasms was estimated as B08＞B04＞B05＞B18＞B03＞B12＞B02＞B01.
The composition of fatty acids in the mixed pasture grasses of Ningxia pond was determined using gas chromatography. In the mixed pasture, there were 30~34 fatty acids in May and there were 29~34 fatty acids in October. The percentage of saturated fatty acids, single unsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in total fatty acids in the mixed pasture in May was 26.80%~42.87%, 15.56%~24.54% and 36.71%~56.95%, respectively. Short chain fatty acids and satiric acid which influence local lamb meat quality only accounted for 0.46%~0.79% and 2.26%~7.58%, respectively. The percentage of saturated fatty acids, single unsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in total fatty acids in the mixed pasture in October was 22.51%~33.46%, 13.65%~27.15% and 46.70%~60.91%, respectively. The research indicated that there are more polyunsaturated fatty acids and less short chain fatty acid and satiric acid in the mixed pasture.
Nitrogen requirements, nitrogen transfer, nitrogen use efficiency, nitrogen flux and nitrogen balance of forage corn-Lolium multiflorum planting system (CIS) were analyzed in the representative area of the Chengdu plain. The results showed that dry mass and nitrogen accumulation of forage corn without nitrogen fertilizer were 26 756.82 kg·ha-1 and 317.39 kg·ha-1, respectively, which have no significant difference with fertilizer nitrogen treatment. Nitrogen fertilizer improved the content of nitrogen in soil which affected the biomass of aboveground and root and nitrogen accumulation at different stages of growth period. However, nitrogen fertilizer did not affect the dry mass and nitrogen accumulation at harvest. Soil nitrogen mineralization amount (283.34 kg·ha-1) during growth period and soil mineral nitrogen before planting (139.58 kg·ha-1) in 0-50 cm soil layer area are major nitrogen source of forage corn and the accumulated nitrogen efficient (including aboveground and root) account for 86.53% and 42.50%, respectively. With nitrogen application level (246.30 kg·ha-1), nitrogen absorption efficiency, utilization rate and apparent efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer are 0.49 kg·kg-1, 5.95% and 5.45%, respectively. Soil nitrogen residue and other loss were the main way of nitrogen transfer which accounted for 41.60% and 51.44% of total fertilizer nitrogen. Nitrogen surface runoff, leaching loss and other loss with fertilizer were 13.17 times, 16.67% and 13.17 times of the conditions without fertilizer respectively.
The relationship between grass growth and meteorological conditions were comprehensively studied with the observed data related to grass growth and meteorological conditions during seven continual growing seasons from 2005 to 2011 in Chifeng City. The results showed that the meteorological conditions with Arhorchin Banner, Hexigten Banneran and Bahrain Right Banner were significantly different. For these three ecological experiment stations, the herbages turned green earlier and withered later in Arhorchin Banner than in Hexigten Banner and Bahrain Right Banner. Whereas, the highest hay yield were achieved in Hexigten Banner (984 kg·ha-1) which produced significantly more than Bahrain Right Banner (880 kg·ha-1) and Arhorchin Banner(725 kg·ha-1). For four meteorological factors, annual precipitation significantly correlated with hay yield, and the simple correlation coeffocients were 0.830, 0.727, 0.613, respectively in these three stations, which implied annual precipitation was the most important factor in determining hay yield. The direct path coefficients were 0.872, 0.753, 0.788 respectively. Therefore, the main meteorological factors of influence the forage growth and yield in this area were shortage of precipitation.
Alpine steppe is the major vegetation community around Qinghai Lake Region. It is regarded as an important ecological barrier of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and a rich site forage base for yak and sheep production. However, the alpine steppe vegetation degraded by overstocking. Therefore, it’s important to study the effects of grazing on community of alpine steppe around Qinghai Lake Region. In this study, the vegetation under different grazing intensity were investigated, based on grazing trial for 3 years in alpine steppe around Qinghai Lake Region. Levins niche breadth and Pianka niche overlap index were used to calculate niche characteristics of major plant populations under different grazing gradients to explain the mechanism of grazing succession of community. Our results showed that dominant species of community had changed after grazing 3 years. The dominance of plants with good palatability (Stipa purpurea, Poa sp., Medicago ruthenica, etc.) decreased and the dominance of plants with grazing resistance or bad palatability (Kobresia humilis, Thermopsis lanceolata, etc.) increased with the increase of grazing intensity. S.purpurea had the widest niche breadth, and after then was Thermopsis lanceolata, with the values being 0.994 and 0.959, respectively. Potentilla multifida and Astragalus polycladus had wider niche breadth because of its stronger environmental adaptation ability. The niche breadths of Elymus nutans and K.cristata under different grazing gradients were narrow, indicating that grazing restricted the growth of high grasses. Species with wider niche breadth had higher niche overlap with other species. The narrower niche overlap could be seen as the result of interspecific differentiation on resource utilization. The major plant populations had niche differentiation result from grazing. With increasing grazing intensity, community with S.purpurea and Poa sp. being the dominant populations may be in degradation direction on community with K.humilis, K.pygmaea and T.lanceolata being the dominant populations, indicating that habitat of community had obviously degraded. Therefore, it’s important to control grazing intensity of rangeland.
