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2012 Vol.29(12)

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A preliminary study on richlack index of soil available P for alfalfa in Huanghua City
2012, 6(12): 1805-1809.
[Abstract](1733) [PDF 371KB](736)
There are over 7 000 ha alfalfa planted in Huanghua city, Hebei province, but local alfalfa fertilization is lack of scientific guidance. The richlack indexes of soil nutrients are widely used in the world to determine appropriate fertilizer application rates due to they are very simple and convenient to be used in practice. In order to establish the richlack indexes of soil nutrients for alfalfa, a pot experiment was conducted in Huanghua city to preliminarily determine the richlack index of soil available P of alfalfa. Soils taken from 11 different farmland, which have big range in available P content, were used in this trial. The experiment was arranged for complete fertilizer treatment (CFT) and complete fertilizer except P treatment (CFEPT). The regression analysis was done according to the relative yield (RF) [the yield of complete fertilizer except P treatment divided by that of complete fertilizer treatment] and soil available P content. The results showed that the 1st to 6th level of soil available P in Huanghua city, corresponding the relative yields 95%, 85%-95%, 75%-85%, 65%-75%, 55%-65%, 45%-55%, were>47.5、27.2-47.5、15.6-27.2、8.9-15.6、5.1-8.9 and 2.9-5.1 mgkg-1, respectively.
Effects of conservation tillage on soil respiration and microorganism amount in maize rhizosphere soil in Loess Plateau
2012, 6(12): 1810-1815.
[Abstract](1492) [PDF 417KB](639)
The study was executed to analyze the influence of no tillage and residue retention on soil respiration and microorganism of maize rhizosphere soil in Qingyang Loess plateau after 10 years implementation of conservation tillage. Soil respiration was measured using LICOR640009, soil Respiration Chamber completed with Infrared Gas Analyzer under 10years conservation tillage, and microorganism amount of maize rhizosphere soil was measured by the method of dilution plate counting. The results showed that no tillage and residue retention significantly decreased the soil respiration rates of maize anthesis by 8.3% and 7.8% as well as harvesting period by 15.5% and 13.6%. The top 10 cm ground temperature and the soil respiration rates were the same and the top 10 cm ground temperature under traditional tillage treatment was the highest. The amount of bacteria, fungi and actinomycosis under no tillage and residue retention were higher than that in conventional tillage treatment and the ratio between three kinds microbe was not changed. Soil respiration rate had negative correlation with the amount of bacteria, fungi and actinomycosis, which was not significant (P0.05). Many factors can influence the soil respiration rate, and the soil temperature was the main factor for soil respiration rate.
Inoculation methods of Pseudopeziza medicaginis and infection pathway by scanning slectron microscope observation
2012, 6(12): 1816-1820.
[Abstract](1547) [PDF 708KB](531)
Scanning electron microscope was used to compare five indoor inoculation methods on Pseudopeziza medicaginis and observe the way that P.medicaginis ascospore invasion in alfalfa leaves. The results showed that the reverse spore culture technique is ideal way for P.medicaginis inoculation in comparison with the others. Spore inoculated with this method was close to natural condition of spore release. Ascospores inoculated to alfafa leaves produced germ tubes in 4 h, germ tube direct penetrated any part of alfafa leaves except pores. No infection structures like appressorium was found.
Isolation and identification of fungal endophytes from Swainsona salsula grown in Ningxia
2012, 6(12): 1821-1826.
[Abstract](1473) [PDF 637KB](617)
This study was performed to investigate the taxonomy of fungal endophytes from Swainsona salsula. The fungal endophytes were isolated from S.salsula collected from Ningxia and observed under the microscope. The ITS sequences of the fungal isolates were amplified and sequenced. Analysis of molecular phylogeny based on the fungal ITS sequences was conducted to help to determine the taxonomies of fungal isolates. Four strains, SS_NXB1, SS_NXF1, SS_NXG2 and SS_NXA1, were isolated from S.salsula in this report. The isolates were considered as fungal endophytes of S.salsula with no disease observed on the surface of the plant samples. The first three isolates, SS_NXB1, SS_NXF1 and SS_NXG2, were classified as Acremonium sp. based on the fungal morphology and ITS sequences. However, SS_NXA1 could not be made a taxonomic placement due to the lack of natural conidia and sufficient sequences that represented in GenBank sequence databases.
Immunogenicity analysis of rotavirus VP7U gene expression in carrots
2012, 6(12): 1827-1831.
