Welcome Pratacultural Science,Today is

2012 Vol.29(4)

Display Mode:          |     

The Landscape pattern changes of desertoasis in the northern Tianshan Mountains based on GISA case study of Balikun County in the Xinjiang Province
2012, 6(4): 501-506.
[Abstract](1260) [PDF 488KB](810)
Based on the data from LandsatTM image in the years of 2000 and 2007, GIS was used to study the landscape pattern changes of the desert oasis region in the Kazakh Autonomous County of the northern slope of Tianshan Mountain. This study showed the reduction area of water areas and rangeland areas was 623.42 and 14 566.72 ha, respectively, the increase area of unused land, farmland, settlement and industryused land was 9 397.30, 3 090.15, 259.57 and 2 443.12 ha, respectively; however, the dominant landscape type was still rangeland and unused land from 2000 to 2007. Landscape diversity index during 8 years increased 0.80 from 0.74, meanwhile the evenness index increased 0.40 from 0.35 and landscape composition increased from 8.40 to 9.40, indicating landscape diversity, landscape composition, and rangeland fragmentation increased from 2000 to 2007. The landscape dimensions increased and stability decreased, and the relatively stability of each landscape types was settlement and industryused landwater areafarmlandwoodlandrangelandunused land.
Distribution pattern of soil nutrients in different grassland types and soil depths in the eastern Tibetan Plateau
2012, 6(4): 507-512.
[Abstract](2016) [PDF 412KB](836)
The vertical distributions of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous in the soil profiles in 7 grassland types in the eastern Tibetan Plateau were investigated. These grassland types were: alpine meadow, alpine shrub meadow, subalpine meadow, swamp meadow, desertified steppe, interforest grassland and salinealkaline meadow. Our results showed that soil organic carbon decreased with soil depth in the 7 different grassland types, and that the cumulative amount of soil organic carbon at 0-15 cm depth in the 7 types was decreased in the following order: interforest grasslandalpine shrub meadowalpine meadowswamp meadowsalinealkaline meadowsubalpine meadowdesertified steppe (P0.05). The dynamic of soil total nitrogen in soil depths was similar to that of soil organic carbon, and the cumulative amount of soil total nitrogen at 0-15 cm depth in the investigated types, from highest to lowest, was: swamp meadowinterforest grasslandalpine shrub meadowtestalpine meadowswamp meadowsalinealkaline meadowdesertified steppesubalpine meadow (P0.05). Soil total phosphorus showed no obvious pattern in the desertified steppe and interforest grassland types, and the cumulative amount of soil total phosphorus at 0-15 cm depth in the 7 types was decreased in the following order: alpine shrub meadowswamp meadowalpine meadowsalinealkaline meadowsubalpine meadowdesertified steppeinterforest grassland (P0.05). Soil nutrient distribution varies when soil depth increases in different grassland types. Soil organic carbon was significantly correlated with soil total nitrogen in all grassland types except the swamp meadow.
Optimizing mixtures for producing biosolid soilless sod over plastic
2012, 6(4): 513-521.
[Abstract](1474) [PDF 460KB](820)
The simplex lattice design was used to optimize the mixtures for producing biosolid soilless sod over plastic by using coal cinder, mushroom mulch, and sand. The nutrients, heavy metals content, bermudagrass growth and integrated turf quality of 11 mixtures were analyzed over plastic with method of grey correlation coefficient by establishing the correlative regression model between the turf integrated qualities and mixing ingredients. The results of this study indicated than the chlorophyll content kept stable but above and underground biomass, sod weight, root activity, density, establishment rate, and sodforming rate were significantly different. The optimal mixture was that the content of biosolid, coal cinder, mushroom mulch and sand were 51.41% to 51.83%, 18.32% to 18.86%, 18.19% to 18.81% and 10.87% to 11.72%, respectively. The turfgrass plant enriched heavy metals and the heavy metal content decreased when turf was harvest, and the heavy metal of which conformed to national farmland environmental quality evaluation standards.
