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The complete randomized bloc design was used to determine the effectiveness of planting Suaeda salsa and adding nitrogenous and phosphate fertilizers on saline soil in the northern Jiangsu Province of China and distribution of K+ and Na+ concentrations in S.salsa and biomass. The results of this study showed that planting S. salsa improved the condition of watersalt at 0~20 cm layer when compared to bare land. Na+ concentration in leaves of S. salsa was higher than the other organs while K+ concentration was higher in roots when nitrogenous and phosphate fertilizers were added into soil. The application of nitrogenous and phosphate fertilizers significantly increased the biomass of S. salsa and interactions between nitrogen and phosphorus were found. The correlations analysis showed that the total biomass of S.salsa was significantly positive related to soil salinity at 0~20 cm layer (P0.01), but was not related to soil salinity at 20~40 cm layer. This study suggested that application of nitrogenous and phosphate fertilizers improved the soil salinity, increased the biomass and affected distribution of K+ and Na+ in S.salsa.
The mowing grass, normal grazing, sectional grazing and rotational grazing were indentified to utilize the springautumn grassland in Zeketai town, Xinyuan County. A field investigation was conducted to determine effects of four utilization modes on the soil physical and chemical properties of the springautumn grassland. The results of this study showed that soil sand particle content with the average value of 21.23% was highest, and silt particle content was the lowest under the normal grazing. At 10-20 cm layer, the silt particle content of normal grazing was significantly lower than that of rotational grazing (P0.05). The utilization modes did not affect the soil bulk density, which was 1.08-1.26 gcm-3. The soil organic matter, available N and OlsenP contents at grazing unitization modes were higher than those at mowing grass. The organic matter contents of normal grazing and rotational grazing were higher than that of sectional grazing. The available N of soil surface at normal grazing was significantly higher and the available K and OlsenP contents were lower than those at sectional grazing and rotational grazing. Therefore, the rotational grazing and the sectional grazing were better utilization modes than normal grazing because they maintained high soil nutrient. However, compared with rotational grazing, the sectional grazing increased the surface soil sand content and bulk density and decreased the organic matter content. This study suggested that it is necessary to reduce the use intensity when the sectional grazing was applied.
Global Positioning System (GPS) is a much rapid development information technology system, and its application areas have transferred into the daily production and life from the initial highend military area. Application of GPS technology to grassland survey is the trend of digitization and informatization of grassland survey. This study introduced the application of the Trimble Juno SB handheld receiver in the process of grassland survey at the various stages, and summarized and generalized the technology and method in grassland investigation and mapping, which would provide the information for grassland resource investigation and mapping by GIS technology.
Variation of grassland area in the Duolun County of Xilin Gol League was presented by combining field survey and remote sensing technology and its causes were discussed in this study. The results of this study showed that grassland area in Duolun County was fluctuant from 1971 to 2007, indicating that the grassland area decreased from 227 640.93 ha in 1980 s to 166 929.43 ha in 1990 s, and restored to grassland area of the 1980 s in 2000 due to conversion of cropland to forest and grassland. Under the climate warming and drying, human disturbance was key factor affecting the grassland area. Plenty of grasslands were reclaimed into croplands and were substituted by the lakes and marshes in 1990 s when the climate was warm and humid, resulting in the decrease of grassland areas. In 1980 s, grassland degenerated and deserted because of overgrazing. Although the rainfall decreased, the grassland had been gradually restored because of better management from 2000 to 2007.
A pot experiment was used to determine the effects of species diversity on functional traits of legume forages by measuring the relative growth rate, specific leaf area, leaf dry mass content, plant height, root depth and root mass per unit leaf area, and productivity. The results of this study indicated that the species diversity had a positive effect on specific leaf area and plant height, and a negative effect on relative growth rate, root depth, leaf dry mass content, and root mass per unit leaf area. The productivity, aboveground and belowground biomass of legume forage decreased as the species diversity increased. These results suggested that the increasing interspecific competition caused by the increase of species diversity increased the specific leaf area and plant height, but restricted other four functional traits and the productivity of legume forages.
With the development of the animal husbandry, the harmfulness of poisonous plant on grassland to the ecological environment and the husbandry industry has drawn more and more attention. The establishment of the primary Database of Poisonous Plants on Grassland of China is necessary for professionals to effectively and quickly acquire the relevant information from various documents and paper when they needs. The database was designed by Visual C++ 6.0 and SQL server 2000 and was divided into two patterns consisting of system management and data query, in which users could input, modify and delete the data, and acquired the data query, and this database could displayed the inquiry results and its detailed information, etc. The establishment of the database will provide valuable information of poisonous plants for control poisonous plants on grassland and for the consultation service of the animal toxicosis in China.
