Display Mode： |
This experiment was conducted to study the growth response and salinity tolerance difference of 13 warm season turfgrasses, belonging to 7 genera and 11 species, to saline water irrigation (20 gL-1 NaCl) combined with soil culture. The results showed that leaf firing percentage was increased and aboveground growth (including total shoot clipping weight, dry crown weight and total aboveground weight) was significantly reduced in all turfgrasses under salinity stress except dry crown weight of Z080 zoysiagrass（Zoysia japonica）. Rhizome growth was promoted or unaffected by salinity stress in most turfgrasses except very saltsensitive Pan1 bahiagrass（Paspalum notatum）. Root growth response was more diverse among turfgrasses. Roots had died in some very saltsensitive turfgrasses [(Pan1 bahiagrass, Tifbliar and E126 centipedegrass（Eremochloa ophiuroides）]. Root weight was decreased in some less salttolerance turfgrasses [(P011 knotgrass （P.distichum）and H001 limpograss（Hemarthria sibirica）], and promoted or unaffected in other turfgrasses with high or intermediate tolerance. The significant difference of same index among turfgrasses indicated that there were significant salinity tolerance differences in these turfgrasses. Salinity tolerance decreased in the following order according to the method of subordinate function: Adalayd seashore paspalum （P.vaginatum）Diamond manilagrass （Z.matrellaZ080 Japanese zoysiagrassS004 St.Augustinegrass （Stenotaphrum secundatum）Nanjing common bermudagrass （Cynodon dactylon）Lanyin 3 Japanese zoysiagrassTifway Hybrid bermudagrass （C.transvaalensisC.dactylon）P011 knotgrassB003 buffalo grass （Buchloe dactyloides）H001 limpograssPan1 bahiagrassTifbliar centipedegrassE126 centipedegrass. Relative salinity tolerance in the soil culture experiment was basically coincident with that in the hydroponic culture experiment.
It is the main way of city landscape greening that landscape greenery space should be mainly composed of native plants. In order to provide theoretical reference for native herbaceous ground cover plant application in Beijing urban area, this study was carried out in Beijing Olympic Forest Park, which is wellknown for native plants application. By using quadrat method, plant species, frequency and growth vigor of native herbaceous ground cover plants were investigated in the park. Results show that there are 44 species of native herbaceous ground cover plants in the whole park (including the north park and the south park), which belong to 43 genera and 22 families. Besides, native herbaceous ground cover plant species in the north park is more than that in the south park. Frequency of plants belonging to Asteraceae, Leguminosae and Cruciferae is higher than that of other families. Three species, Ixeris sonchifolia, Melilotus suaveolens and Orychophragmus violaceus, are used most widely in the park. A suggestion is given that Orychophragmus violaceus, Ixeris sonchifolia, Taraxacum officnala, Viola yedoensis, Potentillae chinensis, Medicago sativa, Melilotus suaveolens and Vicia sativa should be widely applied in Beijing landscapes.
In order to find an uniform solution for evaluating the risk of turf diseases, pest risk analysis system to turf disease was introduced and a model for analyzing the risk level of the pest was developed. Based on the rule of standards for pest measurements (ISPM), fuzzy mathematics theory and characteristics of the turf grass ecosystem, we discussed the criterion of evaluation and calculation measures of the model on the method of AHP and Delphi. In this study, an assessment model, including seventeen evaluation indexes, was established. The estimative equation was R=5P1P2P3P4P5. Using this model, five kinds of turfgrass diseases were evaluated. The results showed that the high risk level with the value from 0.6 to 0.8 involved three kinds of diseases, such as Rhizoctonia solani，Phythium ultimum and Fusarium spp. The middle risk level with the value from 0.4 to 0.6 involved two kinds of diseases， Puccinia spp. and Drechslera spp. In factual tasks， we should set up strategies of the risk management and make concrete analysis for concrete problems according to different disease risk levels.
Golf industry in Shandong Province has been developed rapidly in recent few years. However, after a survey of its present situation, some problems have been found in the industry, such as simple industrial structure, nonstandard land use, serious environmental pollution and lack of public awareness, etc. Based on the survey some suggestions are proposed to give a theoretical support for the sound and sustainable development of golf industry in Shandong, including optimizing the industrial structure and business modes, improving the plan and management of land use, strengthening the environmental protection, efficient using water resource, and advancing the training of professionals and increasing wide recognition of golf industry in public.