Preliminary study on the biological safety of 13 ornamental grasses species
2012, 6(4): 521-527.
[Abstract](1301) [PDF 449KB](621)
In order to prevent the ornamental grasses bringing biological disasters for blind promotion, we identified the risk of alien biological invasion of the 13 species of introduced ornamental grasses by analyzing the seeds, adventitious roots and quarantine venereal insects. Meanwhile, the ecological adaptability and safety of the application of these ornamental grasses were also analyzed. The results showed that there was no sowing phenomenon during the experiment period. Meanwhile, we did not observe the phenomenon of root sprouting in a distance of 0.1-1.0 m from the mother plant and the quarantine venereal insects were not detected. Scirpus validus and S. validus cv. zebrinus were the highest resistance species and their correlation degrees with strong resistance variety were 0.763 9. Cortaderia selloana and C. selloana Pumila had a little less resistance than the species mentioned before and their correlation degrees were 0.748 0. The risk of causing fire for planting these ornamental grasses in the landscape was low. All above results proved that planting these 13 introduced ornamental grasses barely existed biological invasion in Ningbo and their application can be promoted in Ningbo and surrounding areas.
Advances on reseach of lowcarbon agriculture
2012, 6(4): 528-533.
[Abstract](1240) [PDF 369KB](833)
Low carbon economy is becoming a global focus problem since World Climate Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009. Lowcarbon economy is an economic model which is based on low energy consumption, low emissions and low pollution. Lowcarbon agriculture is a form of low carbon economy in agriculture, which is not only improving the agroecosystem adaptation to climate change, but also reducing the influence of agricultural development on the ecosystem carbon cycle, and maintaining the carbon balance of the biosphere. Reviewing rencent literature on the subject, the concept and characteristic of lowcarbon agriculture, the status of lowcarbon agricultural development, the carbon situation of grassland ecosystems, the problems and strategies in lowcarbon agricultural development are discussed. This review will be a valuable reference source for research of low carbon agriculture and grassland ecosystem and will promote carbon sequestration and mitigation research in China.
Response of physiology and biochemistry of grasses to heavy metal stress
2012, 6(4): 534-541.
[Abstract](1167) [PDF 574KB](1174)
With the rapid development of industrialization in China, heavy metals, the basic production materials of industrialization, are constantly released into the biosphere and then are transferred to animals and humans through the food chain, which is harmful to the health of human being. Grasses distributes widely and are resistant to heavy mentals, some of which are hyperaccumulator of heavy mentals. This study summarized the advance in heavy metals influencing germination rate, biomass, root activity stress of grasses and their resistance mechanisms, including proline, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione, isolation, mycorrhiza and salicylic acid. The response mechanisms of Hyperaccumulator grasses to several important heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb and Hg ) were also clarified in this study. Lastly, this study proposed the important fields and direction of resistance metabolism in the future.
Ji-Zhou LIN
2012, 6(4): 542-543.
[Abstract](1150) [PDF 606KB](1449)
Construction of eukaryotic expression vector bearing the heat shock factor in Carex rigescens
2012, 6(4): 544-548.
[Abstract](1207) [PDF 621KB](623)
Based on the characteristics of the expression vector PBI 121, and its enzyme sites, the appropriate primers were designed. Using the expression primers, we amplified the Escherichia coli bearing the cDNA with CrHsf of Rigens Sedge, and the open reading frame containing the right enzyme sites of CrHsf was got. The expression vectors and the aimed fragments were digested respectively, and then, the aimed DNA fragments were cloned into PBI 121 vector. Through PCR, double enzyme restriction analysis, it was confirmed that the PBI 121/HSF recombinant plasmid was successfully constructed.
Construction of RNAi expression vector of the plasma membrane Na╋/H╋ antiporter gene in succulent xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum
Qing MA, Suomin WANG
2012, 6(4): 549-553.