[Abstract](1329) [PDF 542KB](536)
Rotavirus is a diarrhea virus that is hazard to human health, and there are no effective drugs to control. In this study, firstly, some optimized codon of rotavirus VP7 gene (VP7U gene) were integrated into carrot (Daucus carota) plants, to increase the amount of protein expression and then detect protein expression of modified gene of carrot by PCR, Westernblot, and ELISA methods. Secondly, using different concentrations of positive VP7U carrots protein to drench mice, the mice that drenched normal carrot plant protein were taken as negative control, drenched positive bacterial proteins as positive control, and then detected the content of IgG in mice after 4 times drenching by ELISA method. The results showed that the modified VP7U genes of carrot plants had increased on target antigen expression and its levels. LgG content in mice of drenching positive proteins were higher than those with negative carrot proteins, while were lower than those with positive bacterial proteins. However, there was no significant difference for the IgG content in between positive control and negative control. There are many difficulties for the development of transgenic carrot oral vaccine, which need further study.
Geographical distribution characteristics of rare or endangered plants and national key protected plants in Qinghai Province
Chi-Zhen MA
2012, 6(12): 1832-1841.
[Abstract](1337) [PDF 974KB](653)
Based on the published literatures and the specimen records, the ArcGIS software was used to analyze the spatial distribution pattern of rare or endangered plants and national key protected plants among prefectures and counties of Qinghai Province. The results of this study indicated the rare or endangered plants and national key protected plants were found in each prefecture throughout Qinghai Province. The species richness was the highest in Yushu Prefecture with 73 species, accounting for 50% of the total species; the lowest species richness was found in Haixi Prefecture with 26 species. As far as county distribution was concerned, the rare and endangered species was very different among counties. 57 species was identified in Yushu County, but Gande County had only 5 species, which would provide the theoretical basis for the protection and development utilization of rare or endangered plants and national key protected plants in Qinghai Province.
Interpolation optimization of climatic factors and its correlation analysis withgrassland NPP under regional scale
2012, 6(12): 1842-1848.
[Abstract](1723) [PDF 807KB](607)
With the climatic data from 42 stations and measured data of grassland aboveground biomass from 154 sites located in and around Gansu Province, the spatial distribution of annual average and seasonal temperature, annual and seasonal precipitation from 1996 to 2005 was simulated, and its spatial distribution pattern and correlation with grassland NPP were analyzed based on improved AMMRR(Analytic Method based on Multiple Regression and Residues) interpolation method (considering slope and aspect). The results showed that:1) comparing with other interpolation methods, improved AMMRR method could completely embody the microcosmic variation of annual average temperature and annual precipitation response to the effect of topography, which was more suitable to simulate realistic situation. And 2) there was significant negative correlation between grassland NPP and temperature in each period except winter, but opposite to precipitation. Moreover, the correlation between grassland NPP and precipitation was higher than temperature.
Measurement of spatial interaction between counties in Shiyang river basin based on road network
2012, 6(12): 1849-1853.
[Abstract](1334) [PDF 790KB](578)
The accessibility of road network plays an important role in the process of spatial interaction among cities. In the present study, the road network accessibility in Shiyang river basin is evaluated by the network analysis and spatial analysis functions of GIS. Then, based on gravity model, potential theory model and field spread model, the spatial interaction level among 5 counties was calculated, and the potential value, and the spread strength were measured. Through this study, we find that the interaction among counties, potential value and spread strength of Liangzhou zone in Shiyang river basin was stronger than that of the other counties/zones.
Study of different disturbances impact on grassland carbon cycle
2012, 6(12): 1855-1861.
[Abstract](1580) [PDF 444KB](662)
Grassland carbon cycle is related to the grassland vegetation, climate and soil conditions as well as all kind of interferences. In recent decades, human interference activities have had a great impact on grassland carbon cycle. This paper introduces the current research and its progress of the impact on grassland ecosystem carbon cycle caused by grazing utilization, management measures as well as climate change, also points out that future studies on carbon cycle in grassland should focus on different disturbances impact on grassland ecosystem carbon cycle, modeling carbon dynamics in grassland ecosystem associated with disturbances and the mechanisms of disturbances on grassland ecosystem carbon cycle.
2012, 6(12): 1862-1863.
[Abstract](1380) [PDF 286KB](1411)
Phenotypes and molecular markers of somaclonal variation in Zoysia japonica
LIU Chi, Man-Zhu BAO
2012, 6(12): 1864-1869.