A static boxesgreenhouse gas analyzer was used to measure the seasonal dynamics of greenhouse gas emission in alpine meadow where Tibetan sheep were grazed. The effects of sheep dung on greenhouse gas emission were also compared. The results showed that herding alpine meadow was the sink of CH4. Under light grazing condition the highest daily absorption of CH4 in alpine meadow was in the turning green season and the lowest was in the withered and yellow season. Meanwhile, moderate grazing could enhance the ability of absorbing CH4 of alpine meadow. On the other hand, herding alpine meadow was the source of CO2. The highest daily emission of CO2 in alpine meadow was in the growing season and the lowest was in the withered and yellow season. Heavy grazing could promote the emission of CO2 in alpine meadow. Herding did not change the function of alpine meadow as CH4 sink/ CO2 source. Analyses showed that the sheep dung could inhibit the trend of greenhouse gas emissions in alpine meadow and season might have greater influence on greenhouse gas emissions than herding. Our results may be important for improving the management of carbon balance in alpine meadow.
To investigate molecular mechanism of K+/Na+ slective transport in Pucciinellia tenuiflora，degenerate primers were designed based on the conserved sequences of the outwardrectifying potassium channel from other plants． Total RNA was extracted from the roots of P.tenuiflora. SKOR gene fragment was obtained by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR)，which could provide basis for cloning fulllength SKOR gene，expression regulation and RNAi． The sequencing result showed that the SKOR gene fragment from P.tenuiflora contained about 555 bp，encoding 185 amino acids． Homology comparison with SKOR gene sequences of other higher plants showed that it shared over 66% nucleotide sequence homology and 55% amino acid sequence homology．
Selenium is an essential micronutrient for normal functions of alfalfa （Medicago sativa）. The scarcity of selenium would depress growth of alfalfa and decrease nutritional values of alfalfa hay, which is one of the key problems of low quantity and quality of alfalfa hay in China. Development of transgenic plants with the seleniumtolerant genes is a potential pathway to improve selenium level in alfalfa. The gene smt1 cloned from Astragalus bisulcatus was introduced into alfalfa Zhongmu No. 1 plants mediated by agrobacterium. 32 transgenic plants were obtained after the screening of 3 mgL-1 Hygromycin. 18 out of 32 were amplified bands consistent with smt1 gene size by PCR and 2 were positive in the gene expression identified by RTPCR. Results indicated that the smt1 gene had been transformed successfully and expressed normally in alfalfa.
In this paper, Potentilla sericea leaves were chosen as testing materials to research their anatomical structures and physiological indexes under drought stress, through controlling the moisture of soil in pots. The results showed that thicknesses of leaves, upper and lower epidermis, palisade tissue and spongy parenchyma gradually decreased with the increasing of drought stress gradient, while the ratio of palisade tissue to spongy parenchyma was higher than that of nonwater stress leaves. As the water stress prolonged, the content of chlorophyll was gradually decreased; contents of MDA and proline, and the activity of superoxide dismutase all first increased and then decreased. These results indicated that P.sericea under drought stress could be to adapt to arid environments by changingthe physiological functions and anatomical structures of leaves.
Seeds of Delphinium grandiflorum were treated by mixture solutions of four salts (NaCl, Na2SO4, NaHCO3 and Na2CO3) at different concentrations and two single salt of either NaCl or NaHCO3 to study effects of saline and alkali stress on seed germination of D.grandiflorum. Germination rate and germination index of the seeds, seedling biomass were also measured under saline and alkali treatments. The index of seed vigor was calculated according to the values measured before. The results showed that there was a beneficial for the accumulation of seedling biomass of D.grandiflorum at low concentrations of single NaCl threat. However, under mixture threats, the mixtures were detrimental to seed germination and seedling growth regardless their concentrations were high or low. Threat of the high concentration solution had a great influence on the seed vigor. When the concentration of the salt was up to 150 mmolL-1, the seed vigor was 0 under different treatments. There would be interaction between the salt threat and alkali threat, if both of them act on D.grandiflorum at the same time. They could affect the seed vigor together severely.
he effects of fast neutron irradiation on seed germination and seedling growth of Leymus chinensis, Bromus inermis and Elymus sibiricus were studied in this paper.The results showed that fast neutron irradiation had different effects on the three grasses in terms of seed germination and seedling growth. Fast neutron irradiation reduced the germination ability and restrained seedling growth of L.chinensis, and the higher dose irradiation of fast neutron, the lower germination rate, germination index and vigor index, also the less root length and shoot height. The germination rate of L.chinensis irradiated by fast neutron with dose of 3.541012cm-2 was 26.3%, which was only 40.65% of the control. Although lower dose of the fast neutron irradiation increased seed germination ability and promoted seedling growth of B.inermis, the higher dose was opposite. The higher dose of fast neutron irradiation within the range used in this experiment increased seed vigor and promoted seedling growth of E.sibiricus. The preliminary conclusion was that the lower dose irradiation (3.601011cm-2) was feasible for L.chinensis and B.inermis, contrarily the higher dose was feasible for E.sibiricus.