The grazing disturbance is one of the main influence factors on grassland community structure. The effects of different grazing intensities on the Seriphidum transiliense community structure were studied in the present research. The community structures of S.transiliense were analyzed within four grazing intensities, including zero grazing (CK), light grazing (LG), medium grazing (MG) and high grazing (HG) in Ashili Village, Changji City. The results showed that species number of community increased and the import value (IV) decreased with the grazing intensities increasing. α diversity index presented that the Shannon-Wiener index (H) and the Simpson index (D) was higher with medium grazing (MG) which showed the trend at MG＞HG＞LG＞CK. Both evennss index (J) and richness index (R) of community species showed the trend with HG＞MG＞LG＞CK. All of these results supported the intermediate disturbance hypothesis and indicated that grazing have important effects on grassland vegetation structure. It is concluded that moderate grazing appears to be suitable for improvement of grassland regulation structure and species diversity.
A study was conducted to investigate the influence of grazing on representative plant Seriphidiumt ransiliense in Xinjiang desert grassland. The number of components of S.transiliense and other characteristics such as morphology, biomass and their distribution pattern under grazing condition were analyzed. The results showed that individual plant height, bundle of diameter and the ground biomass of S.transiliense decreased under grazing condition compared with the enclosed condition. The distribution ration of stem biomass increased and the distribution ration of leaf and flower (seeds) biomass decreased under grazing condition. The ratio of stem biomass was higher, which induced to lower ratio of flower seeds biomass. The seed setting rate, seed rate per plant, spike length, number of florets of S.transiliense decreased with condition.
With the methods of space series substituting time series and of contrastive analysis, the niches of different degeneration gradients on desert Seriphidium transiliense degradation grassland were studied. The importance value, Levins niche breadth, Pianka niche overlapping indexes and niche similarity ratio were analyzed. With different degeneration gradients, the ecological niche was different in different populations. The niche width of constructive species of S.transiliense and the dominant species Petrosimonia sibirica decreased and that of the majority of remaining population was gradually increasing during the progress of the retrogressive succession. In different degradation stages, the niche breadth of P.sibirica is greater than the other species and there is large niche overlap between P.sibirica species and Trigonella arcuata species; Tulipa iliensis and T.arcuata have high niche similarity. During the progress of the retrogressive succession, the similarity ratio of P.sibirica and T.arcuata have higher niche breadth increased at the early stage and then reduce afterwards.
The semen of six 2-year-old liaoning cashmere bucks were collected and mixed to gain some 0.25 mL straw frozen semen. Three thawing methods (37 ℃ 12 s, 39 ℃ 8 s, 70 ℃ 4 s) were respectively applied to thaw the frozen semen as mentioned above. Sperm vitality, sperm survival time, acrosome intact rate, deformity rate, enzymes in seminal plasma of post-thawed semen and the heating curve were analyzed to study the effects of the thawing methods on sperm quality of straw frozen semen in cashmere goats. The results show that, sperm vitality of the frozen semen after thawing for 4 s under 70 ℃ was significantly higher than that of 12 s under 37 ℃ (P0.05), and it was higher than that of 39 ℃ 8 s which was not significantly (P0.05); There were no significant difference between the survival time of the thawed sperm among three thawing methods (P0.05); the intact rate of sperm acrosome thawed with 70 ℃ for 4 s was significantly higher than that of the other two thawing methods (P0.05), while the sperm deformity rate thawed with 70 ℃ for 4 s was significantly lower than the other two thawing methods of (P0.05); the GOT activity thawed with 70 ℃ 4 s was significantly lower than that of the other two thawing methods (P0.05), and the LDH activity and HYD content thawed with 70 ℃ 4 s was significantly lower than that of 37 ℃ 12 s (P0.05); the semen thawed with 70 ℃ 4 s went through the danger zones at the highest velocity. Therefore, the thawing method of at 70 ℃ for 4 s is suitable for thawing straw frozen semen of cashmere goats.
The types and dominant species of grasshoppers and natural enemies were investigated in the typical grassland of Yanchi in Ningxia with the systematic monitoring from 2010 to 2012. The relationship between grasshoppers and natural enemies was studied with canonical correlation analysis and the predatory function of Pterostichus gebleri to Chorthippus albonemus adults, and the dominant species of grasshopper, was tested in laboratory. The results showed that P.gebleri and Pseudotaphoxenus mongolicus, grasshoppers’ dominant natural enemies, had very important effects on the fluctuation of locusts sub-communities.P.gebleri was able to control the mixed populations of grassland locusts to a certain degree. The disc equation Holling-Ⅱ, Na=1.249 5N/(1+0.119 0N), was found to describe the functional response of P.gebleri to Chorthippus albonemus. The amount of predation increased with increasing prey C.albonemus density, with daily maximum capacity of 10 preys. Pterostichus gebleri can be used as important natural enemy in the biological control of grasshoppers.