[Abstract](1294) [PDF 853KB](791)
Total RNA was extracted from roots of succulent xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum seedlings, and the fragment of the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter gene ZxSOS1 was amplified by RTPCR. Then the RNAi plant expression vector PARS with inverted repeats of ZxSOS1 driven by the promoter CaMV 35S was constructed based on the intermediate vector pHANNIBAL and the plant expression vector PART27 by restriction enzyme digestion and ligation. The work might be a good basis for further investigation of the roles of ZxSOS1 in the transportation of Na+ and the adaption to arid environment in Z.xanthoxylum by RNAi technique.
Wei FU, Jiahai WU, Wei CHEN, Xiaoli WANG, Qiong MOU
2012, 6(4): 554-560.
[Abstract](1524) [PDF 851KB](975)
Stamen dynamics and pollen fertility of Allium obliquum in Xinjiang Province, China
Chenyi LIN, Wenjuan HAN, Chenxia QI, Qiang YE
2012, 6(4): 561-566.
[Abstract](1176) [PDF 551KB](644)
Allium obliquum only distributes in the Xinjiang Province, China. The marked plants were used to observe stamen morphological characteristics to analyze the floral dynamics of stamen and test pollen fertility of A.obliquum by 6 methods. This study showed that five morphological phases were found during flowering period. The inner filaments earlier expanded than the outer ones, and the inner anthers firstly expanded from perianth. It was about 4-5 d for all 6 anthers from open to fall. The individual anther released pollen about 1.5- 2.0 h from the beginning dispersion to the end. Pollen viability kept about 0-10 h above 50% after anther dehiscence. The triphenyl tetrazolium chloride, diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, benzidine, and the in vitro germination test were used to test pollen fertility and the acetocarmine and iodine potassium iodide test was not suitable for A.obliquum pollen testing. A.obliquum was dichogamy and protandry with fertility, short longevity pollen, which would provide basic theory and method for pollen development, pollination biology and artificial sexual reproduction by and six methods were used to test pollen fertility.
Effects of aqueous extracts from Oxytropis ochrocephala on seeds germination and seedling growth of three plants
2012, 6(4): 567-570.
[Abstract](1398) [PDF 395KB](704)
A allelopathy experiment was conducted to determine the effects of aqueous extracts from Oxytropis ochrocephala on seeds germination and seedling growth of Elymus nutans, Achnatherum inebrians and E.sibiricus cv Duoye by using TP in this study. This study showed that the germination percentages, radicle length and plumule length of three plants reduced as the concentration of aqueous extracts from O.ochrocephala increased. 4% and 20% aqueous extracts did not affect on seeds germination of A.inebrians, but other treatments significant affected seed germination of three plants (P0.05). 4% the aqueous extracts had no significant effect on seedling growth of A.inebrians (P0.05), but other treatments had significant effect on seedling growth of three grasses (P0.05). This study suggested that the different concentration aqueous extracts from O. ochrocephala included 4%, 20% and 100% showed an inhibitive effect on three plants.
Interactive effects of nitrogen and pH on four physiological indicators of chicory
2012, 6(4): 571-576.
[Abstract](1303) [PDF 492KB](643)
A experiment was carried out to determine the interactive effects of nitrogen and pH with on chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, peroxidas (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus) by completely random combination of three nitrogen concentrations (65.305 mgL-1, 130.610 mgL-1 and 261.122 mgL-1) and three pH levels (5.5, 7.0 and 8.5) in the sand culture. The results of this study showed the application of nitrogen did not affect the chlorophyll and MDA content but significantly affected the POD and SOD activity. The pH value significantly affected the chlorophyll but did not affected the MDA content, and increased the activity of POD and SOD. the interaction of nitrogen and pH had significant effect on chicory growth, indicating that the chlorophyll content were greatest with 65.305 mgL-1 N and pH 5.5, and it increased as N concentration increased; the MDA content were lowest with 261.122 mgL-1 N and pH 5.5, and it kept stable when only N or pH stress was applied; the POD and SOD activity were highest with 261.122 mgL-1 N and pH 8.5, and it changed significantly when only N or pH stress was applied.