[Abstract](1491) [PDF 431KB](731)
Zoysia japonica is one of important warmseason turfgrasses. The plants as research materials in this study were regenered from calli induced from one seed. Their phenotypes were investigated after planted in field. Furthermore, ISSR was used to detect polymorphism of somaclonal variation. The results showed that variation coefficients of stolon number and green period were bigger than others. Ten phenotypic characters were analyzed by the Principal Component Analysis, while the first five principal components could represent whole. The first principal component represented erect stem and the second represented stolon and inflorescence branch height. The ISSR marker polymorphic bands and specific bands accounted for 83.6% and 15.1% of total DNA bands, repectively. This research offered a shortcut way for obtaining valuable variations, which made somaclonal variation to contribute to breeding.
Studies on total RNA extraction methods from Chorispora bungeana callus
2012, 6(12): 1870-1875.
[Abstract](1201) [PDF 543KB](639)
This research was aimed to find the optimum methods and conditions to extract total RNA from Chorispora bungeana. Three RNA extraction methods (Improved Trizol, Kit and CTAB) were compared by yield, purity, integrity and PCR amplification effect after reverse transcription. The improved Trizol method was proved to be the best to extract total RNA from C.bungeana. RNA can be preserved for 8 h at room temperature and more than 30 days at -80 ℃. A large amounts of RNA would be degraded if RNase in tips, tubes was incompletely removed, and the incomplete RNase inactivation in electrophoresis tank and solution would cause RNA degradation during electrophoresis.
ISSR analysis of genetic differentiation of Stipa bungeana populations in the mountain area of southern Ningxia
2012, 6(12): 1876-1882.
[Abstract](1266) [PDF 553KB](576)
In order to study and explore the mechanism of molecular ecology of Stipa bungeana, intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker was used to analyze the genetic differentiation and population structure of six natural populations of S.bungeana from the mountain area of southern Ningxia. The results showed that fifteen primers generated a total of 244 amplification bands from the six natural populations, of which 239 (97.95%) were polymorphic bands. Neis gene diversity index and Shannon information index were 0.254 4 and 0.396 6, respectively, which indicated that the high genetic diversity was detected at the species level. AMOVA analysis revealed a high level of genetic variation within population (58.06%) and a relative lower of genetic variation among populations (41.94%). There was no significant correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance by Mantel test.
RAPD analysis of different major cultivated species of Codonopsis pilosula in Gansu
2012, 6(12): 1883-1886.
[Abstract](1556) [PDF 432KB](525)
Genetic differences and relationship of 10 (8 lines and 2 cultivars) Codonopsis pilosula species in Gansu were examined by RAPD in this study. The results showed that a total of 159 DNA bands were amplified by 14 oligonucleotide primers, of which 26 bands were polymorphic. The rate of polymorphism was 45.61%. According to the cluster analysis, the 10 C. pilosula species had genetic similarity coefficients ranged from 0.771 9 to 0.964 9. The genetic relationship of DS6 species was far from others. However, the genetic relationship between DS3 and DS8 was close with a similarity coefficient of 0.964 9.
Cloning and analysis of two promoters of stressrelated genes in Medicago varia Xinmu1
2012, 6(12): 1887-1893.
[Abstract](1332) [PDF 1794KB](578)
The expression level of MvNHX1 and MvDREB1 of Medicago varia Xinmu1 after salinity treatment was analyzed by using Realtime PCR. The specific primers were designed according to the sequences of MvNHX1 and MvDREB1 obtained in a previous study. The promoters of two genes were cloned by PCR using the total DNA of M.varia Xinmu1 as template. The types and structures of two promoters were analysed by bioinformatics incorporated with the Realtime PCR. The results showed that both of two sequences included common cisacting element and core promoter element, such as CAATBox, TATA Box, light responsive element, low temperature responsive element and so on. However, the types and quantities of several responsive elements were different. The cloning, analysis and comparation of two promoters lay foundations for the further research of the transcriptional regulation mechanism of two genes.
In vitro culture of floral organ of Lilium cernum
2012, 6(12): 1894-1898.
[Abstract](1485) [PDF 759KB](586)
The petal, ovary and receptacle of Lilium cernum were used as explants for in vitro culture. The results showed that the rates of callus induction and differentiation of three kinds of floral organ explants were different. The petals had the highest callus induction and differentiation rates, with 57.65% and 81.12%, respectively. The order from easy to difficult of callus induction was petalreceptacleovary. The optimum medium for petal explants callus induction and differentiation was MS+6BA 2.0 mgL-1+NAA 0.5 mgL-1. The optimum medium for ovary explants callus induction and differentiation was MS+6BA 1.0 mgL-1 +NAA 0.5 mgL-1. The optimum medium for receptqacle explants callus induction and differentiation was MS+6BA 1.0 mgL-1 +NAA 0.2 mgL-1. The optimum medium for rooting was 1/2 MS+IBA 1.0 mgL-1 +NAA 0.3 mgL-1+AC 0.5 gL-1.