Snow plays a very important role in global hydrology and climate change. Using remote sensing technology in snow cover monitoring has a history of more than 40 years. A series of algorithm and products were developed in the snow cover mapping, snow deeps inversion and snowice albedo. Among them, the optical remote sensing data were used widely in snow cover monitoring because of their high resolution in time and space. As the earth observation system (EOS) developed and domestic environmental satellite launched in succession, more and more remote sensing data will be used in the snow monitoring field, and provide abundant data source for earth radiation balance simulation, surface hydrologic, and global change researches.
The efficient regeneration system is the basis and premise for a genetic transformation system. The mature seeds of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) were used as the explant to establish the regeneration system of switchgrass. After sterilizing the seeds by 70% ethanol and 0.1% HgCl2 with twostep asepsis, MS culture medium was basic culture medium to determine the influence of different concentrations of 2,4D and 6BA on callus induction and the influence of GA3 on differentiation. The results of this study showed that the seeds activities of switchgrass were well preserve and the callus induction rate was the highest when seeds were treated by 70% ethanol for 20 s and then by 0.1% HgCl2 for 5 min. The quality of callus were better when the MS consisted of 5 mgL-1 2,4D and 1.2 mgL-1 6BA, and the differentiation and regeneration of callus was the best as 0.5 mgL-1 GA3 were added into the MS. The best regeneration system of switchgrass included that MS was the basic medium, 5 mgL-1 2,4D and 1.2 mgL-1 6BA was added to induct the callus, and 0.5 mgL-1 GA3 was used to differentiate and regenerate.
The MvP5CS of Medicago varia Xinmu1 was cloned by RTPCR and homology cloning. The MvP5CS was 2 148 bp long and the accession number of Genbank was EU371644. A Realtime PCR assay showed that the level of MvP5CS transcriptions was obviously upregulated in the seedlings after longer time salinity treatment, indicating that MvP5CS was related to salt tolerance. The MvP5CS genes of M. varia Xinmu1 was transferred successfully into tobacco via agrobacterium mediation. The germination percentage and root length of T1generation transgenic tobacco were higher than that of nontransgenic tobacco under salt stress, which indicated that the MvP5CS enhanced the salt tolerance of transgenic tobacco, and this provide references for salttolerance molecular mechanism and future stressresistance molecular breeding of M.sativa.
The genome DNA extracted by the improved method of CTAB from Anemone obtusiloba collected from Hezuo region in Gansu was used as mode to optimize the ISSR reaction conditions by orthogonal experiment and single factor experiment. This study showed that the optimal conditions of ISSR reaction for A. obtusiloba were 20 L reaction system, and it contained 10 Buffer 2 L, Mg2+ 2.5 mmolL-1, Taq enzyme 2 U, Genome DNA 2 mgL-1, dNTPs 0.3 mmolL-1 and ISSR primer 0.4 mmolL-1. The process of PCR were 94 ℃ for 5 min, 35 cycles (94 ℃ 30 s，51 ℃ 45 s，72 ℃ 90 s), and 72 ℃ for 7 min, and the consult based on primer UBC 807.
A pot experiment was conducted to determine the response of malesterile plant of Platycodon grandiflorum to illumination length, temperature, soil type, cultivated site and the fertile performance. The TTC dyeing, the I2KI dyeing and the artificial pollination were used to determine the ovule viability, the pollen viability and seeds setting, respectively. The sterile anther was atrophic and its colour was brown, pollen in sterile anther was abortive, the stamen was smaller than viable stamen. While seeds setting of sterile flowers was tantamount and the sterile corolla was bigger than fertile flower. Amount of microspores with crashing malesterile anther was immovability, and amount of microspores with halfway malesterile anther was slightly increase under lower temperature. There was the few influence of planted site, soil type and illumination on the fertile performance. The cross breed result showed that the maintain genes was with Shangluo platycodon and the restorer genes was with Zibo platycodon. The fertile performance of crashing malesterile plant was steady under different environment and it was administrated by genes in nucleolus and cytoplasm. rovide a foundation for breeding of malesterile line and heterosis utilization of Platycodon grandiflorum
In this study, we investigated the effects of 150 mmolL-1 NaCl on the growth, salt secretion, and the Na+ distribution pattern of Reaumuria soongorica. The results showed that 150 mmolL-1 NaCl has a positive effect on the growth of R. soongorica, the fresh weight and dry weight indicated significant enhancement by 14% and 18%, respectively. However, any significant changes of the tissue water content were not observed in R. soongorica treated with 150 mmolL-1 NaCl for 7 days. When exposed to high concentration NaCl condition, the net Na+ uptake rate in root significantly increased for 44 times as that of control; correspondingly, the Na+ secretion and accumulation in shoots of R. soongorica exhibited significant enhancement which was 25 times and 2.1 time than that of control, respectively. Further analysis showed that the percentage of Na+ secretion increased from 4.3% in the control to 35%, and the percentage of Na+ accumulation in shoots also was 43%. These findings suggest that, under saline environment, R. soongorica is able to absorb large quantity Na+, most of which where Na+ were secreted through salt gland or accumulated in shoots, thus to alleviate the toxic effects of Na+ and maintain water status in plant, which contribute to stimulate the growth of plant.