Effects of different concentrations of sodium molybdate on osmolytes and membrane stability of Pennisetum alopecuroides seedlings under low temperature stress were investigated in this study. Results of experiments indicated that sodium molybdate application in P.alopecuroides seedlings induced a dramatic increase in total chlorophyll, soluble protein, ascorbic acid, soluble sugar and free proline contents under low temperature stress. Sodium molybdate application also caused a significant decrease in malondialdehyde content and membrane permeability. The lowest effect concentration of sodium molybdate application was 0.5 mgL-1 to alleviate the low temperature stress. There was no significant difference in osmolytes and membrane stability of P.alopecuroides seedlings treated with sodium molybdate at the 0.5~5.0 mgL-1 concentration range. It could be speculated that sodium molybdate application enhanced cold resistance by increasing the osmolyte content and alleviating membrane damage in P.alopecuroides seedlings under low temperature stress.
Based on the records of flora of China and local floras, distribution and change of wild Zoysia spp. in 7 littoral provinces and Anhui province were investigated in the study. Furthermore, salinity tolerances of different accessions from various provinces were identified by using hydroponics methods. The results showed that Zoysia spp. resources could be founded in most distribution regions, but reduced or disappeared in some economic developed regions. The experiment proved that wild Zoysia spp. possessed a good salinity tolerance. All accessions could grow well under 200 molL-1 NaCl stress. The salttolerances of different accessions were ranged from 200 to 600 molL-1 NaCl, which proved that Zoysia spp. was good resourse for salttolerant plant breeding. However, the status of resource protection with regard to Zoysia spp. wis not optimistic in China. It is very urgent to be resolved. Based on our investigation, some protection strategies of Zoysia spp. resources in China were proposed: firstly, ex situ conservation; secondly, strengthening breeding and promoting usage of new varieties in Zoysia; thirdly, standardizing the seed production and sale pricedure; fourthly, reasonable exploitation of wild resources; and finally, making sustainable resource protection policies.
Impacts of climate change on phenophase of Kobresia pygmaea at high (4 175.0 m) and low (3 500.0 m) altitude regions in the Qinghai Plateau were studied by analyzing the observation data obtained from Qumalai and Henan meteorological stations from 1989 to 2010. The results showed that during the past 22 years the air temperature had an increasing trend at both high and low altitudes, the warming amplitude of mean minimum temperature was larger at high altitude than that at low altitude, while the warming amplitude of mean maximum temperature was larger at low altitude than that at the high altitude. The air temperature change in growth season (April to September) showed a same trend at two meteorological stations. There was a significant correlation between air temperature of the growth season and annual air temperature. It was found that days of green stage, growth period and withering period of K.pygmaea at two meteorological stations showed interannual fluctuations, the fluctuations at high altitude were bigger than those at low altitude. The first day of green stage had a delaying tendency with increasing altitude, 3.3 d per 100 m. In contrast, the growth period had a shortening tendency with increasing altitude, 2.5 d per 100 m. At high altitude regions, average phenophase of K.pygmaea was advanced 6-25 d, and growth period was prolonged 3 d. At low altitude regions, withering period was advanced 1 d, while other phenophase was delayed 1-9 d, and growth period was prolonged 6 d. The growth of K.pygmaea at high altitude was influenced easier than that at low altitude by climate change. Its habitat was more fragile at the high altitude region.
In order to provide the reference about nitrogen rational use in king grass （Pennisetum purpureum P.typhoideum）production, effects of different nitrogen levels and application methods on king grass growth and quality were studied by using pot culture experiment. The results indicated that N could improve yield and quality of king grass remarkably. The dry weight, plant height, the chlorophyll SPAD value, nitrogen (%) and crude protein contents (%) of the king grass had positive correlation with N application. The contents of phosphorus (%), potassium (%) and coarse fibre (%) had negative correlation with N application. The effect of N application at different periods on yield and crude protein content was not synchronization. Application N three times at different growth periods instead of one time at the beginning of growth period could remarkably increase the crude protein content. Further more, only application N three times with equal amount at different growth periods could conspicuously improved the dry weight of king grass. The most suitable N amount for king grass in our experiment was 3.48 gpot-1 (about 180 kgha-1 nitrogen). However, between 1.74～6.95 gpot-1 （90～360 kgha-1）the king grass could grow normally, less than 0.87 gpot-1 （45 kgha-1）or more than 13.91 gpot-1 （720 kgha-1）the growth was restricted; and no fertilization the growth was seriously retarded. Thus, the best fertilization way of king grass is to fertilize N with equal amount at stages of initial growth, tillering and jointing.