Characteristics of biological components of Cenchrus pauciflorus under wet and dry habitats
2012, 6(12): 1899-1902.
[Abstract](1428) [PDF 404KB](637)
Abstract: The clonal ramet of Cenchrus pauciflorus in dry and wet habitats were sampled randomly and its structure characteristics of different parts were analyzed in 20th September, 2008 in Tongliao, Inner Mongolia. The result showed that maturity of both central ramets and tillers spikes and seeds of C.pauciflorus under irrigation were higher than that of dry habitat. Furthermore, main spike width, number of effective spikes, seed length, seed width and number of seeds were significantly higher (P<0.05) as well as number of tillers, leaf area, leaf number of central ramet, leaf number of tillers, stem length and stem diameter were also higher than that of dry habitat. Other indicators varied significantly (P<0.05) except leaf number of tillers and stem length. To the opposite, root length, in dry habitat, was significantly higher than that of wet habitat (P<0.05). The maximum value of leaf area in two habitats appeared at the sixth and seventh leaf. This growing strategy reflected the reaction of adaptablity to water of C.pauciflorus.
Effects of Ca2+ on germination characteristics of Festuca arundinacea seeds under simulated acid rain stress
2012, 6(12): 1903-1909.
[Abstract](1712) [PDF 396KB](953)
In order to find the optimum CaCl2 concentration and study effects of CaCl2 on seed germination characteristics under simulated acid rain stress, Festuca arundinacea seeds were treated with different concentration CaCl2 solutions and the related germination indexes were measured after seed soaking. The results indicated that seed germination percentage, germination energy, germination index, vigor index, seedling height, root length and seedling fresh weight increased firstly, and then declined with increaseing CaCl2 concentrations continually, while electrical conductivity of seedlings was oppsite, declined firstly and then increased. The results obtained from the comprehensive evaluation of principal component and subordinate function analysis showed that the order (from strong to weak) of effects promoted by Ca2+ was 50, 25, 10, 100, 5 and 0 mmolL-1. The 50 mmolL-1 CaCl2 solution soaking seeds was the best for F.arundinacea to improve the resistance to acid rain at the germination phase.
Effects of NaCl stress and exogenous plant hormones on seed germination and seedling growth of Galega orientalis
2012, 6(12): 1910-1914.
[Abstract](1752) [PDF 440KB](656)
In order to determine the concentration of salt tolerance standard and confirm effects of different plant growth hormones on seed germination and seedling physiological characteristics, the seeds of Galega orientalis were germinated at different concentration of NaCl solutions, and then germination rate, seedling praline, MDA and chlorophyll contents were compared. The results showed that G.orientalis seed germination and seedling growth were sensitive to salinity. The seeds can endure NaCl stress under 50 mmolL-1. The lower NaCl concentration did not significantly affect the seed germination and seedling growth. However, with the NaCl concentration increasing, the germination rate,MDA and chlorophyll contents of G. orientalis seedlings decreased and the proline content significantly (P0.05) increased. The results also indicated that GA3 was suitable for increasing the seed germination of G. orientalis when the salt concentration was below 150 mmolL-1 and NAA was available to regulate the seedling growth under middle or low salt stress levels.
The flight ability of Oedaleus asiaticus and its relationship to population density
2012, 6(12): 1915-1919.
[Abstract](1353) [PDF 414KB](543)
The flying ability of Oedaleus asiaticus which is a dominant locust species and its relationship with population density were studied in laboratory. The results of 12hour continuous suspension flying test showed that O.asiaticus had relatively strong highdensity population flying abilitythe farthest accumulated flight distance was up to 15 km, accumulated flight time was more than 2 h. Different dayold adult individuals show significant difference, which 4 dayold adults after eclosion exhibited weaker flying ability, while the 13 dayold ones possessed the strongest flying ability, 20 dayold showed a decreasing trend. Male and female individuals had no significant difference (P0.05). Lowdensity populations of adults did not have the long distance flying ability, each dayold adult accumulated flying distance and flying time were significantly shorter than those of same dayold highdensity population individuals (P0.01).
Pastureland governance from a perspective of property rightA case study of Yanchi County
2012, 6(12): 1920-1925.