A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of chlormequat chloride (CCC) on the growth and endogenous hormones contents of Dahlia pinnat varieties, Longshangxiongying. The results of this study showed that the CCC significantly decreased the plant height and internode length, increased the leaf area, stem diameter, flower diameter and petal number, lengthened the flowering period, reduced the IAA and GA3 content and increased the ABA contents at vegetative growth stage; however, the CCC increased the IAA and GA3 content and reduced the ABA content at reproductive growth stage, and the changeable trend of these parameter strengthened as the CCC concentration increased. The correlation analysis results showed that the plant height was significantly positive correlation with the IAA and GA3 contents and was negative correlation with ABA contents at vegetative growth stage, and the internode length was significantly positive correction with IAA contents; the stem diameter was negative correlated with the GA3 contents and the leaf area was significantly negative correlation with the GA3 contents and was positive correlation with ABA contents. The flowering period and flower diameter was significantly positive correlation with the IAA and GA3 contents, and was negative correlation with ABA contents; the petal number was positive correlation with the GA3 content at reproductive growth stage. This study suggested that the optimal concentration of CCC was 3 000 mgL-1 CCC.
The PAM2100 portable chlorophyll fluorescence analyzer was used to measure and compare the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Artemisia ordosica, Caragana intermedia, Hedysarum laev, Salix cheilophila, Medicago sativa and Lespedeza davurica in the Kubuqi sandy land. This study showed that the minimal fluorescence (F0), the maximal fluorescence (Fm), the ratio of variable fluorescence to initial fluorescence (Fv/F0), the potential efficiency of primary conversion of light energy of PSⅡ(Fv/Fm), the photochemical quenching coefficien (qP), the nonphotochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) and the actual photochemical efficiency of PSⅡin the light (Yield) was different among six plant species. Fm, Fv/F0, Fv/Fm, qP and Yield of C. intermedia, H. leave, S. cheilophila and A. ordosica were significantly higher than those of L. davurica and M. sativa. These results showed that the photosynthetic abilities of C. intermedia, H. leave, S. cheilophila and A. ordosica were greater than those of L. davurica and M. sativa, and the NPQ of L. davurica and M. sativa were higher than those of C. intermedia, H. leave, S. cheilophila and A. ordosica, indicating that L. davurica and M. sativa consumed excessive light energy by heat dissipation and protected photosynthetic organs from glare conditions in the sandy land environments.
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is halophyte species, and breeding its salttolerant varieties benefits the development and utilization of saline land. However, simple, direct, convenient and efficient method for identifying salt tolerance of alfalfa varieties was not well defined at present. The germination test, saline nutrient solution and the natural brine methods was used to determine the salt tolerance of five alfalfa varieties at seeding stage and seedling stage. The tolerance index of five alfalfa varieties was calculated by the relative germination rate, the average relative germination potential and the average number of relative root length. Based on the tolerance index, the salt tolerance of five varieties of alfalfa was evaluated in this study. This study showed that the nutrient solution method was optimal to identify the salt tolerance of alfalfa vatieties.
A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of application of Chinese milk vetch and fertilizer on rice yield and soil nutrient content in 2009 for understanding the possibility of the same amount N and K from Chinese milk vetch instead of the same amount N and K from chemical fertilizer. This study showed that application of Chinese milk vetch and chemical fertilizer increased the rice yield and the soil organic matter, available N, P and K content. The treatment with 60% chemical N and K fertilizer and 40% Chinese milk vetch performed well, and it increased the rice yield by 28.7% and the soil organic matter, available N, P and K content by 2.1%, 9.3%, 12.7% and 15.5%, respectively.