Influence of grazing on photosynthesislight response and fluorescence parameters of four plants in alpine grassland
2012, 6(4): 577-585.
[Abstract](1450) [PDF 702KB](753)
Two plots, nongrazing (NG) and grazing (G) grassland, were designed to determine the influence of grazing on photosynthesislight response and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of Kobresia humilis, Elymus nutans, Melissitus rutenica, Oxytropis ochrocephala growing in the alpine grassland at Nanni Valley, Tianzhu County of the eastern Qilian Mountains. The results of this study showed the grazing increased the adaptability of the four plants to glare and reduced the ability to use low light. In grazing conditions Pmax of K.capillifolia, E.nutans, and M.rutenica reduced significantly, which reduced their photosynthetic potential, but Pmax of O.ochrocephala increased significantly, which enhanced its photosynthetic capacity. Image of minimal fluorescence (F0) of the four plants deepen the color in the grazing condition, especially K.capillifolia and E.nutans. The maximal quantum yield of PSⅡ (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) and electron transport rate (ETR) of the four plants reduced significantly and the nonphotochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) increased significantly in the grazing conditions. From all measured indicators, this study indicated that the grazing increased the photosynthetic capacity of O.ochrocephala, a kind of weeds but reduced the photosynthetic capacity of other three plants with high quality.
Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the growth and secondary metabolites of Platycodon grandiflorum
2012, 6(4): 586-591.
[Abstract](1251) [PDF 443KB](891)
Based on the Dsaturation optimal design with three factors of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fertilization with different nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium ratios on the growth and effective ingredients of Platycodon grandiflorum. This study showed that the fertilization greatly increased the medicinal yield of P.grandiflorum. The contribution of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium to the medicinal yield was nitrogenpotassiumphosphorus. The effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium application on the content of platycodin was also following the pattern as nitrogenpotassiumphosphorus. The effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium application on the polysaccharide content was phosphorusnitrogenpotassium. Nevertheless, both nitrogen and phosphorus had a negative effect on the accumulation of total flavone in P.grandiflorum. In terms of the medicinal yield and the content of platycodin, the optimal fertilization combination was 150 kghm-2 N, 79.41 kghm-2 P2O5 together with 225 kghm-2 K2O.
Effects of different nitrogen fertilizer on the morphological indexes and physiological characteristics of Dahlia pinnata
2012, 6(4): 592-598.
[Abstract](1200) [PDF 461KB](693)
A pot experiment was carried out to determine the optimal nitrogen application rates (0, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45 gkg-1) via performance of the morphological indexes and physiological characteristics of Dahlia pinnata. This study indicated that the stem diameter, leaf area, flower diameter, flowering stage and tuber weight of dahlia increased as the nitrogen application rate increased. The application of nitrogen fertilizer significantly increased the chlorophyll, soluble protein and proline contents, and the activities of nitrate reductase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), but significantly reduced the malondialdehyde content of D.pinnata plants, indicating that the application of nitrogen fertilizer enhanced the stability of plasma membrane, restrained the penetration of membrane, and strengthened the protective function of cell membrane of D.pinnata plants. Although the nitrate reductase activity of D.pinnata plants significantly increased as the nitrogen application rates increased, the excessive nitrogen application decreased the leaf area and proline content. These results showed that the moderate application of nitrogen fertilizer benefited the growth of D.pinnata plant, delayed its aging and improved ornamental value, while the excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer inhibited the growth of D.pinnata plant. This study suggested that the rational application of nitrogen fertilizer for pot D.pinnata was 0.30 gkg-1.