Grazing system is one of important production relations in the Gannan Tibetan regions, and determines the rational degree of grassland use. The grazing system and its timeliness in the Gannan Tibetan regions was discussed in this study by combining documents from China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CKIN) and questionnaires from herders. This study showed that the grazing system in Tibetan region of China went through three stages, including nomadic system of feudal serfdom, nomadic system of socialism and household contract system of socialism, and their replacement was regulated by responding of grazing system to production relations. The questionnaires results showed that over 50% of herders were dissatisfactory with current grazing system due to low income, in which 50% of herders was in the state of poverty. Over 71% of herders thought that the current grazing system should be improved to increase their income and life condition, in which over 50% of herders selected the classification management for grazing grassland as future pattern of grazing system.
Agricultural development in the Yangtze River Basin has experienced four stages: extensive cultivation stage, plain area developed stage by the immigration from the Yellow River Basin, mountain and hilly area developed stage by the interior migration in the Yangtze River Basin and the log stage under the huge population pressure. Along with the agricultural development, various patterns of land utilization have been formed, including growing cereals and economic crops, improving the ways for cultivation and developing ecological agriculture which played a positive role in relieving the problems caused by the conflict between excess increasing in human population and the shortage of cultivated land and food supply. The developmental tendency of land utilization patterns in the Yangtze River Basin shows that optimizing agricultural structure and adjusting agricultural developing model will be the major way to realize the agricultural sustainable development. Nowadays, the improving ways in land utilization in the Yangtze River Basin has provided an important experience for the stagnated national agricultural development.
The development of grass industry is an important way for balancing ecological, economic, and social functions of grassland. This study analyzed the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of grass industry in Yanchi County using SWOT method. From the morphological matrix of SWOT, the goals and directions of grass industry development in Yanchi County were decided as reverse strategy of using the opportunity to overcome the weaknesses (WO). This WO strategy should be promoted with a series of growth strategy to establish grass industry area in Yanchi County.
In this paper, gray forecast model (GM) was used to predict net income of grassland in Axi Township, Ruoergai County. The actual economic loss of herdsman were estimated based on the difference between pure profit prediction and actual net income. According to welfare economics Pareto optimal, the ecological compensation standard of herdsmen was determined without reduction of herdsman income level. The results showed that the level of grey prediction model (GM ) is first which is very precise in short period. The prediction of 2012 Axi Township grassland net income was 362.89 CNY·ha-1 and the actual net income is -23.5 CNY·ha-1. During grassland ecological construction process, the compensation standard was estimated at 386.39 CNY·ha-1.
Cooperative land ownership is a kind of special form of ownership in China. This paper analyzed the formation and the main defects of this system in China and suggested the future reform direction based on China’s basic national conditions after different strategies were discussed. In order to improve the perfect rural collective land ownership system in China, firstly, farmers should be determined as the main body of the rural cooperative land ownership. Secondly, the ownership of farmers and functions of cooperative land ownership should be legally protected. The reform of this ownership should gradually progress to achieve perfect situation for farmers in China.
Phytosterol, as a bioactive substance, reduced blood cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease except with other physiological functions such as growth regulation, promotion of protein synthesis, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, immune regulation and hormone-like effects. Phytosterol did not show any toxicity to human and animals,and it is a new functional feed additive and has been approved by the Ministry of Agriculture of China. This article generally reviewed the aspects of the physiological function of phytosterol like the regulation of cholesterol metabolism, antioxidation, hormone-like effects and application on animal production like hypolipidemic and improving the dairy animals’ milk composition. The further research in animal feed additive was suggesed.
Application of geographic information system(GIS)instead of manual handing achieves mass geospatial information storage and processing, can help complete the inquiry and retrieval of spatial information and attribute information quickly and easily. In space information, it was necessary to analyze the figure spot area of grassland with pests and rodents for graphics data processing the area. It was useful to draw the region of rodents and pests of all banners and districts, and calculate the area on figure in order to monitor grassland pests and rodents. Area distribution of pests and rodents has been drawn using software in the grassland station of Erdos City since 2009. The original frame of axes were converted into degree format based on the data collected from banners and districts. The distribution map on pests and rodents of Erdos was achieved after topology processing of data imported in layer, however, the precision of the control point was very lower which resulted in that the calculating area was not in accordance with actual reported area. The error of pest damage area was as high as 37% and the error of serious damage area was 6%. The error of rodents hazard area and serious damage area were 48% and 41%, respectively. Banners of calculating area overpassed real area included Etuoke Banner, Wushen Banner, Ejin Horo Banner, and Dongsheng District after revising control points out of boundary, repeating calculation and comparing the modifying area. The range out of mainly concentrated area and the overlap of two figures area resulted in repeated calculation which deviated from the measured area consequently. The estatimated area closed to the real measured area after modification by figure spot partition calculation which reduces the generation of error area.