Jinzhan flower （Tagetes erecta） is also called marigold and cultivated in large area used as ornamental flowers to beautify and purify the environment or as a characteristic economy crop to extract natural pigments. In this study, marigold plants were used as experimental materials to determine effects of different patterns of irrigation and fertilization on distribution of nitrate and water in the soil profile (0-80 cm), irrigation efficiency and utilization rate of fertilizers. The results showed that 0-40 cm soil moisture contents of flatten culture treatments were higher than those of corresponding ridge culture treatments from sowing to jointing stage. However, after jointing stage the soil moisture content of ridge furrow irrigation was higher than that of flatten flood irrigation. The 40-80 cm soil moisture content of each ridge furrow irrigation treatment was larger than that of the corresponding flatten culture treatment. The soil water vertical distribution of marigold field showed a W type. Total marigold yield of the ridge furrow irrigation was higher than that of the corresponding conventional irrigation. The utilization rate of water and fertilization were 139.94 kgmm-1ha-1 and 24.9%, respectively. Thus, the ridge furrow irrigation, compared with conventional tillage, effectively improved the soil moisture and water use efficiency, and increased production significantly.
In this study, influence of five row spaces (30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 cm) and 2―5 cultural years on the characteristics of shoots, inflorescences, seed yield and grass yield of Elymus sibiricus were measured and analyzed by using a randomized block design. The results showed that row space, cultural year and their interaction all affected height and density of shoots, proportion of fertile tillers, spikelets/fertile tillers, florets/fertile tillers, potential seed yield, presentation seed yield and harvested seed yield significantly. The affected order from big to small was row spaceinteractioncultural year. The row space of 30-45 cm was beneficial to fresh grass production, while the row space of 60 cm appropriated seed production. In the third year, the fresh grass yield was the highest with the values of 19 225.6 kgha-1 (30 cm) and 16 733.4 kgha-1 (45 cm) respectively. Yet seed yield was the highest in the row space of 60 cm with the value of 1 620.67 kgha-1. Therefore, forage production should be planted with the row space of 30-45 cm and seed production should be planted with the row space of 60 cm.
Through field surveys of 2007, 2009 and 2011, the effect of three different fencing measures on Yanchi arid and semiarid grassland plant niche were studied in this paper by using the Levins niche breadth index and Pianka niche overlap index. The results showed that dominant species of the old enclosure region (E plot) were Salsola ruthenica and Heteropappus altaicus, while dominant position of S. ruthenica increased and that of H. altaicus decreased after fencing. In the new enclosure region (E1 plot), dominant species were Artemisia ordosica, Salsola ruthenica and Ixeris chinensis var. graminifolia. However, dominant position of S. ruthenica decreased and that of I. chinensis var. graminifolia increased obviously. Dominant species were A. ordosica, S. ruthenica and S. alopecuroides in the control area (E2 plot); A. ordosica was the dominant species in the three sampling periods and the niche breadth index of S. alopecuroides steady rised. The niche overlap index amone dominant species of the old enclosure region presented the downward trend through the fencing measure, while the niche overlap index amoge dominant species of the new enclosure region presented the rising trend.
Ruminant dung fertilization is one of important ways to impact grassland ecosystems, especially for highaltitude ecosystem nutrient cycling. In this study, characteristics and decomposition dynamics of nutrients of yak dung were determined and scientific management strategy of yak dung was explored through calculating nutrient demands of plant growth and input amounts of yak dung on the alpine meadow of the eastern QinghaiTibetan Plateau. The results indicated that released nitrogen and phosphorus from yak dung on a typical alpine meadow were 79.4 and 11.8 kgha-1 a-1, respectively. After 85 d decomposition in summer, most of the major nutrients were degraded (approximately 0.48%-6.98% of the initial state), while in autumn the decomposition rate was much lower (approximately 13.44%-40.06% of the initial state). It was estimated that the input amount of fresh yak dung on the study area was approximately 4.08105 kg per household. If 3.08105 kg and 8.93104 kg of fresh dung were used for maintenance of soil fertilization and daily life per household respectively, there was only 2.5% of total fresh yak dung remaining per year. Based on these calculations, yak dung for commercial use was not recommended on the alpine meadow.