Study on screening of salt concentration gradient and critical concentration on Axonopus compressus
2012, 6(4): 599-604.
[Abstract](1273) [PDF 486KB](944)
In the present study, we took Axonopus compressus as the main research object, aiming to evaluate its ability of salt resistance. The turf quality, leaf color, and leaf firing percentage of carpet grass in different salt concentrations by hydroponics experiment were examined. The results of this study showed that there were significant or very significant differences among different treatments of salt concentration. Under the treatment of low salt concentration (0-120 mmolL-1), the scores of leaf colour and turf quality were both higher than six, meanwhile, under the treatment of high salt concentration (140-180 mmolL-1), the scores were lower than six. However, leaf firing showed a different pattern, which has a lower percentage at low concentration (0-140 mmolL-1) than that at the high concentration (160-180 mmolL-1). Taking yellow rate dropping at 50% as an index, we built a regression equation and found that the critical salt concentration of NaCl to A. compressus was 141 mmolL-1.
Growth characteristics of five alfalfa varieties in the oasis regions of Xinjiang Province
2012, 6(4): 605-609.
[Abstract](1263) [PDF 377KB](632)
A field experiment was conducted to assess the height, hay production, leaf to stem ratio and nutrient components of five different varieties of alfalfa. This study showed that the height and hay yield of all alfalfa varieties decreased with the increase of cutting times, but they are different among five different varieties, in which the WL323 and Sandili performed well during the growth period. The crude protein content and crude fat in the second and third cutting are higher than that in the first cutting for all varieties, especially those in the second cutting was significantly higher than that in the first and the third cutting, while the crude fiber content was showed an opposite trend when compared to the crude protein content and crude fat. The Sandili and WL323 were the highest nutrient among the varieties. This study suggested that the Sandili and WL323 performed best in the oasis regions while Algonquin performed poor, and the second cutting was the best period for harvesting high quality alfalfa.
Production performance and persistence of ten introduced alfalfa varieties
2012, 6(4): 610-614.
[Abstract](1521) [PDF 373KB](804)
A field survey on 2years and 6years alfalfa pasture was conducted to compare the production performance and persistence of ten introduced varieties in the Kunming regions by measuring the productive and nutritional parameters. The results of this study showed that the yield, height, leaf to stem ratio, crude protein content, crude fat content and crude ash content of GT13R and Archer II varieties were significantly higher than those of other eight varieties, and the crude fiber content of GT13R and Archer II varieties was significantly lower than that of other eight varieties for 2years and 6years alfalfa pasture(P<0.05). The yield and nutritional quality of ten alfalfa varieties decreased as the growth time increased from 2 years to 6 years and the decrement of Arriba and 13R Supreme was the most. The Grey Relational Analysis results showed that the GT13R and Archer II performed well from yield and persistence and were suitable for planting in the Kunming regions, and the Archer, Arriba, Abilence +2 and 13R Supreme showed a poor production performance and persistence and were unsuitably used to establish the perennial artificial pasture in the north subtropical zone of Yunnan, which would provide useful information for introducing alfalfa varieties in the southern China.
Plant population niche in Siertan wetland
2012, 6(4): 615-623.
[Abstract](1296) [PDF 517KB](606)
In order to understand the characteristics of wetland vegetation and provide a reference for ecological restoration and vegetation protection of natural wetlands in semiarid areas, we measured indexes of Levins niche width and Pianka niche overlapping to examine the niche width and niche overlapping of plants in Siertan wetland, Yanchi county, Ningxia. The results of this study showed that the dominant species were not identical in different sample lines surrounding wetland, and plant population in wetland ecosystem presented the pattern of concentrated distribution. Among the four sample lines, the plants in the west and north sample lines grow better than the plants in the east and south sample lines. Salsola pestifer, Heteropappus altaicus, Psammochloa villosa, and Sophora alopecuroides are the dominant species in Siertan wetland, Herba Taraxaci, Aster tataricus, Lysimachia barystachys, Incarvillea sinensis, Dracocephalum moldavica, Allium mongolicum, and Artemisia ordosica are associated species. The results of niche overlapping showed that the species with big niche width did not always have big niche overlapping, and the niche width and niche overlapping did not have an obvious linear relation. This result further supports the view that resources have high spatial heterogeneity in wetland ecosystem.