A field experiment was conducted to select the suitable varieties with the higher biomass and saccharinity in stems from introduced eight varieties of sweet sorghum by comparing the growth period, agronomic characteristics, biomass and saccharinity. This study showed that Jiutianzasan, Jitian No.5 and Super herder performed well and their yield (stem and leave) ranged from 5 832.9 kg666.7 m-2 to 6 846.0 kg666.7 m-2. The sugar content in stem and leave was 12.16% to 16.39%. This study suggested that Jiutianzasan was optimal varieties among eight varieties of sweet sorghum for forage production in the Xining region.
The resistance of 4 alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cultivars to pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) was evaluated by massinfesting young seedlings in the field and lab to select high resistant cultivars to pea aphid. The results of this study showed that the Gannong No.5（HA3）showed the strongest resistance and its percent of resistant plants accounted for 50.3% and 48.9% in the field and lab experiments, respectively. The Hunter River showed a poor resistance and its percent of resistant plant was only 4.0% and 4.3% in the field and lab experiments, respectively. The field experimental results showed that Gannong No.5 was high resistance cultivar, and Gannong No.3, Golden Empress and Hunter River were susceptible cultivars; the lab experimental results showed that Gannong No.5 was high resistance cultivar, and Gannong No.3 and Golden Empress were low resistance cultivars, and Hunter River was susceptible cultivar.
The grey correlative degree analysis was applied to comprehensively evaluate the growth performance of 26 silage maize genotypes by seven characteristics. The 10 genotypes, including Zhongnongdaqingzhu 67, Jinling 18, Yayuqingzhu 79491, Jinling 17, Jinling 21, Qingzhu 772, Yayuqingzhu 29, Donglingbai, Jinling 37, Zhongbeiqingzhu 410, performed well, whereas the 3 genotypes had relatively low suitability in the Chifeng region. The order of weight index in the grey correlation analysis was height length＞ear leaf area＞biomass＞plant fresh weight＞plant dry weight＞ear fresh weight per plant fresh weight＞ear fresh weight. This study will provide the scientific evidence for introducing and extending silage maize in the Chifeng region, and even ecotone of agriculture and animal husbandry of Inner Mongolia.
A field survey was conducted to investigate the quantitative characteristics of alpine vegetation among grazing area and fenced area. The results of this study showed that the fence obviously increased the coverage, height and biomass of alpine vegetation, proportion of palatable forage group, which included grasses, sedges and other forages, and decreased the proportion of unpalatable forage. Meanwhile, the fence changed the community composition structure and dominant values of plant species, indicating that the fence increased plant diversity and the important values of some palatable forage, and decreased the important values of some unpalatable forage.
A computer software for animalfeed balance calculation was developed. The designing approach, calculation principle, selection criteria and induction methods for key parameters were explained. Compared with the traditional animalfeed balance calculation method, the software took the consideration of the timelag problem and shortened the calculating period to a monthly basis to improve the accuracy for the calculation to timely match the feed available to the animal demand. The features of the main menu, major functions and hardware requirements for the software were described. Its friendly interface, easiness for operation, convenient reporting and mapping output functions were appraised. Key words: animalfeed balance management; animalfeed balance calculation; software development
The butterfly net was used to survey the insects on four different biotopes at the Haibei Research Station in the middle of July 2009 for determining the features of insect communities of alpine meadow by 100 times. A total of 908 insects were collected which belonged to 10 orders，42 families, and 65 species. The Diptera insects were dominant groups and the main associate groups were Hymenoptera and Coleoptera insects. Insect species diversity and abundance index was typical meadowPotentilla fruticosa shrublandslope meadowswamp meadow; however the evenness index was not different among four biotopes. The dominant index was the highest in the swamp meadow and was the lowest in the typical meadow. The insect community of typical meadow had the biggest similarity with that of the slope meadow and had the bigger similarity with that of the P. fruticosa bush; however the insect community of typical meadow had the lowest similarity with that of the swamp meadow. This study suggested that the change of habitat and climate altered the community structure and biodiversity of insects.