Objectives of this study were to analyze morphological characteristics of third instar larva of Gasterophilus pecorum and behavior of adult flies by laboratory culture and field observation from 2008 to 2010. G. pecorum larva parasitize inside bodies of local domestic horses that live sympatricly in the strictly protected area with reintroduced Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) in Kalamaili of Xinjiang. A total of 920 third instar larva were collected and cultured, of which 35 (2.9%) individuals pupated successfully and pupal period of G. pecorum varied from 13 to 27 days with a peck between 18th and 20 th days (42.86%). 17 (48.57%) individuals emerged and emergence period varied from 15 to 27 days with a peck between 21 th and 22 th days (22.86%), of which 11.76% were males and 88.24% were females with a sexual ratio of 0.13. Their longevity varied from 2 to 8 days, but the higher frequency was found from 4 to 6 days (58.82%). It was observed that length, width and weight of larvae bodies were (13.27.0) mm, (5.14.0) mm and (24130) mg, respectively. However, correlation analysis demonstrated that the length, width and weight of larvae bodies did not correlate with sex of adult flies. Results obtained from field investigation showed that mating behavior of G. pecorum was not observed in the wild field or near the horse. Host seeking and grooming behavior at the early emergence period was found. The eggs of G. pecorum were not found on the host surface and stems or leaves of plants.
In order to explore the spatial distribution pattern of thrips on alfalfa （Medicago sativa）, aggregation indexes and Iwao regression methods were used in this study. The results showed that the distribution of thrips on alfalfa behaved as the clustered colonies and the aggregation intensity decreased with the increasing of cutting times. The aggregation was affected by environmental factors and thrips habits. Based on the parameters fitted by the Iwao model, the equation of optimal sampling number was proposed.
Agriculture, as the foundation of the national economy, has its strong internal organic system as well as its relevance with the external world. Therefore, it is of great significance to analyze evolution of agricultural system from a historical perspective in a macroscopic view and to objectively judge the reasonableness of the structural change of agricultural system and its functional evolvement. The paper explored that development of agricultural systems experienced four stages in the Northeast of China historically, which were: 1) the differentiation stage between the hunting and fishing system and the acquisition system; 2) the differentiation stage between the agricultural and pastoral system and the fishing and hunting; 3) the longterm complementary coexistence phase of agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing and hunting; and 4) the differentiation stage of the farming system and the livestock system. At each stage, organizational form and function of the agricultural system structure were different; and the system development trend was the structure plurality and function stability. Finally, the paper summarized factors of promoting evolution of the agricultural system in Northeastern of China, which included ecological constraints and climate disturbance; war famine and pastoral policies; migration and economic exchange; cultural radiation and technological diffusion; religion and dietary customs; and transportation conditions and market exchange etc.
A detailed investigation on cropping patterns in Shandong province was conducted, the results showed nine kinds of cropping patterns existed in Shandong province, they were grain cropgrain crop, grain cropeconomic crop, grain cropforage crop, economic crop forage crop and so on. The first three kinds of cropping patterns which had higher annual net income per hectare were grain cropforage crop rotation mode, and the income of forage crops, the main components of the total income, was more than 4 times of the income of grain crops. In all these rotation modes, the economic benefit of wheat+Sudangrass whose annual income per hectare was 40 725 yuan was the highest, The economic benefit of wheat+ corn was the lowest whose annual income per hectare was 12 486 yuan. The three highest outputinput ratio modes were grain cropforage crop pattern, whose ratio were 2.76-3.03. In all cropping patterns, material cost and labor cost accounted for a large part of total input, 30%-46.3% and 20%-53%, respectively; management fee accounted for a minimum part, the proportion is 18%-29%. Above all, in all cropping patterns, grain cropforage crop pattern had a higher outputinput ratio, forage and crop rotation should be extended to increase farmers income and promote the development of animal husbandry in Shandong province especially in lowmiddleyield cropland areas.
In order to explore production mode, marketing method and development trend of the mutton goat industry in Anshun, the current development situation, processing and sale links, potential advantage, and existence problems were investigated in this study. According to the data， future development countermeasures and suggestions for the industry were proposed as follows: firstly to strengthen breed improvement and purification of goats, secondly to improve management level with a suitable business mode; thirdly to balance forage resources scientifically, and develop infrastructure; finally to introduce goat production and processing enterprises and establish a perfect market system.
As one of the most widely distributed grass, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) was regarded as the king of forages. Based on the recent research trend of domestic and international, the paper presented the research progress on the regeneration of alfalfa, including regeneration pathways, genotypes, explants, basic media, growth regulators and other additives. The paper also analyzed the current problems and explored the future development trends in order to provide useful advices for the regeneration mechanism and gene engineering.