Health assessment of Picea classifolia forest in the Dongdahe forest region
Jian-Quan LIU, Jian-Zhong SUN
2012, 6(4): 624-628.
[Abstract](1379) [PDF 387KB](693)
Based on field survey data during 2008, the principal component analysis, cluster analysis and model of health assessment were used to assess the health state of Picea classifolia in the Dongdahe forest region by establishing the health indicators system, which included 19 indicators belonging to five strategy layers, and they were natural environment, community characteristic, stand resilience, productivity and potentialities. This study showed that the principal indicators affecting the health state of P.classifolia forest were community type, canopy closure, shrub coverage, stand volume, soil hygroscopic water, and soil moisture content. The assessment results indicated that the 13 sample plots were divided into health, subhealth and poor health. The health sample plots were 7 and were moss P.classifolia forest, accounting for 53.82%; the subhealth included one moss P.classifolia forest and three herb P.classifolia forests and they accounted for 30.77%; and the poor health plots were 2 shrub P.classifolia forest and accounted for 15.38% of total area.
Study of vegetation diversity of Changsha urban wetland
Xin-An DAI, Yue-Li HU
2012, 6(4): 629-635.
[Abstract](1396) [PDF 450KB](720)
nvestigation of plant species diversity and the changing characteristics in different types of Changsha urban wetland was performed. We also examined the distribution of different types of wetland vegetations. The result of this study showed that there are 20 plant communities in Changsha urban wetland including Phragmites australi, Acorus calamus, Trapa bispinosa, Artemisia lavandulaefolia, Equisetum arvense, Xanthium sibiricum, Erigeron annuus, Alternanthera philoxeroides, etc. The herb community is the mainly vegetation type. There are 24 types of perennial plants. Among them, 14 types are annual herbs, and shrubs and trees are few. The difference of vegetation diversity in different wetlands is small. The wetland which had the highest species richness contained 23 species and only five of them are endemic species. Although we get some results, there are some influencing factors, such as human activities interfering, urban population distribution, landuse patterns and distance of wetlands to urban core, need to be considered, to get a better conclusion.
Adaption of four alfalfa varieties to the alpine pastoral area in Xiahe County, Gansu Province
2012, 6(4): 636-639.
[Abstract](1272) [PDF 360KB](721)
A field experiment was carried out to compare the adaption of four alfalfa varieties (Golden Empress, Algonquin, Alfaking and Ameristand 201) introduced from USA during the period 2004-2007 by measuring the growing period, height, branches per plant, fresh weight, overwintering rate and resistance in the Xiahe County, Gansu Province. This study showed that four alfalfa varieties performed well in the alpine pastoral area, indicating that the overwintering rates in the first year and the second year were over 70% and 90%, respectively. In the third year, the mature seeds were harvested, but its seed yields were low. This study suggested that four alfalfa varieties were suitable for establishing the pasture in the alpine pastoral areas.
Effects of altitude on the mating system of alpine plant
2012, 6(4): 640-645.
[Abstract](1444) [PDF 423KB](1284)
The mating system is associated with genetic relationships, and genetic variation within population. To a large extent, the mating system effects on population quantity and genetic composition for natural selection. Besides the biological characters of plant itself, the mating system is evolved with the changeable environment. Altitude is one of the vertically regular environmental factors, which effects on mating system of alpine plant. The evolutionary model of mating system reveals that the trend of mating system changes from outcross to selfing along with increasing altitude. In extreme environments, alpine plant always experiences polyploidization to adapt the harsh environments. This study reviewed the regular influences of altitude on the plant mating system for the following aspects, including the number and species of pollinator, model of pollination and life history of plant, flower component and so on.