Based on survey data of population density of grassland caterpillar over the years and temperature and precipitation with longterm observation in the Maqin County, the climatic factors, especially temperature and precipitation, how to influence on the grassland caterpillar was determined in this study by analyzing the relationship between damage of grassland caterpillar and climate factors. The results of this study showed that the grassland area damaged by grassland caterpillar was 14.67104 ha in the Maqin County of Guoluo Prefecture, and the maximum population density was 500 per square meter, in 1993 and was serious in 2003. From 1971 to 2007, the mean annual temperature of Maqin County showed an increasing trend, and the local precipitation showed a decreasing trend. The correlation analysis results showed that the population density of grassland caterpillar was not related with the average annual temperature, annual precipitation, average annual temperature and annual precipitation, but was significantly related with the precipitation and the average temperature and precipitation in September of the last year, indicating that the occurrence of grassland caterpillar was closely related to water and heat conditions in September of the last year and the appropriate temperature and precipitation encouraged grassland caterpillars to become pest damage. This study did not support the view in which the temperature was the limiting factor to caterpillar life cycle because the increasing temperature and reducing precipitation in recent years in Maqin County made the temperature not be a limiting factor, while the precipitation in September became the a key factor which affected eclosion, copulation and oviposition and incubation in the caterpillar life cycle.
A singlefactor randomized design was used to estimate the methane emission of addition of Lotus corniculatus (LC) into rice straw (RS) in vitro fermentation after 48 h by using the ratio of RS to LC with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100% (LC0, LC10, LC20, LC30, LC40, LC50, LC60, LC70, LC80, LC90 and LC100).The results of this study showed the pH value was 6.64 to 6.99, and the NH3N was 2.98 to 28.74 mgdL-1, and the methane emission was 0.038 to 1.313 mmol for various groups during 3-36 h. The methane emission before 24 h increased as the LC proportion increased in the mixed fermentations substrates, but it was different among groups. However, the methane emission decreased with the increase of LC proportion from 24 to 48 h and it was significantly different among groups (P0.05). This study suggested that RS basic diet supplemented with LC could reduce the methane emission in vitro batch incubation system.
Taking Van Soest as control, the ANKOM bag, CAU bag, and P2 Glass crucible filters were used to measure NDF and ADF of eight kinds of silages often using in the Inner Mongolia for determine the effect of the different filters and testing methods on neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) content of silage. NDF was treated by amylase heatstable and ADF was measured by continuous washing. This study indicated that NDF and ADF measured by CAU bag and ANKOM bag were not significantly different but they were significantly lower than those measured by P2 Glass crucible (P0.05), especially NDF in TMR silage and ADF in wholeplant corn silage and TMR silage. Compared with control, the NDF of whole plant corn silage and TMR silage significantly decreased by adding high temperature amylase（P＜0.05）and continuous washing greatly impacted on ADF of alfalfa silage and Lespedeza hedysaroides silage.
The prataculture is a new knowledgeintensive industry, and plays the increasing important roles in the sustainable development of agriculture with the development of animal husbandry and the deep improvement of agricultural industrial structure in China. Based on field experimental results over many years, this study discussed the advantages of conversion corn cropland to alfalfa pasture in the Tongliao City of Inner Mongolia from social, economic, and ecological views. And then this study proposed that the conversion cropland to pasture was prospective.
A trial was carried out to estimate the effects of propionic acid and urea on the fermentation quality and chemical compositions of wholecrop corn silage. The treatments included the 0.3% propionic acid, 0.5% urea, 0.3% propionic acid and 0.5% urea and all corn were placed in sealed vacuum plastic bags and ensiled for 60 days. The results of this study showed that application of propionic acid decreased pH value, acetic acid and ammonia nitrogen content, and significantly increased the lactic acid content of silage corn (P0.05) when compared with control. The application of urea markedly improved the crude protein content of silage corn (P0.05). The combination of propionic acid and urea further improved the fermentation quality of silage.
1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% concentration of previously fermented juice was made from forage corn silage, and these previously fermented juices were used to additives for improving the quality of corn silage. In this study, different concentration previously fermented juice were added into fermented forage corn with 1% and 3% concentration NaCl and the treated forage corn was ensiled in plastic bottles under vacuum for 60 days. Treated samples were used to estimate the quality (microbial community, pH value, content of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, ADL and organic acid) and in vitro digestibility of silage. This study showed that addition of previously fermented juice significantly improved silage quality, obviously decreased pH value, significantly increased DM、CP and organic acid content (P0.05). The result of in vitro digestibility showed that addition of previously fermented juice improved silage digestibility when compared with traditional silage process, in which additives was only NaCl.