[Abstract](1714) [PDF 497KB](580)
This paper contributes to the heated debate on land use by focusing on more vulnerable grassland regions that have previously been studied. The research focuses on individual and cooperative pastureland governance from a perspective of property right. It shows the limitation of the theory of tragedy of commons and its incorrect use for pastureland governance in some academic researches. The study seeks to improve policy towards sustainable use of grassland by deeply examining grassland property rights in use and the characteristic of communities and suggests that property regimes should not be designed without taking into consideration the properties of the biophysical systems. Institutional diversity should be encouraged for the sustainable use of grassland and longterm development of local communities.
Grassland health assessment and disease diagnosis based on thetheory of traditional Chinese medicine
2012, 6(12): 1926-1929.
[Abstract](1233) [PDF 395KB](549)
Based on the theory of TCMYin and Yang exterior and interior relationship and five elements theory, through exploration system attribution and exterior and interior relationship among components restraining grassland ecosystem, this study was to set up exterior and interior relevant index system and establish the Yin and Yang and five elements components of grassland ecosystem and the mutual promotion and restraint mechanism and causes of formation, and the main and collateral channels operational mode. Based on the systematic theory, early warning of grassland ecosystem health was given through comprehensive symptoms and pathological analysis etc., so determining the diagnosis method to achieve the purpose of therapy. This system could improve the grassland diagnosis speed and accuracy, and it also can provide theoretical basis to evaluate rapidly the grassland health status and to restore and manage degraded grassland.
Perspectives on bilingual teaching practice of Genetics and Breeding for Turfgrasses and Forage Grasses
2012, 6(12): 1930-1935.
[Abstract](1406) [PDF 453KB](842)
Thoughts and perspectives on bilingual teaching of Genetics and Breeding for Turfgrasses and Forage Grasses were proposed based on two yearsteachingpractice. Suggestions are made as following. At first, appropriate learning goals should be established. Text book, lectures, teaching resources and materials should be designed carefully and gradually according to three levels. The three levels are transition level, bilingual level, and the English level. Interactions between students and teachers are crucial in promoting critical thinking for students. In addition, discussion and communications between students for a given topic in either English or Chinese should be arranged. Scientific papers focused on breakthrough in turfgrass breeding history could be used in the teaching process. Finally, incorporating oral English test, lab skills assessment, and discussion performances into the evaluation tests is effective in stimulating learning motive for students.
Conception of alfalfa industry development influencing on food security
2012, 6(12): 1936-1940.
[Abstract](1393) [PDF 443KB](579)
After milk melamine incident, the domestic demand for highquality milk increased dramatically. Alfalfa as the king of grass, and the alfalfa industry as the first workshop of the milk production caught more attention. Meanwhile it also led again to the thinking of how to develop the domestic pasture industry. Based on the perspective of the national food security and comprehensive efficiency, this paper focuses on the alfalfa industry development influence on grain and food security under the exploration of essential connotation of grain security as well as the necessary condition for dairy industry quality improvement. The paper also puts forward its own views and opinions on how to improve alfalfa industry with a reference for the development of the alfalfa and dairy industry.
Comprehensive nutrients evaluation of Xilin Gol natural grassland
Ji-Guang SHI
2012, 6(12): 1941-1944.
[Abstract](1230) [PDF 359KB](707)
This study was conducted for revealing the Xilin Gol grassland forage nutrients status and rationally developing and utilizing of grassland ecological resources. According to forage nutrients measurement data from 2005 to 2011 provided by Xilinhot National Climate Observatory, the nutrients of Xilin Gol grassland forage were quantitatively and comprehensively evaluated by principal component analysis method. The results showed that values of forage nutrients in Sonid Left Banner were the highest, while those were lower in Ulgai Management District. The nutritive values of desertification steppe were the highest, followed by typical steppe, and those were the lowest in meadow steppe.
Present situation investigation after grassland contracted by individual households in Gannan pastoral area, Gansu province
2012, 6(12): 1945-1950.
[Abstract](1246) [PDF 464KB](690)
Pastoral grassland contract system was promoted since 1980s, which has lasted nearly 30 years. This system was designed to eradicate the disadvantages of prairie big rice bowl system, inspire the herdsmen enthusiasm of protection, construction and rational utilization of grasslands and curb fundamentally the grassland degradation trend, but there are still much controversial in academic circles on the practice actual results. This study has preliminarily discussed the problems brought about in the development of Gannan pastoral grasslands and how to improve the pastoral grassland contract system through questionnaires, visiting and field survey. Investigations indicated that actual effect of grassland contracted by individual households was far apart from the expected, in some respects even toward the original intention. Based on profound analysis of existing problems of Gannan pasturing area grassland contracting, this study puts forward opinions with focus on how to improve the grassland contracting system.