Population quantity and distribution regularity of rodent animal in the cropland of edge regions of Mudanjiang City
2012, 6(4): 646-649.
[Abstract](1062) [PDF 412KB](719)
The clip day, holedigging, irrigating and smudging methods were used to collect the samples in the cropland regions of edge regions of Mudanjiang city for determining the population quantity and distribution regularity of rodents during the period from March to November of 2010. This study showed that 7 species rodents belonging to 3 orders, 5 families, and 7 genuses were observed in this field survey. The Apodemus agrarius was the dominant species among all rodent species. The population density of rodents peaked in June-July and October. Apodemus agrarius and Cricetulus triton were the most harmful to cropland due to their food storage behavior. This study proposed the control measures for all rodents, which would provide scientific information for controlling rat trouble.
Fermentation characteristics and changes of lactic acid bacteria isolated fromensiling Lespedeza hedysaroides
2012, 6(4): 650-657.
[Abstract](1426) [PDF 485KB](788)
Two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from fresh Lespedeza hedysaroides, and Pediococcus pentosaceus (LH29﹚and Lactobacillis plantarum (LH33) were obtained by 16S rRNA method and traditional identification methods. This study showed that the acidproduction rate of LH29 was better than that of LH33 in the early stage of ensiling, but the LH33 was better than LH29 in the later stages. SNOW LACTL (SL) and Acremonium cellulose (AC) were used as additives to L.a hedysaroides silage. During the fermentation process, LAB in SL+AC treatments was bigger significantly than that in the control silage (CK) after two days of ensiling (P<0.05). On the thirtieth day, the numbers of aerobic bacteria, yeasts, molds and E.coli in all treatments decreased, in which E.coli declined significantly (P<0.05). Compared to CK, all the silages with additives had significantly lower pH, NH3-N, butyric acid concentration and significantly higher lactic acid content (P<0.05). The improvement in silage quality was graded basing on Flieg score: AC>SL+AC>SL>CK. The highest Flieg point was obtained from tests with AC and SL+AC.
Effects of additives on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of rice silage
2012, 6(4): 658-662.
[Abstract](1166) [PDF 732KB](960)
With the rapid development of animal husbandry, the shortage of roughage becomes more and more serious, and how to utilize whole crop rice as feed is an effective way to mitigate the shortage of roughage. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of lactic acid bacteria (Qingzhubao and LD8), sucrose and pineapple residue on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of rice Peizataifeng to utilize effectively whole crop rice. This study indicated that the additives except for sucrose significantly reduced pH values of silages(P0.05), and addition of pineapple residue, Qingzhubao and LD8 did not affect pH values. Compared with the control, all the additives significantly decreased the butyric acid content (P0.05), indicating that all the additives improved the fermentation quality of rice silage, especially pineapple residue, Qingzhubao and LD8. When all silage were exposed to the air, the aerobic stability of silage with pineapple residue and LD8 was best among the additives treatment. Based upon the fermentation quality and aerobic stability, LD8 or pineapple residue was the best additive to rice Pezataifeng silage.
Advances in extrinsic functional genes transformation of turfgrasses
Ting-Ting ZHANG, Jing-Bei CHEN
2012, 6(4): 663-668.
[Abstract](1462) [PDF 455KB](848)
Genetic transformation technology in turfgrasses has greatly developed. Some extrinsic functional genes, including herbicide, disease, insect, drought, salinity, low temperature, high temperature, and/or heavy metal tolerant genes, had been transformed into various turfgrasses and transgenic plants with enhanced tolerance had also been obtained. Selecting more key genes based on tolerance mechanisms, transformation of the genes about dwarfing turfgrasses and efficiently absorbing nutrients, combining transgenic technology with conventional breeding technology, and assessing security of transgenic turfgrasses are important directions in the future.